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Week 8 Knowledge Check Study Guide

Concepts

Mastery

Score: 11 / 11

Questions

Moral Theories

100%

Legal Reasoning

100%

10

11

Concept: Moral Theories


Mastery

100%

Questions

1.
Which of the following terms refers to a moral theory that focuses mainly on
consequences?

A.

Relativism

B.

Deontology

C.

Utilitarianism

D.

Virtue ethics

Correct:
The Correct Answer is: C.
Utilitarianism is based on the principle of maximizing happiness (or any other
measure of utility) for the greatest number of people, as well as minimizing
unhappiness for the greatest number. The means of achieving this outcome is not as
much of an issue as the actual outcome for the utilitarian.
2.
Which of the following terms refers to a moral theory that focuses mainly on ones
intentions?

A.

Relativism

B.

Virtue ethics

C.

Utilitarianism

D.

Deontology

Correct:
The Correct Answer is: D.
Deontology is also known as "duty theory" because it focuses on ones plans or
intentions.
3.
Which of the following is the most accurate match between a term and its definition?

A.

Relativism is a moral theory that focuses mainly on how


to be, not on what to do.

B.

Virtue ethics is a moral theory that focuses mainly on


how to be, not on what to do.

C.

Utilitarianism is a moral theory that focuses mainly on


how to be, not on what to do.

D.

Deontology is a moral theory that focuses mainly on how


to be, not on what to do.

Correct:
The Correct Answer is: B.
The idea is to focus on developing the most virtuous character, rather than on what
to do or not do. It's what you are on the inside that counts.
7.
Which moral theory would probably justify the following question:"Should I commit
adultery just this once, if no one will ever find out?"

A.

Utilitarianism

B.

Deontology

C.

Absolutism

D.

Virtue ethics

Correct:
The Correct Answer is: A.
Simple utilitarianism, the correct answer, would probably not condemn this action
(unless the person thought a secret act of adultery would have harmful effects). Duty
theory prohibits it: If you tried to universalize the principle, you'd be saying that there
should be no such thing as marriage, which logically makes adultery impossible.
Religious absolutism may appeal to a doctrine that prohibits adultery. Virtue theory
does not especially lend itself to an answer.
8.
Which moral theory would probably justify the following statement:"Sure, we might benefit
from expanding Highway 99. But seizing a persons property against his or her wishes is
just wrong. Period."

A.

Utilitarianism

B.

Deontology

C.

Religious absolutism

D.

Virtue ethics

Correct:
The Correct Answer is: B.
Deontology promotes doing what is right and does not support treating people as a
means to an end.
9.
Which moral theory or framework is based on the belief that actions are right or wrong
because of the beliefs of one's culture or group?

A.

Religious relativism

B.

Virtue ethics

C.

Aesthetic reasoning

D.

Utilitarianism

Correct:
The Correct Answer is: A.
The belief in right and wrong often relies on whatever it is the persons religious
culture or society mandates. These views can vary (that is, they are relative) among
different religions and cultures.

Concept: Legal Reasoning


Mastery

100%

Questions

10

11

4.
Which of the following do you think a justification for a law against flag burning would
most likely be based on?

A.

Legal paternalism

B.

The harm principle

C.

Legal moralism

D.

The offense principle

Correct:
The Correct Answer is: D.
The idea of destroying a symbolic thing is itself symbolic, and some people might
take that personally. People holding to the offense principle assert that what offends
them ought to be illegal. It's highly debatable which offensive acts should be
outlawed, but the extremes seem clear enough. For example, if you are offended by
some someone's haircut, that doesn't seem like an adequate reason to have a law
against letting that person go out in public, but if you are offended by someone
dumping their garbage on your lawn every day, that does seem like a good reason to
outlaw that activity.

5.
Which of the following do you think a justification for a law requiring motorcyclists to wear
helmets would most likely be based on?

A.

Legal paternalism

B.

The harm principle

C.

Legal moralism

D.

The offense principle

Correct:
The Correct Answer is: A.
The idea of forcing people, with threat of punishment, to do what's in their own best
interest is legal paternalism.
6.
Which of the following most accurately describes what an appeal to precedent is?

A.

A type of inductive generalization

B.

A type of analogy

C.

A type of disjunctive syllogism

D.

A type of causal argument

Correct:
The Correct Answer is: B.
This is the practice of using a case that has already been decided in a court of law
(the precedent) as an analog or analogy to the case in question. If the case in
question is sufficiently similar to the precedent, and the precedent stands on the
authority of the court's ruling, then it may be argued, by analogy, that the case in
question should receive the same ruling.
10.
Which of the following terms refers to a justification for laws against some action that
harms other people?

A.

Legal moralism

B.

The harm principle

C.

Appeal to precedent

D.

The offense principle

Correct:
The Correct Answer is: B.
One criteria for making any action illegal is whether that action causes harm to
others. By this justification, it is the only grounds by which an action should be
measured.
11.
Which of the following terms refers to a justification for laws against some action that is
deemed immoral?

A.

Legal moralism

B.

The harm principle

C.

Appeal to precedent

D.

The offense principle

Correct:
The Correct Answer is: A.
If an action is considered immoral under the law, a claim is then made that the law
should make such immoral actions illegal.