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Assertion-reason question

Directions: Please refer to the following instructions:



Both statements are true and the 2nd statement is a correct explanation of the 1st
Both statements are true but the 2nd statement is NOT a correct explanation of
the 1st statement.
The 1st statement is false while the 2nd statement is true.
Both statements are false.

1st statement
Coal is a major source of alkanes.

2nd statement
Coal is formed from dead marine

Coal is non-renewable.

Once used, coal cannot be replenished

after a short time.

Coal causes serious pollution problems

when burnt in air.

Coal is a kind of fossil fuels.

Fossil fuels are either liquids or gases.

Petroleum and natural gas are fossil


Destructive distillation is an important

process in petroleum refining.

By destructive distillation, petroleum

can be separated into various fractions
for different uses.

Fractional distillation of petroleum is a

chemical process.

Pure substances can be obtained from

fractional distillation of petroleum.

High boiling fractions from fractional

distillation of crude oil are easier to burn
that low boiling ones.

High boiling fractions burn with a

sootier flame than low boiling ones.

During the fractional distillation of

petroleum, fuel oil and lubricating oil
are turned into petrol.

The supply of fuel oil and lubricating oil

is greater than demand.

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists

mainly of methane.

Methane exists as a gas at room

temperature and pressure.

10 Liquefied petroleum gas is a cleaner

fuel than diesel oil.

Liquefied petroleum gas burns more

completely than diesel oil.

11 Kerosene is commonly used as a fuel for


Alkane C11H24 is one of the components

of kerosene.

12 Naphtha exists as a liquid at room

temperature and pressure.

Atoms in naphtha molecules are held by

covalent bonds.

13 Bitumen obtained in the fractional

distillation of petroleum is useless.

Bitumen burns with a sootier flame than


14 Ethene is the second member of the

alkene series.

The structural formula of ethene is C2H4.

15 Ethane and butane have similar

chemical properties.

Ethane and butane are in the same

homologous series.

16 Ethene and propene have the same

physical properties.

Ethene and propene are in the same

homologous series.

17 The boiling point of propane is higher

than that of ethane.

The intermolecular forces between

alkane molecules increase as the number
of carbon atoms in the molecules

18 The physical properties of different

members in the same homologous series
are the same.

Members of the same homologous

series have the same functional group.

19 Methane, ethane and propane are in the

same homologous series.

They are all gases at room temperature

and pressure.

20 Butane and 2-methylpropane have the

same molar volume at room temperature
and pressure.

Butane and 2-methylpropane are

members of the same homologous

21 When a mixture of butane and bromine

vapour is exposed to diffused sunlight,
the colour of the mixture fades.

Butane and bromine undergo

substitution reaction under suitable

22 C2H5OH and CH3COOH have different

boiling points.

C2H5OH and CH3COOH have different

functional groups.

23 In a homologous series, the

flammability of compounds increases as
the number of carbon atoms in the
molecules increases.

In a homologous series, the successive

members differ from each other by a
CH2 unit.

24 Octane (C8H8) burns with a sootier

flame than pentane (C5H12).

Octane is more viscous than pentane.

25 Propane burns with a sootier flame than

pentane (C5H12).

Each propene molecule contains one

carbon-carbon double bond.

26 Ethyne (HCCH) burns with a sootier

flame than ethane.

Both ethyne and ethene are saturated


27 Propene is more flammable than but-1ene.

Propene and but-1-ene have different

physical properties.

28 Both but-1-ene and but-2-ene can

decolourize acidified potassium
permanganate solution.

Both but-1-ene and but-2-ene have the

same molecular formula.

29 Propene gives carbon monoxide when it

undergoes incomplete combustion.

Propene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon.

30 Ethane reacts with chlorine in the

presence of diffused sunlight to give
1,1,1-trichloroethane as the only

Ethane is a very reactive compound.

31 Tetrabromoethane is an organic

Tetrabromoethane contains carbon.

32 Tetrachloromethane is toxic.

Chlorine is toxic.

33 Cracking of medicinal paraffin produces

unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain

carbon-carbon multiple bonds.

34 Cracking is an important industrial


Cracking produces alkenes which are

used to produce many useful products.

35 Cracking is an exothermic process.

Heat is releases during cracking.

36 Carbon monoxide can be obtained from

cracking of heavy oil fraction.

During cracking, heavy oil fractions are

heated in the presence of air to a high

37 Both methane and ethene are gases at

room temperature and pressure.

Both methane and ethene are covalent


38 Some alkenes are very soluble in water.

Both water and alkenes have simple

molecular structures.

39 Propene is more reactive than propane.

Propene contains carbon-carbon double


40 Propane is more reactive than propene.

Propane can react with chlorine in the

presence of diffused sunlight while
propene cannot.

41 Propane and propene can be

distinguished by treating with acidified
potassium dichromate solution.

Propene turns acidified potassium

dichromate solution from orange to
green whereas propane does not.

42 Propane and propene can be

distinguished by treating with acidified
potassium permanganate solution.

Propene decolourizes acidified

potassium permanganate solution
whereas propane does not.

43 Alkenes are the only hydrocarbons

which can decolourize bromine
dissolved in an organic solvent readily
in the absence of light.

The reactions between alkenes and

bromine are addition reactions.

44 All alkanes are used as fuels.

Burning alkanes is an exothermic


45 Under any circumstances, hydrocarbons

burn in air to give carbon dioxide and

Hydrocarbons contain carbon and

hydrogen only.

water only.
46 Alkanes burn in insufficient supply of
air to form water and carbon monoxide

Alkanes contain carbon and hydrogen


47 H for an exothermic reaction has a

positive sign.

In an exothermic reaction, energy is

absorbed from the surroundings.

48 Liquefied petroleum gas is seldom used

nowadays when compared with town

Town gas is less toxic than liquefied

petroleum gas.

49 The major component of town gas is


Methane can be obtained by fractional

distillation of naphtha.

50 Hong Kong Town Gas is made from


Petroleum is a fossil fuel.

51 Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas.

Carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen

carrying capacity of blood.

52 Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) should

only be used in a well-ventilated room.

The main components of LPG are

propane and butane.

53 If one suspects there is a leakage of

town gas, he/ she should open all the

Town gas is toxic and explosive.

54 If one suspects there is a leakage of

town gas, he/ she should turn off all the
electrical appliances in his/ her home.

An electric spark may ignite the town

gas and lead to an explosion.

55 Sulphur dioxide causes acid rain.

Sulphur dioxide dissolves in rain water

to give sulphurous acid.

56 Acid rain can corrode plastics.

Acid dissolves plastics readily.

57 Normal rainwater has a pH value of

about 5.7.

Carbon dioxide dissolves in rainwater to

give an acidic solution.

58 Carbon dioxide can cause acid rain.

Carbon dioxide gives carbonic acid

when dissolved in water.

59 During thunderstorm, the rainwater is

more acidic than normal water.

Nitrogen dioxide is formed in lightning

and it dissolves in rainwater to give an
acidic solution.

60 Methane is a greenhouse gas.

Methane can be produced from the

decay of organic waste.

61 Global warming results from the

increasing use of fossil fuels.

Carbon dioxide given off in the burning

of fossil fuels traps the solar energy
which is re-radiated from the Earths
surface to the atmosphere.

62 Water vapour produced from the

combustion of fossil fuels enhances
greenhouse effect.

Water vapour is a greenhouse gas.

63 Global warming causes the rise of sea


Global warming may cause huge

increase of rainfall in certain regions.

64 Catalytic converters can only be

installed in cars using unleaded petrol.

Lead compounds can poison the

catalysts in catalytic converters.

65 Scrubblers installed in motor cars can

reduce acid rain problems.

Sulphur dioxide given off from the

burning of fuels can be removed by

66 Catalytic converters installed in cars can

reduce air pollution problems.

Oxides of nitrogen and carbon

monoxide given off from the burning of
fuels can be removed by catalytic

67 Nowadays, fossil fuels are the major

energy sources.

Fossil fuels are convenient to use and

relatively cheap.

68 Hydroelectric power is very suitable for

Hong Kong.

Hydroelectric power is a renewable

energy source.

69 Geothermal energy is non-polluting.

Geothermal wells do not release any

toxic gases.

70 Geothermal energy is a widely used

energy source.

There is permanent supply of heat from


71 Methane is a component of biogas fuel.

Methane is a clean fuel.

72 Nuclear energy is a non-renewable

energy source.

Nuclear energy is a cleaner energy

source when compared with fossil fuels.

73 Nuclear energy is a non-renewable


Nuclear energy is produced from the

nuclear fission of uranium nuclei.

74 Aqueous ethanol can turn moist pH

paper red.

Ethanol dissolves in water to give

hydrogen ions.

75 Ethanol is a good conductor of


Ethanol is miscible with water.

76 Ethanol can be used as a fuel.

Energy is produced when ethanol is


77 Methylated spirit is a common fuel.

Methylated spirit contains methanol

which produces energy when burnt.

78 Burning gasohol causes more pollution

problems than burning petrol.

Gasohol contains many impurities while

petrol does not contain any impurities.

79 Ethanol is used as a solvent in the

preparation of iodine culture.

Both ethanol and iodine have simple

molecular structures.

80 After the fermentation of glucose

solution, ethanol can be separated from
the reaction mixture by fractional

Ethanol and other compounds in the

reaction mixture have different boiling

81 Fermentation of sucrose solution can

produce a very concentrated ethanol

The concentration of ethanol can be

increased by adding more yeast to the
sucrose solution during fermentation.

82 Ethanol produced from catalytic

hydration of ethene is mainly used to
make alcoholic beverages.

All alcoholic beverages contain ethanol.

83 Ethanol is s saturated hydrocarbon.

All atoms in an ethanol molecule are

held by single bonds.

84 The ethanol content of beer is the same

as that of white wine.

Both beer and white wine are produced

by fermentation.

85 A glass of wine turns sour upon standing

in air.

Ethanol in the wine undergoes oxidation

to give ethanoic acid.

86 If a bottle of wine is left opened for a

long time, it becomes sweet.

Ethyl ethanoate is produced by the

action of bacteria in the wine.

87 The body-alcohol level of a drunk driver

can be tested by passing his breathed air
into acidified potassium dichromate

Ethanol turns acidified potassium

permanganate solution from orange to

88 Ethanol can be oxidized to ethanoic acid

in the presence of concentrated
sulphuric acid and potassium
dichromate solution.

Concentrated sulphuric acid is a strong

oxidizing agent.

89 Vinegar can be produced by refluxing

propan-1-ol with acidified potassium
dichromate solution.

Vinegar is an alkanoic acid.

90 Both ethene and ethanol can react with

acidified potassium permanganate

Ethene and ethanol belong to different

homologous series.

91 Only ethyl ethanoate is formed when

ethanoic acid reacts with alcohol.

Neutralization occurs when ethanoic

acid reacts with ethanol.

92 Esters can be used as artificial


Esters have sweet and fruity smells.

93 Esterification is an irreversible reaction.

Esterification is an addition reaction.

94 Esterification is a substitution reaction.

When an alkanol molecule combines

with an alkanoic acid molecule, a water
molecule is eliminated.

95 Ethyl ethanoate has a boiling point

higher than that of ethanoic acid.

Ethyl ethanoate is a covalent compound

while ethanoic acid is an ionic

96 When methyl ethanoate is heated with

dilute sodium hydroxide solution under
reflux, ethanol and sodium methanoate
are obtained.

Methyl ethanoate is an ester formed

from the reaction between ethanol and
methanoic acid.