Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

Assertion-reason question

Directions: Please refer to the following instructions:


A

C
D

Both statements are true and the 2nd statement is a correct explanation of the 1st
statement.
Both statements are true but the 2nd statement is NOT a correct explanation of
the 1st statement.
The 1st statement is false while the 2nd statement is true.
Both statements are false.

1st statement
Coal is a major source of alkanes.

2nd statement
Coal is formed from dead marine
organisms.

Coal is non-renewable.

Once used, coal cannot be replenished


after a short time.

Coal causes serious pollution problems


when burnt in air.

Coal is a kind of fossil fuels.

Fossil fuels are either liquids or gases.

Petroleum and natural gas are fossil


fuels.

Destructive distillation is an important


process in petroleum refining.

By destructive distillation, petroleum


can be separated into various fractions
for different uses.

Fractional distillation of petroleum is a


chemical process.

Pure substances can be obtained from


fractional distillation of petroleum.

High boiling fractions from fractional


distillation of crude oil are easier to burn
that low boiling ones.

High boiling fractions burn with a


sootier flame than low boiling ones.

During the fractional distillation of


petroleum, fuel oil and lubricating oil
are turned into petrol.

The supply of fuel oil and lubricating oil


is greater than demand.

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists


mainly of methane.

Methane exists as a gas at room


temperature and pressure.

10 Liquefied petroleum gas is a cleaner


fuel than diesel oil.

Liquefied petroleum gas burns more


completely than diesel oil.

11 Kerosene is commonly used as a fuel for


aircrafts.

Alkane C11H24 is one of the components


of kerosene.

12 Naphtha exists as a liquid at room


temperature and pressure.

Atoms in naphtha molecules are held by


covalent bonds.

13 Bitumen obtained in the fractional


distillation of petroleum is useless.

Bitumen burns with a sootier flame than


petrol.

14 Ethene is the second member of the


alkene series.

The structural formula of ethene is C2H4.

15 Ethane and butane have similar


chemical properties.

Ethane and butane are in the same


homologous series.

16 Ethene and propene have the same


physical properties.

Ethene and propene are in the same


homologous series.

17 The boiling point of propane is higher


than that of ethane.

The intermolecular forces between


alkane molecules increase as the number
of carbon atoms in the molecules
increases.

18 The physical properties of different


members in the same homologous series
are the same.

Members of the same homologous


series have the same functional group.

19 Methane, ethane and propane are in the


same homologous series.

They are all gases at room temperature


and pressure.

20 Butane and 2-methylpropane have the


same molar volume at room temperature
and pressure.

Butane and 2-methylpropane are


members of the same homologous
series.

21 When a mixture of butane and bromine


vapour is exposed to diffused sunlight,
the colour of the mixture fades.

Butane and bromine undergo


substitution reaction under suitable
conditions.

22 C2H5OH and CH3COOH have different


boiling points.

C2H5OH and CH3COOH have different


functional groups.

23 In a homologous series, the


flammability of compounds increases as
the number of carbon atoms in the
molecules increases.

In a homologous series, the successive


members differ from each other by a
CH2 unit.

24 Octane (C8H8) burns with a sootier


flame than pentane (C5H12).

Octane is more viscous than pentane.

25 Propane burns with a sootier flame than


pentane (C5H12).

Each propene molecule contains one


carbon-carbon double bond.

26 Ethyne (HCCH) burns with a sootier


flame than ethane.

Both ethyne and ethene are saturated


hydrocarbons.

27 Propene is more flammable than but-1ene.

Propene and but-1-ene have different


physical properties.

28 Both but-1-ene and but-2-ene can


decolourize acidified potassium
permanganate solution.

Both but-1-ene and but-2-ene have the


same molecular formula.

29 Propene gives carbon monoxide when it


undergoes incomplete combustion.

Propene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon.

30 Ethane reacts with chlorine in the


presence of diffused sunlight to give
1,1,1-trichloroethane as the only
product.

Ethane is a very reactive compound.

31 Tetrabromoethane is an organic
compound.

Tetrabromoethane contains carbon.

32 Tetrachloromethane is toxic.

Chlorine is toxic.

33 Cracking of medicinal paraffin produces


unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain


carbon-carbon multiple bonds.

34 Cracking is an important industrial


process.

Cracking produces alkenes which are


used to produce many useful products.

35 Cracking is an exothermic process.

Heat is releases during cracking.

36 Carbon monoxide can be obtained from


cracking of heavy oil fraction.

During cracking, heavy oil fractions are


heated in the presence of air to a high
temperature.

37 Both methane and ethene are gases at


room temperature and pressure.

Both methane and ethene are covalent


compounds.

38 Some alkenes are very soluble in water.

Both water and alkenes have simple


molecular structures.

39 Propene is more reactive than propane.

Propene contains carbon-carbon double


bonds.

40 Propane is more reactive than propene.

Propane can react with chlorine in the


presence of diffused sunlight while
propene cannot.

41 Propane and propene can be


distinguished by treating with acidified
potassium dichromate solution.

Propene turns acidified potassium


dichromate solution from orange to
green whereas propane does not.

42 Propane and propene can be


distinguished by treating with acidified
potassium permanganate solution.

Propene decolourizes acidified


potassium permanganate solution
whereas propane does not.

43 Alkenes are the only hydrocarbons


which can decolourize bromine
dissolved in an organic solvent readily
in the absence of light.

The reactions between alkenes and


bromine are addition reactions.

44 All alkanes are used as fuels.

Burning alkanes is an exothermic


reaction.

45 Under any circumstances, hydrocarbons


burn in air to give carbon dioxide and

Hydrocarbons contain carbon and


hydrogen only.

water only.
46 Alkanes burn in insufficient supply of
air to form water and carbon monoxide
only.

Alkanes contain carbon and hydrogen


only.

47 H for an exothermic reaction has a


positive sign.

In an exothermic reaction, energy is


absorbed from the surroundings.

48 Liquefied petroleum gas is seldom used


nowadays when compared with town
gas.

Town gas is less toxic than liquefied


petroleum gas.

49 The major component of town gas is


methane.

Methane can be obtained by fractional


distillation of naphtha.

50 Hong Kong Town Gas is made from


petroleum.

Petroleum is a fossil fuel.

51 Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas.

Carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen


carrying capacity of blood.

52 Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) should


only be used in a well-ventilated room.

The main components of LPG are


propane and butane.

53 If one suspects there is a leakage of


town gas, he/ she should open all the
windows.

Town gas is toxic and explosive.

54 If one suspects there is a leakage of


town gas, he/ she should turn off all the
electrical appliances in his/ her home.

An electric spark may ignite the town


gas and lead to an explosion.

55 Sulphur dioxide causes acid rain.

Sulphur dioxide dissolves in rain water


to give sulphurous acid.

56 Acid rain can corrode plastics.

Acid dissolves plastics readily.

57 Normal rainwater has a pH value of


about 5.7.

Carbon dioxide dissolves in rainwater to


give an acidic solution.

58 Carbon dioxide can cause acid rain.

Carbon dioxide gives carbonic acid


when dissolved in water.

59 During thunderstorm, the rainwater is


more acidic than normal water.

Nitrogen dioxide is formed in lightning


and it dissolves in rainwater to give an
acidic solution.

60 Methane is a greenhouse gas.

Methane can be produced from the


decay of organic waste.

61 Global warming results from the


increasing use of fossil fuels.

Carbon dioxide given off in the burning


of fossil fuels traps the solar energy
which is re-radiated from the Earths
surface to the atmosphere.

62 Water vapour produced from the


combustion of fossil fuels enhances
greenhouse effect.

Water vapour is a greenhouse gas.

63 Global warming causes the rise of sea


levels.

Global warming may cause huge


increase of rainfall in certain regions.

64 Catalytic converters can only be


installed in cars using unleaded petrol.

Lead compounds can poison the


catalysts in catalytic converters.

65 Scrubblers installed in motor cars can


reduce acid rain problems.

Sulphur dioxide given off from the


burning of fuels can be removed by
scrubbers.

66 Catalytic converters installed in cars can


reduce air pollution problems.

Oxides of nitrogen and carbon


monoxide given off from the burning of
fuels can be removed by catalytic
converters.

67 Nowadays, fossil fuels are the major


energy sources.

Fossil fuels are convenient to use and


relatively cheap.

68 Hydroelectric power is very suitable for


Hong Kong.

Hydroelectric power is a renewable


energy source.

69 Geothermal energy is non-polluting.

Geothermal wells do not release any


toxic gases.

70 Geothermal energy is a widely used


energy source.

There is permanent supply of heat from


underground.

71 Methane is a component of biogas fuel.

Methane is a clean fuel.

72 Nuclear energy is a non-renewable


energy source.

Nuclear energy is a cleaner energy


source when compared with fossil fuels.

73 Nuclear energy is a non-renewable


energy.

Nuclear energy is produced from the


nuclear fission of uranium nuclei.

74 Aqueous ethanol can turn moist pH


paper red.

Ethanol dissolves in water to give


hydrogen ions.

75 Ethanol is a good conductor of


electricity.

Ethanol is miscible with water.

76 Ethanol can be used as a fuel.

Energy is produced when ethanol is


burnt.

77 Methylated spirit is a common fuel.

Methylated spirit contains methanol


which produces energy when burnt.

78 Burning gasohol causes more pollution


problems than burning petrol.

Gasohol contains many impurities while


petrol does not contain any impurities.

79 Ethanol is used as a solvent in the


preparation of iodine culture.

Both ethanol and iodine have simple


molecular structures.

80 After the fermentation of glucose


solution, ethanol can be separated from
the reaction mixture by fractional
distillation.

Ethanol and other compounds in the


reaction mixture have different boiling
points.

81 Fermentation of sucrose solution can


produce a very concentrated ethanol
solution.

The concentration of ethanol can be


increased by adding more yeast to the
sucrose solution during fermentation.

82 Ethanol produced from catalytic


hydration of ethene is mainly used to
make alcoholic beverages.

All alcoholic beverages contain ethanol.

83 Ethanol is s saturated hydrocarbon.

All atoms in an ethanol molecule are


held by single bonds.

84 The ethanol content of beer is the same


as that of white wine.

Both beer and white wine are produced


by fermentation.

85 A glass of wine turns sour upon standing


in air.

Ethanol in the wine undergoes oxidation


to give ethanoic acid.

86 If a bottle of wine is left opened for a


long time, it becomes sweet.

Ethyl ethanoate is produced by the


action of bacteria in the wine.

87 The body-alcohol level of a drunk driver


can be tested by passing his breathed air
into acidified potassium dichromate
solution.

Ethanol turns acidified potassium


permanganate solution from orange to
green.

88 Ethanol can be oxidized to ethanoic acid


in the presence of concentrated
sulphuric acid and potassium
dichromate solution.

Concentrated sulphuric acid is a strong


oxidizing agent.

89 Vinegar can be produced by refluxing


propan-1-ol with acidified potassium
dichromate solution.

Vinegar is an alkanoic acid.

90 Both ethene and ethanol can react with


acidified potassium permanganate
solution.

Ethene and ethanol belong to different


homologous series.

91 Only ethyl ethanoate is formed when


ethanoic acid reacts with alcohol.

Neutralization occurs when ethanoic


acid reacts with ethanol.

92 Esters can be used as artificial


flavourings.

Esters have sweet and fruity smells.

93 Esterification is an irreversible reaction.

Esterification is an addition reaction.

94 Esterification is a substitution reaction.

When an alkanol molecule combines


with an alkanoic acid molecule, a water
molecule is eliminated.

95 Ethyl ethanoate has a boiling point


higher than that of ethanoic acid.

Ethyl ethanoate is a covalent compound


while ethanoic acid is an ionic
compound.

96 When methyl ethanoate is heated with


dilute sodium hydroxide solution under
reflux, ethanol and sodium methanoate
are obtained.

Methyl ethanoate is an ester formed


from the reaction between ethanol and
methanoic acid.