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You are on page 1of 38

1.

Boilers Regulation Act, is ___.

a) 2.275 liters b) 22.75 kilo liters

c) 227.5 liters d) 22.75 liters

Steam is preferred medium for heating applications because:

2.

a) high latent heat b) temperature break down is easy

c) does not require any transport facility d) all the above

For higher boiler efficiencies, the feed water is heated by ____.

3.

a. recuperator

b. convective heater

The type of firing used for a pulverized coal fired boiler is:

4.

a) over firing b) tangential firing

c) vertical firing d) mixed firing for effective heat transfer

The recommended TDS level in boiler drum, that can be safely maintained for

5.

the water tube boiler is:

a) 3000 3500 ppm b) 2000 ppm

c) 5000 ppm d) It can be anything

An evaporation ratio (steam to fuel ratio) of an efficient oil fired boiler is in

6.

the range of ___.

a) 5 6

b) 13 - 16

c) 1 d) 7 9

Pick the boiler, which can be considered as most combustion efficient?

7.

a) fluidized bed combustion boiler b) Lancashire boiler

c) Stoker fired boiler d) chain grate boiler

The percentage excess air required for pulverised coal fired boiler is:

8.

a) 40 50% b) 15 20%

c) 60 80% d) 30 40%

Name the predominant loss component for furnace oil fed boiler.

9.

a) losses due to radiation and convention b) loss due to hydrogen in fuel

c) loss due to dry flue gas d) loss due to moisture in fuel

Controlled wetting of coal (during the coal preparation) would result in

10.

a) reduction in flue gas exit temperature

b) decrease in the percentage of unburnt carbon

c) improper combustion

d) increase in the fines of coal

A rise in conductivity of boiler feed water indicates ____ .

11.

a. drop in the contamination of feed water

b. greater purity of feed water

c. rise in the contamination of feed water

d. it has got no relation with the contamination of feed water

Demineralisation of water is the process to remove -------12.

a) dissolved oxygen b) dissolved salts c) corbondioxide d) chlorine

The presence of calcium and magnesium bicarbonates in water to steam boiler

13.

would form:

a) acidic solution b) alkaline solution

c) neutral solution d) none of the above

Water treatment for steam boiler is generally required to:

14.

a) remove hydrogen b) prevent formation of scales

c) help improve combustion efficiency d) reduce stack temperature

15.

pressure of 7.0 kg/cm2g. The feed water temperature is 70 C and furnace oil

consumption is 138 kg/h. What is the efficiency of the boiler by using direct

method of efficiency evaluation? (Calorific value of FO is 10,000 kCal/kg;

enthalpy of steam is 660 kCal/kg.

a) 65 b) 75 c) 85 d) 95

The indirect method of evaluating boiler efficiency is also called as Heat Loss

16.

method. True or False?

Good opportunity for energy savings from continuous blow down water of

17.

boiler is by ___.

a. reusing the hot water so formed as make up water

b. using the blow down steam to run steam turbine

c. utilisation of flash steam in deaerator

d. none of the above

De-aeration of boiler feed water is referred to as:

18.

a) removal of dissolved gases b) removal of silica

c) removal of scales by blow down d) phosphate treatment of feed water

The percentage raise in boiler efficiency by a 20 degree centigrade raise in

19.

combustion air temperature is ___.

a) 0.1% b) 0.2% c) 10% d) 1%

The elements of ultimate analysis of fuel does not include

20.

a) carbon b) Hydrogen

c) oxygen d) volatile matter

1.

What do you understand by water tube boilers and fire tube boilers?

In water tube boilers the water passes through the tubes and the hot gases passes

out side the tubes where as in case of fire tube boiler the hot gases passes

through the tubes and the water passes over the tubes.

What do you mean by IBR steam boiler?

2.

IBR Steam Boilers means any closed vessel exceeding 22.75 liters in capacity and

which is used expressively for generating steam under pressure and includes any

mounting or other fitting attached to such vessel, which is wholly or partly under

pressure when the steam is shut off.

What is the affect of sulphur in coal when used in boiler?

3.

Sulphur will get oxidized to SO2 and fraction of SO3 and will react with water to

form sulphuric acid and this occurs at a temperature called the acid dew point

which normally is about 120 oC. The sulphuric acid so formed corrodes the steel

when it comes in contact with it.

Write a short note on IBR steam pipe.

4.

IBR Steam Pipe means any pipe through which steam passes from a boiler to a

prime mover or other user or both, if pressure at which steam passes through

such pipes exceeds 3.5 kg/cm2 above atmospheric pressure or such pipe exceeds

254 mm in internal diameter and includes in either case any connected fitting of

a steam pipe.

Why boiler blow-down is required?

5.

As the feed water, evaporate into steam, dissolved solids concentrate in the

boiler. Above certain level of concentration, these solids encourage carryover of

water into steam. This leads to scale formation inside the boiler, resulting in

localised over heating and ending finally in tube failure. Hence blow-down is

very much required for boilers.

What are the parameters required to estimate the boiler efficiency by direct

6.

method?

a. Steam flow rate

b. GCV of fuel

c. Fuel flow rate

d. Steam conditions ( pressure and temperature)

e. Feed water temperature

7.

water?

The pressure-type de-aerators operates by allowing steam into the feed water

through a pressure control valve to maintain the desired operating pressure, and

hence temperature at a minimum of 105 C. The steam raises the water

temperature causing the release of O2 and CO2 gases that are then vented from

the system. This type can reduce the oxygen content to 0.005 mg/litre.

What is the effect of boiler loading on boiler efficiency?

8.

The maximum efficiency of the boiler does not occur at full load, but at

about two-thirds of the full load. If the load on the boiler decreases

further, efficiency also tends to decrease.

As the load falls, so does the value of the mass flow rate of the flue gases

through the tubes. This reduction in flow rate for the same heat transfer

area, reduced the exit flue gas temperatures by a small extent, reducing the

sensible heat loss.

Below half load, most combustion appliances need more excess air to burn

the fuel completely. This increases the sensible heat loss.

9.

What are the principle heat losses that occur in a boiler?

Loss of heat due to moisture in fuel and combustion air

Loss of heat due to combustion of hydrogen

Loss of heat due to radiation

What do you meant by tangential firing with respect to pulverized coal fired

10.

boiler?

The method of firing used for coal firing in pulverized fuel fired boiler is the

tangential firing. In this type of firing four burners are used at the corner to

corner to create a fire ball at the center of the furnace.

What are the disadvantages of direct method of boiler efficiency evaluation

11.

over indirect method?

Direct method

b) Do not calculate various losses accountable for various efficiency levels

List out the data required for calculation of boiler efficiency using indirect

12.

method.

The data required for calculation of boiler efficiency using indirect method are:

Percentage of Oxygen or CO2 in the flue gas

Flue gas temperature in 0C (Tf)

Ambient temperature in 0C (Ta) & humidity of air in kg/kg of dry air.

GCV of fuel in kcal/kg

Percentage combustible in ash (in case of solid fuels)

Explain the different external water treatment methods.

13.

(particularly the Calcium and Magnesium ions which is a major cause of scale

formation) and dissolved gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide). The techniques

include:

o

calcium and magnesium as compounds of low solubility. The limesoda process is typical of this class, but other precipitating agents

such as caustic soda and sodium phosphate can be used when the

composition of the raw water permits.

Ion-exchange progresses, in which the hardness is removed as the

water passes through bed of natural zeolite or synthetic resin and

without the formation of any precipitate. Ion exchange processes can

be used for almost total demineralization if required, as is the case in

large electric power plant boilers.

De-aeration, in which gases are expelled by preheating the water

before entering the boiler system. Water normally contains

approximately 10 mg/1 of dissolved oxygen at ambient temperature

Filtration, to remove suspended solids

14.

The features of package boilers are:

o

o

o

o

faster evaporation.

Large number of small diameter tubes leading to good convective

heat transfer.

Forced or induced draft systems resulting in good combustion

efficiency.

Number of passes resulting in better overall heat transfer.

compared with other boilers.

What are the parameters to be monitored for evaluating direct efficiency of

15.

boilers and what is the empirical relation used?

method are:

Quantity of fuel used per hour (q) in kg/hr.

The working pressure (in kg/cm2(g)) and superheat temperature (oC), if

any

The temperature of feed water (oC)

Type of fuel and gross calorific value of the fuel (GCV) in kcal/kg of fuel

Boiler efficiency () = :

where, hg Enthalpy of saturated steam in kcal/kg of steam

hf - Enthalpy of feed water in kcal/kg of water

What are the two main classification of a stoker fired boiler?

16.

1. Chain grate or travelling grate stoker

2. Spreader stoker

Calculate the blow down rate for a boiler with an evaporation rate of 3

17.

tons/hr, if the maximum permissible TDS in boiler water is 3000 ppm and with

10 % make up water addition. The feed water TDS is around 300 ppm.

Blow down (%) =

Percentage blow down =

If boiler evaporation rate is 3000 kg/hr then required blow down rate is:

=

Indicate the different methods of efficiency evaluation of Boiler and describe it.

18.

i. Direct Method

ii. Indirect Method

Direct Method:

where

Adsorbed heat = Eout -The energy the feedwater has picked up

Energy Input = Ein - The energy going into the boiler.

Indirect Method:

Most performance testing and commissioning of smaller and medium sized

boilers is done by the indirect method measuring the losses and calculating the

efficiency as

Briefly explain the principle involved in reverse osmosis?

19.

When solutions of differing concentrations are separated by a semi-permeable

membrane, water from less concentrated solution passes through the membrane

to dilute the liquid of high concentration. If the solution of high concentration is

pressurised, the process is reversed and the water from the solution of high

What are the various methods available to control the excess air in a boiler?

20.

Various methods are available to control the excess air:

Portable oxygen analysers and draft gauges can be used to make periodic

readings to guide the operator to manually adjust the flow of air for

optimum operation. Excess air reduction up to 20% is feasible.

The most common method is the continuous oxygen analyzer with a local

readout mounted draft gauge, by which the operator can adjust air flow. A

further reduction of 10-15% can be achieved over the previous system.

The same continuous oxygen analyzer can have a remote controlled

pneumatic damper positioner, by which the readouts are available in a

control room. This enables an operator to remotely control a number of

firing systems simultaneously.

1.

a) What is the benefit of providing Economiser for a boiler?

The performance data of the boiler are given as below:

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

Average flue gas temperature : 315 oC (without economiser)

Average steam generation / kg of fuel oil : 14 kg

Feed water inlet temperature : 110oC

Fuel oil supply rate : 314 kg/h

Flue gas quantity : 17.4 kg/kg of fuel

Gross calorific value of fuel : 10,000 kCal/kg

Rise in feed water temperature by providing economizer: 26 C

Annual operating hours : 8600

a. By providing Economiser the exit flue gas losses can be reduced and hence

b.

: 144512 kCal/h

Heat required for pre-heating the : 5000 x 1 x 26 = 130000 kCal/h

feed water

o

o

Annual operating hours : 8600

Evaluate the option of boiler replacement for the following boiler with a new

2.

boiler of 84% efficiency. The cost of new boiler is Rs 30.00 lakh

o

Fuel used: furnace oil

Enthalpy gained by the steam in boiler: 600 kcal/kg of steam

Cost of furnace oil: Rs 15000 per ton (Rs. 15 per kg)

Gross calorific value of the fuel: 10000 kcal/kg

Annual operating hours of the boiler: 6000 h

Boiler efficiency: 80%

following

Cost of steam, Rs. Per kg

Annual Cost of steam

=

Cost of steam (Rs. Per kg of steam) is given by:

=

Annual cost of steam, Rs. lakh =

Parameter

Boiler efficiency

Steam generation, kg/h

Gain in steam enthalpy, kcal/kg

Evaporation rate, kg of steam

per kg of fuel

Cost of steam, Rs. Per kg

Annual cost of steam, Rs. lakh

Present

boiler

75

5000

600

12.5

Proposed

boiler

84

5000

600

14

1.2

360

1.071

321.0

= Rs. 39 lakh

Investment for the new boiler = Rs. 30 lakh

Simple pay period = (Investment /Annual savings)

= (30/39)

= 0.72 years

= 9.2 months

3.

Chain-Grate or Travelling-Grate Stoker Boiler

Coal is fed onto one end of a moving steel grate. As grate moves along the length

of the furnace, the coal burns before dropping off at the end as ash. Some degree

of skill is required, particularly when setting up the grate, air dampers and

baffles, to ensure clean combustion leaving the minimum of unburnt carbon in

the ash.

The coal-feed hopper runs along the entire coal-feed end of the furnace. A coal

grate is used to control the rate at which coal is fed into the furnace by

controlling the thickness of the fuel bed. Coal must be uniform in size as large

lumps will not burn out completely by the time they reach the end of the grate

Spreader Stoker Boiler

Spreader stokers utilize a combination of suspension burning and grate burning.

The coal is continually fed into the furnace above a burning bed of coal. The coal

fines are burned in suspension; the larger particles fall to the grate, where they

are burned in a thin, fast-burning coal bed. This method of firing provides good

flexibility to meet load fluctuations, since ignition is almost instantaneous when

firing rate is increased. Hence, the spreader stoker is favoured over other types

of stokers in many industrial applications.

Explain the reasons for carrying out blow down in a boiler?

4.

Water contains certain percentage of dissolved solids. The percentage of

impurities found in boiler water depends on the untreated feed water quality,

the treatment process used and the boiler operating procedures. As a general

rule, the higher the boiler operating pressure, the greater will be the sensitivity

to impurities. As the feed water materials evaporate into steam, dissolved solids

concentrate in the boiler either in a dissolved or suspended state. Above a

certain level of concentration, these solids encourage foaming and cause

carryover of water into the steam. This leads to scale formation inside the boiler,

resulting in localised overheating and ending finally in tube failure.

It is therefore necessary to control the level of concentration of the solids and this

is achieved by the process of 'blowing down', where a certain volume of water is

blown off and is automatically replaced by feed water - thus maintaining the

optimum level of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the water. Blow down is

necessary to protect the surfaces of the heat exchanger in the boiler.

Write short notes on intermittent blow down and continuous blow down with

5.

respect to boilers.

The intermittent blown down is given by manually operating a valve fitted to

discharge pipe at the lowest point of boiler shell to reduce parameters (TDS or

conductivity, pH, Silica and Phosphates concentration) within prescribed limits

so that steam quality is not likely to be affected. In intermittent blowdown, a

large diameter line is opened for a short period of time, the time being based on a

thumb rule such as once a shift for 2 minutes.

Intermittent blow down requires large short-term increases in the amount of

feed water put into the boiler, and hence may necessitate larger feed water

pumps than if continuous blow down is used. Also, TDS level will be varying,

thereby causing fluctuations of the water level in the boiler due to changes in

steam bubble size and distribution which accompany changes in concentration of

solids. Also substantial amount of heat energy is lost with intermittent blow

down.

Continuous Blowdown:

There is a steady and constant dispatch of small stream of concentrated boiler

water, and replacement by steady and constant inflow of feed water. This ensures

constant TDS and steam purity at given steam load. Once blow down valve is set

for a given conditions, there is no need for regular operator intervention.

Even though large quantities of heat are wasted, opportunity exits for recovering

this heat by blowing into a flash tank and generating flash steam. This flash

steam can be used for pre-heating boiler feed water or for any other purpose.

This type of blow down is common in high-pressure boilers.

Indirect method of determining boiler efficiency

Methodology

The reference standards for Boiler Testing at Site using the indirect method

are the British Standard, BS 845:1987 and the USA StandardASME PTC-41 Power Test Code Steam Generating Units.

The indirect method is also called the heat loss method. The efficiency can

be calculated by subtracting the heat loss fractions from 100 as follows:

Efficiency of boiler (n) = 100 - (i + ii + iii + iv + v + vi + vii)

Whereby the principle losses that occur in a boiler are loss of heat due to:

i.

ii. Evaporation of water formed due to H2 in fuel

iv. Moisture present in combustion air

v. Unburnt fuel in fly ash

vi. Unburnt fuel in bottom ash

vii. Radiation and other unaccounted losses

Losses due to moisture in fuel and due to combustion of

hydrogen are dependent on the fuel, and cannot be controlled by design.

The data required for calculation of boiler efficiency using the indirect

method are:

content)

Percentage of oxygen or CO2 in the flue gas

Ambient temperature in oC (Ta) and humidity of air in kg/kg of dry air

GCV of fuel in kcal/kg

Percentage combustible in ash (in case of solid fuels)

GCV of ash in kcal/kg (in case of solid fuels)

method is given below. However, practicing energy managers in industries

usually prefer simpler calculation procedures.

Step 1: Calculate the theoretical air requirement

= [(11.43 x C) + {34.5 x (H2 O2/8)} + (4.32 x S)]/100

kg/kg of fuel

Step 2: Calculate the % excess air supplied (EA)

= O 2% x 100

---------------(21 - O 2%)

Step 3: Calculate actual mass of air supplied/ kg of fuel (AAS)

= {1 + EA/100} x theoretical air

Step 4: Estimate all heat losses

i. Percentage heat loss due to dry flue gas

= m x C p x (T f-T a) x 100

------------------------------GCV of fuel

Where, m = mass of dry flue gas in kg/kg of fuel

m = (mass of dry products of combustion / kg of fuel) + (mass of N2 in

fuel on 1 kg basis ) + (mass of N2 in actual

mass of air we are supplying).

ii. Percentage heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H2 in

fuel

= 9 x H 2 {584+C p (T f-T a)} x 100

----------------------------------------GCV of fuel

Where, H2 = percentage of H2 in 1 kg of fuel

Cp = specific heat of superheated steam (0.45 kcal/kg)

iii. Percentage heat loss due to evaporation of moisture present in fuel

= M{584+ C p (T f-T a)} x 100

--------------------------------GCV of fuel

Where, M % moisture in 1kg of fuel

Cp Specific heat of superheated steam (0.45 kcal/kg)

iv. Percentage heat loss due to moisture present in air

= AAS x humidity factor x C p (T f-T a)} x 100

--------------------------------------------------GCV of fuel

Where, Cp Specific heat of superheated steam (0.45 kcal/kg)

v. Percentage heat loss due to unburnt fuel in fly ash

= Total ash collected/kg of fuel burnt x GCV of fly ash x 100

-----------------------------------------------------------------GCV of fuel

vi. Percentage heat loss due to unburnt fuel in bottom ash

= Total ash collected per Kg of fuel burnt x G.C.V of bottom ash x 100

---------------------------------------------------------------------------GCV of fuel

vii. Percentage heat loss due to radiation and other unaccounted loss

The actual radiation and convection losses are difficult to assess because of

particular emissivity of various surfaces, its inclination, airflow patterns

etc. In a relatively small boiler, with a capacity of 10 MW, the radiation and

unaccounted losses could amount to between 1% and 2% of the gross

calorific value of the fuel, while in a 500 MW boiler, values between 0.2%

to 1% are typical. The loss may be assumed appropriately depending on

the surface condition.

Step 5: Calculate boiler efficiency and boiler evaporation ratio

Efficiency of boiler (n) = 100 - (i + ii + iii + iv + v + vi + vii)

Evaporation Ratio = Heat utilised for steam generation/Heat addition to the

steam

Evaporation ratio means kilogram of steam generated per kilogram of fuel

consumed. Typical Examples are:

Oil fired boiler: 13 (i.e. 1 kg of oil can generate 13 kg of steam)

However, the evaporation ratio will depend upon type of boiler, calorific

value of the fuel and associated efficiencies.

Example

= [(11.43 x C) + [{34.5 x (H2 O2/8)} + (4.32 x S)]/100 kg/kg of oil

= [(11.43 x 84) + [{34.5 x (12 1/8)} + (4.32 x 3)]/100 kg/kg of oil

= 13.82 kg of air/kg of oil

Step-2: Calculate the % excess air supplied (EA)

Excess air supplied (EA)

= (O2 x 100)/(21-O2)

= (7 x 100)/(21-7)

= 50%

Step 3: Calculate actual mass of air supplied/ kg of fuel (AAS)

AAS/kg fuel

= [1 + 50/100] x 13.82

= 1.5 x 13.82

= 20.74 kg of air/kg of oil

i. Percentage heat loss due to dry flue gas

= m x Cp x (Tf Ta ) x 100

----------------------------

GCV of fuel

m = mass of CO2 + mass of SO2 + mass of N2 + mass of O2

0.84 x 44

0.03x64

20.74x77

m = ----------- + ---------- + ----------- (0.07 x 32)

12

32

100

m = 21.35 kg / kg of oil

21.35 x 0.23 x (220 27)

= ------------------------------- x 100

10200

= 9.29%

A simpler method can also be used:Percentage heat loss due to dry flue

gas

m x Cp x (Tf Ta ) x 100

= -----------------------------GCV of fuel

m (total mass of flue gas)

= mass of actual air supplied + mass of fuel supplied

= 20.19 + 1 = 21.19

= 21.19 x 0.23 x (220-27)

------------------------------- x 100

10200

= 9.22%

ii. Heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H2 in fuel

9 x H2 {584+0.45 (Tf Ta )}

= ---------------------------------

GCV of fuel

where H2 = percentage of H2 in fuel

9 x 12 {584+0.45(220-27)}

= -------------------------------10200

= 7.10%

iii. Heat loss due to moisture present in air

AAS x humidity x 0.45 x ((Tf Ta ) x 100

= ------------------------------------------------GCV of fuel

= [20.74 x 0.018 x 0.45 x (220-27) x 100]/10200

= 0.317%

iv. Heat loss due to radiation and other unaccounted losses

For a small boiler it is estimated to be 2%

Step 5: Calculate boiler efficiency and boiler evaporation ratio

Efficiency of boiler (n) = 100 - (i + ii + iii + iv + v + vi + vii)

i. Heat loss due to dry flue gas : 9.29%

ii. Heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H2 in fuel: 7.10 %

iii. Heat loss due to moisture present in air : 0.317 %

iv. Heat loss due to radiation and other unaccounted losses : 2%

= 100- [9.29+7.10+0.317+2]

= 100 17.024 = 83% (approximate)

Evaporation Ratio = Heat utilised for steam generation/Heat addition to the

steam

= 14.11 (compared to 13 for a typical oil fired boiler)

Advantages of indirect method

individual stream, which makes it easier to identify options to improve

boiler efficiency

Time consuming

This is the html version of the file

http://v_ganapathy.tripod.com/circulation.pdf.

Google automatically generates html versions of documents as we

crawl the web.

Page 1

HEATTRANSFER

Boilercirculationcalculations

Steamgeneratorstudiescanbe

complex.Usetheseguidelinesto

performthemeffectively

VGanapathy,ABCOIndustries,Abilene,Texas

N

aturalcirculationwatertubeandfiretubeboilers

(Figs.1and2)arewidelyusedinthechemicalprocess

industry.Thesearepreferredtoforcedcirculationboilers

(Fig.3)whereacirculationpumpensuresflowofa

steam/watermixturethroughthetubes.Inadditiontobeing

anoperatingexpense,apumpfailurecanhaveserious

consequencesinsuchsystems.Themotiveforcedrivingthe

steam/watermixturethroughthetubes(watertubeboilers)

orovertubes(firetubeboilers)innaturalcirculation

systemsisthedifferenceindensitybetweencoolerwaterin

thedowncomercircuitsandthesteam/watermixtureinthe

risertubes.Thisflowmustbeadequatetocoolthetubesand

preventoverheating.Thisarticleexplainshowcirculation

ratioortheratioofsteam/watermixturetosteamflowmay

beevaluated.

Circulationratio(CR)byitselfdoesnotgiveacomplete

pictureofthecirculationsystem.Naturalcirculationboiling

circuitsareinsuccessfuloperationwithCRsrangingfrom4

to8athighsteampressures(1,500to2,100psig)inlarge

utilityandindustrialboilers.Inwasteheatboilersystems,

CRmayrangefrom15to50atlowsteampressures(1,000

to200psig).CRmustbeusedinconjunctionwithheatflux,

steampressure,tubesize,orientation,roughnessoftubes,

waterquality,etc.,tounderstandtheboilingprocessandits

reliability.Tubefailuresoccurduetoconditionsknownas

departurefromnucleateboiling(DNB)whentheactualheat

fluxintheboilingcircuitexceedsacriticalvalueknownas

criticalheatfluxafunctionofthevariablesmentioned

above.Whenthisoccurs,therateofbubbleformationisso

highcomparedtotherateatwhichtheyarecarriedawayby

themixturethatthetubeisnotcooledproperly,resultingin

overheatingandfailure.

Circulationprocess.Fig.1showsatypicalwatertube,

naturalcirculationwasteheatboilerwithanexternalsteam

drumandexternaldowncomersandriserpipes.Feedwater

entersthedrumfromaneconomizeror

Steam

Fig.1.Schematicofawatertubeboiler.

deaerator.Thismixeswiththesteam/watermixtureinside

thedrum.Downcomerscarrytheresultantcoolwatertothe

bottomoftheevaporatortubeswhileexternalriserscarry

thewater/steammixturetothesteamdrum.Theheat

transfertubesalsoactasrisersgeneratingsteam.

Thequantityofmixtureflowingthroughthesystemis

determinedbycalculatingtheCR.Thisisatrialanderror

procedureandisquiteinvolvedwhentherearemultiple

pathsfordowncomers,risersandevaporatorcircuits.Each

boilingcircuithasitsownCRdependingonthesteam

generatedandsystemresistance.Onecansplitupany

evaporatorintovariousparallelpaths,eachwithitsown

steamgenerationandCR.Splittingupisdonebasedon

judgmentandexperience.Aparticularcircuitmaybe

examinedindetailiftheprocessengineerfeelsthatitoffers

moreresistancetocirculationorifitisexposedtohighheat

fluxconditions.Severallowheatfluxcircuitscanbe

clubbedintoonecircuittoreducecomputingtime.Hence,

anaverageCRfortheentiresystemdoesnotgivethe

completepicture.

Circulationratio.CRisdefinedastheratioofthemassof

steam/watermixturetosteamgeneration.Themassofthe

mixtureflowinginthesystemisdeterminedbybalancing

thethermalheadavailablewithvarioussystemlosses,

including:

Frictionandotherlossesinthedowncomerpiping,

includingbends

Twophasefriction,accelerationandgravitylossesin

theheatedrisertubes

Continued

HYDROCARBONPROCESSING/JANUARY1998

101

Page 2

Frictionandotherlossesintheexternalriser

pipingGravitylossintheriserpiping

Lossesindruminternals.

COMPUTINGTHEVARIOUSLOSSES

Totalthermalhead.

Thetotalthermalheadavailable

inpsi=H/vl/144

where

H

isthethermalhead,ft

(Fig.1)v

l

isthespecificvolumeof

water,ft

3

/lb

Downcomerlosses.

Lettheaverage

CRforthesystem=CRandthetotal

steamgeneration=W

S

lb/hr.

Thetotalmixtureflowingthroughthesystem=

W

S

xCR

Lettheeffectivelength(includingbends)ofthe

downcomerpipinginft=

Le

Thefrictionalpressuredrop,psi=3.36

X

10

s

xf

Le

vi(W

d

)

2

/di

5

(Here,itisassumedthattheaverageflowin

eachdowncomerpipeisW

d

).

di

istheinner

diameterofthedowncomerpipeininches.

fis

the

frictionfactor.Ifthereareseveralparallelpathsor

seriesparallelpaths,thentheflowandpressure

dropineachpathisdeterminedusingelectrical

analogy.Thiscalculationmayrequireacomputer.

Inadditiontothefrictionaldrop,theinlet(0.5

x

velocityhead)andexitlosses(1

X

velocityhead)

mustbecomputed.Sometimesthepipeinner

diameterislargerthantheinnerdiameterofthe

nozzleattheends,inwhichcasethehigher

velocityatthenozzlesmustbeusedtocompute

theinlet/exitlosses.VelocityVinft/s=0.05Wd

v

l

/die

andvelocityhead,psi=V

2

/2gv

l

/144.

Heatedriserlosses.

Theboilingheightmustfirstbe

determined.Thisistheverticaldistancethe

mixturetravelsbeforetheboilingprocessbegins.It

canbeshownbycalculationthatthemixture's

enthalpyenteringtheevaporatorsectionisusually

lessthanthatofsaturatedliquid.

Thefollowingistheenergybalancearoundthe

steam

Fig.3.Aforcedcirculationsystemshowingmultiplestreams

toreducepressuredrop.

Steamdrum,asinFig.1:

Wm

h+W

f

h

f

=W

m

h

m

+W

s

h

Wm

=mixtureflowingthroughthe

system,lb/hr=Ws

xCR

hv,hm,hf,

and

h

aretheenthalpiesofsaturated

steammixtureleavingthedrum,feedwaterentering

thedrumandmixtureleavingthedrum,Btu/lb.

h=(hv/CR)+(11/CR)hl

wherehv,

h

j

=enthalpiesofsaturatedvaporand

liquid,Btu/lb.

Fromtheabove,hmissolvedfor.Theboiling

heightorthedistancethemixturetravelsbefore

boilingstarts,

H

b

,

isdeterminedfrom:

H

b

=He

X

W

S

X

CR

X

(h

l

hm)/Qs

where

He

=heightofevaporator

tubes,ft

(Forconservativecalculations,

H

b

maybe

assumedtobezero.)

Therearebasicallythreelossesinboiling

evaporatortubes:

Frictionloss.

pf=4

X

10

10

v

lX

fL

X

Gi

2

X

r3/di

whereGi=mixturemassvelocityinsidetubes,

lb/ft

2

hr

f=

fanningfriction

factor

L=

effective

length,ft

di=tubeinnerdiameter,in.

r3=Thom'smultiplicationfactorfortwo

phasefrictionloss(Fig.4a).

Gravitylossintubes.

P

g

=0.00695

(H

e

H

b

)

r4/v

1

Thom'smultiplicationfactorforgravityloss,r4is

showninFig.4c.

2

HYDROCARBONPROCESSING/JANUARY1998

Page 3

Fig.4.Thom'stwophasemultiplicationfactorsfor:a)friction

loss,b)accelerationloss,andc)gravityloss.

Accelerationloss.p

Q

=1.664x10

11

x

vlXGi

2

xr2

wherer2,Thom'smultiplicationfactor,isshowninFig.4b.

Externalriserlosses.Thesearesimilartothedowncomer

lossesexceptthatthespecificvolumeisthatofthemixture

andnotsaturatedliquid.Mixturespecificvolumev,,ft

3

/lb,is

computedas:

v

m

=v

s

/CR+(11/CR)v

l

Risergravityloss.

p,=(HHe)1vm/144

wherevmisthespecificvolumeofthemixture.Lossesin

druminternals.Theseusuallyconsistoflossesinthebaffles

andcyclonesifusedandrangefrom0.2to1psi.

Totallossesarecalculatedandbalancedagainstthe

thermalheadavailable.Iftheybalance,theCRassumedis

correct,otherwise,theiterationisrepeatedbyassuming

anotherCRuntilthelossesbalancewiththeheadavailable.

Whenthereareseveralboilingcircuits,onecansplitupthe

totalsteamflowbasedonsteamgenerationineachcircuit

untilthelossesbalance.Asimplemanualprocedureisto

computelossesinthecircuitsasafunctionofflowandsee

whereitintersectstheavailableheadline,Fig.5.Sincethe

availableheadandpressuredropsintheriserand

downcomersystemaresameforalltheevapo

HYDROCARBONPROCESSING/JANUARY1998

3

Page 4

Table1:Boilerdataforcirculationstudy

Rows

Surface,Fins/inxheight

xthickness

2

Duty,

MMBtu/hr

Steam

flow,

Gas

temp,

Heatflux,

Btu/ft

2

hr

14

691bare

11.5

11,500

1,650

20,500

57

2,9672.5x0.75x0.075

27.1

27,000

1,500

83,000

820

20,2164.5x.75x.05

39.0

39,000

1,130

58,000

Riser

s:

3.8in.,8ftlong,2bends

Downcomers:2.6in.,24ftlong,

2

bends

8in.,12ftlong,4bends

6in.,26ftlong,

3

bends

8in.,8ftlong,2bends

Steampressure=645psia.Totalhead=18ft.Druminternalloss0.3psi.

EvaporatortubeID=1.738in

length=11ft.

ratorcircuits,thisgraphicalmethodissometimes

used,althoughitistedious.Ifthedowncomeror

externalriserpipingconsistsofseveralparallelor

parallelseriespaths,theelectricalanalogyisusedto

determineflowandpressuredropineachcircuit.A

computerprogrambesthandlesthisproblem.

EXAMPLECALCULATION

Fig.1isawasteheatboileroperatingunderthe

followingconditions:

Gasflow=200,000lb/hr

Gasinlettemperature=1,650F(vol%C0

2

=7,

H

2

O=18,N

2

=69,0

2

=6)

Steampressure=500psia

Feedwatertemperature=230F

Thetotalsteamgeneratedis63,5001b/hr.The

firstfourrowsarebare,followedbysixfinnedtubes

andthen10morewithhigherfindensity.Detailsof

downcomers,riserpipesandotherpertinent

informationareinTable1.

Determinethesystem'scirculationratioandthe

flowineachpipecircuit.Notethattheboilerdesign

calculationsmustbedonebeforecirculationstudies

canbetakenup.Also,onemusthaveagoodfeelfor

thedowncomerandriserpipesizesandtheirlayout.

Oftenpipinglayoutischangedatthelastmomentto

accommodateotherequipmentintheplantwithout

reevaluatingcirculation.Acomputerprogramwas

developedtoperformthisanalysis.Theevaporator

4

HYDROCARBON

PROCESSING

/

JANUARY

1998

Forwatertubeboilers,heatflux,q=U

o

x

(t

g

ts)

x

A

t

/A

i,

WhereU

o

=overalloutsideheattransfer

coefficient,Btu/ft

2

hrF

t

g

,

i

s

aregasandsteamtemperatures,F

A

t

,Aiarethetubeoutsideandinsidesurfaceareas,

ft

2

/ft.Thisratioisforbaretubes,whileforfinnedtubesit

couldbehigh,say5to12.Hence,onemustbecareful

whileanalyzingfinnedtubebundles,astheheatfluxcan

beveryhighinsidethetubes.

Infiretubeboilers,q=U

o

x

(t

g

ts)

Basedonpreliminaryanalyses,theCRineachcircuit

andoverallbasisseemstobereasonable.Themaximum

heatfluxattheinlettoeachsectionisinTable1.Corre

lationsareavailableintheliteratureforallowableheatflux

asafunctionofpressure,qualityandtubesize,etc.These

aremostlybasedonexperimentaldataconductedin

laboratoriesandareoftenusedforguidanceonly.The

actualpermissibleheatfluxesaremuchlowerandare

basedonindustryexperienceandcouldbe10%to30%of

thevaluesgivenincorrelationsinhandbooks.

Verticaltubescanhandlemuchhigherheatfluxesthan

horizontaltubes,upto40%to50%more.Limitsof

120,000to175,000Btu/ft

2

hrinsidetubesarepermittedat

pressuresrangingfrom1,000to2,000psig,whileinfire

tubeboilersthelimitisaround100,000Btu/ft

2

hr.The

higherthesteampressure,thelowertheallowableheat

flux.Similarly,thehigherthesteamquality(lowerCR),the

lowertheallowableheatflux.AstheCRincreases,the

qualitydecreasesandhigherfluxesarepermissible.With

higherflow,thetubeperipheryiswettedbetterandis

consideredsafer.

Anotherapproachthatiswidelyusedisthecomparison

betweenallowablesteamqualityandactualsteamquality.

Fig.6showsaradiantboilerfurnace,wherethesteam

quality,x,(x=1/CR)isplottedagainsttheheight.Basedon

heatfluxdistributionalongtheheight,theallowablequality

iscalculatedusingacorrelationsimilartothatshown

below.Theallowableandactualsteamqualitiesshouldbe

apartinordertoavoidDNBproblems.Thistypeof

analysisissimilartothatusingallowableandactualheat

fluxes.

TheMcBethcorrelationshownbelowshowstherela

tionamongthevariablesinvolvedinboilinginsidevertical

tubes:

1

q,=0.00633

x10

6

xhfgd

i

0.1

(Gi/10

6

)

0.51

x(1x)

whereq,=criticalheatflux,Btu/ft

2

hr

hfg=latentheatofsteam,Btu/lb

streamsorpathsforevaluating

circulation,eventhoughtheprogram

cananalyzemorecircuits.Results

areshowninTable2.

Analysisofresults.

Boilerheat

transfercalculationshavetobe

donebeforeacirculationstudycan

beundertaken.Themaximumsteam

generation

case

is

usually

evaluated.

The

heattransfer

calculations

give

the

steam

generation,heatfluxandgas

temperaturesineachsection.Inwatertubeboilers,the

heatfluxinsidethetubesiscomputed,whileinfire

tubeboilerstheheatfluxoutsidethetubesisimportant.

Page 5

x=steamquality,fraction(x=1/CR)

GiGi=massvelocitylb/ft

2

hr

di=tubeinnerdiameter,in.

Forexample,thecriticalheatfluxatasteam

pressureof1,000psi(latentheat=650Btu/lb),di=

1.5in.,Gi=600,000lb/ft

2

hrandx=0.2is:

qa=0.00633x10

6

x650x1.5

0.1

x0.6

51

(10.2)

=2.43x10

6

Btu/ft

2

hr.

Asdiscussedearlier,theaboveequationmaybe

usedtostudytheeffectofvariousvariablesinvolved

andnotfordeterminingcriticalheatflux.Actual

allowablecriticalheatfluxesaremuchloweronthe

orderof10%to30%oftheabovevalue.

Firetubeboilers.Asimilarproceduremaybeadopted

forfiretubeboilers,Fig.2.Thefrictionallossesinthe

evaporatorsectionareusuallysmall.Theheatfluxatthe

tubesheetinletishighandmustbeconsidered.CR

rangesfrom15to30duetothelowsteampressures

comparedtowatertubeboilers.Generally,thereisonly

oneevaporatorcircuit.Thecorrelationforallowableheat

fluxbyMotsinkiis:

1

qc=803P

c

x(P

s

/P

e

)

0.35

x(1P

s

/P

c

)

0.9

WhereP

S

andP

c

aresteampressureandcritical

pressureofsteam,psia.At400psia,q

c

=803x3,208x

(400/3,208)

0.35

x(1400/3,208)

0

.

9

=1.1x10

6

Btu/ft

2

hr.

Asmentionedearlier,theactualallowablefluxwould

be10%to30%ofthisvalue.

Forcedcirculationboilers.Inforcedcirculationsys

tems,thelossesaredeterminedasindicatedabove.

However,theavailableheadisgenerallytoosmall,soa

circulatingpumpisadded(Fig.3)toensuredesiredCR.

TheCRmaybeselectedunlikeinanaturalcirculation

system,whereitisarrivedatthroughaniterativepro

cess.Iftheevaporatorcircuitsareofdifferentlengths

thenorificesmayalsobeaddedinsidetubestoensure

flowstability.CRcouldrangefrom2to6insuchsys

temstoreduceoperatingcosts.

Pumpreliabilityisamust.IngasturbineHRSGsthat

usehorizontaltubes,thepressuredropinsidetubesis

quitehighcomparedtoverticaltubesusedinnaturalcirculation

boilers.Toreducethepressuredrop,multiplestreamscouldbe

consideredasshownorthepumpmaybeeliminatedby

locatingthedrumsufficientlyhigh,resultinginanatural

circulationsystem.Finalthoughts.Circulationstudiesare

complexandpreferablydoneusingacomputer.The

analysisofresultsrequiresexperienceandisgenerally

basedonfeedbackfromoperationofsimilarboilersin

thefield.SpecifyingaminimumCRforaboilerisnotthe

rightapproachsinceCRvarieswithdifferentcircuits.

Onehastoreviewtheheatfluxesandsteamqualityat

variouspointsinthesystemtoseeiftherecouldbe

problems.Someevaporatorcircuitscouldbemore

criticalthanothersandrequirecarefulanalysis.For

example,Fig.7showsthefrontwallofapackagedwater

tubeboilerwithcompletelywatercooledfurnacedesign.

Thiswallhasbasicallytwoparallelflowsystems

betweenthebottommuddrumandthesteamdrum,

namelythetubesthatconnectthebottomheadertothe

topheaderandtheheaderitself,whichhasanLshape.

Flowcalculationsweredoneandorificeswereusedto

ensureproperflowdistributioninalltheheatedcircuits.

LITERATURECITED

1

Ganapathy,V,Steamplantcalculationsmanual,2nd

edition,MarcelDekker,NewYork,1994.

2Thom,J.R.S.,"Predictionofpressuredropduring

forcedcirculationboilingofwater,"InternationalJournalof

HeatTransferNo.7,1964.

3.Roshenow,W,andJ.P.Hartnett,Handbookofheat

transfer,McGrawHill,1972.

Theauthor:V.Ganapathyisaheattransfer

specialistwithABCOIndustriesInc.,Abilene,

Texas.Heisengagedintheengineeringofheat

recoveryboilersforprocess,incinerationand

cogenerationapplicationsandpackagedwater

tubesteamgenerators.Healsodevelops

softwareforengineeringofheatrecovery

systemsandcomponents.HeholdsaBTech

degreeinmechanical

engineeringfromIndianInstituteofTechnology,Madras,

India,andanMSc(eng)inboilertechnologyfromMadras

University.Mr.Ganapathyistheauthorofover175articles

onboilers,heattransferandsteamplantsystemsandhas

writtenfivebooks:AppliedHeatTransfer,SteamPlant

CalculationsManual,NomogramsforSteamGeneration

andUtilization,BasicProgramsforSteamPlantEngineers

(bookanddiskette),andWasteHeatBoilerDeskbook,

copiesofwhichareavailablefromhim.Healsohas

contributedseveralchapterstotheEncyclopediaof

ChemicalProcessingandDesigns,Vols.25and26,Marcel

Dekker,NewYork.

Fig.6.Actualvs.allowablequalityandheatfluxvariationwith

furnaceheight.

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