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Running Head: M5A1: QUIZ

M5A1: Quiz
Benjamin McClellan
BUS 554 Change Management
Excelsior College
Dr. J. Tucker

M5A1: Quiz

Introduction
Chapter 8 of Managing Organizational Change (Palmer, 2009) focuses on change management
approaches and the models that support them. Chapter 9 addresses the linkage between organizational
change and vision. This paper will demonstrate comprehension of these two chapters by answering two
questions.

Questions
Question 1
Compare and contrast RAND's Six Steps (2005) and Leppitt's Integrated Model (2006). Be sure to
include an explanation of when an organization would prefer to use one model over the other and the
disadvantages of using each model.
The RAND Six Step Model, as the name includes six steps. These steps; create a sense of
urgency, remove barriers to success, recruit champions, build internal momentum, prove the change
works, and keep experimenting, are a process oriented, step-ordered approach to change management.
Leppitt's Integrated Model, also step-ordered and process oriented, has twice as many steps. Leppit's
model is replete with more considerations for vision, strategy, planning, and assessment.
Both models prioritize creating a sense of urgency for the desired change. In arguably the most
famous change model (Palmer, 2009), Kotter also placed urgency as a top priority in change management.
The "see-feel-change" pattern provides the necessary motivation for change. Virtually every element of
the RAND model is reflected in the Leppit model. Both models are reflective of the change management
approach to organizational change. This approach and its models support the director image of change.
Given the absence of long-term attention in its steps, the RAND model is more advantageous to
an organization requiring first-order change. The organization that knows that it needs to change, and
quickly, can use this model to start purposeful change and support it along the way. First-order change has
as its aim, maintaining the status-quo, or, in other words, making the necessary changes to allow the

M5A1: Quiz

process to run as usual. Conversely, the Leppit model is slower. The deliberate inclusion of vision,
strategy, and planning are more suited to second-order change.
Both models, like all change management approaches, suffer from being step-ordered. Critics of
change management suggest that organizational development is more efficient in transforming an
organization, that change management is faddish and the domain of consultants. It is unclear if the order
of the steps in the model are correct, if the steps occur simultaneously, or clear measures at each step.

Question 2
A vision is intended to provide direction to an organization. However, some organizations create vision
statements but do not work to ensure that the vision statement is an integral component of the
organization's strategy. Explain how an organization can utilize its vision statement so that it becomes
a central component of its strategic plan.
"It is imperative that change is aligned with a clear vision and business strategy and that
subsequent activities and interventions are coordinated and consistent." This Victor and Franckeiss quote
speaks to the integral linking of vision and change. Question two asks just how the two are correctly
linked. Before an organization can attempt to link change to its vision however, its vision must be clear
and achievable. The useful vision statement provides the why and how. Put another way, vision provides
guidance to an organization by articulating what it wishes to attain. It serves as "a signpost pointing the
way for all who need to understand what the organization is and where it intends to go" (Nanus, 1992).
The picture of the future for an organization reflects possibility, desirabiltiy, actionabiltiy, and
articulation (Palmer, 2009). Vision is further expanded to include why the change is needed, the aim of
the change, and the actions that will be taken (Pendlebury, 1998). These descriptions are telling when
considering the importance of vision in a strategic plan. Strategy is the combination of ends, ways and
means. One cannot separate vision from strategy because there are many overlapping interface points; a
succesful change strategy likely has at its root, a clear vision. So to does a clear vision, recognize
resources (means) and capability (ways) to acheive a goal (end). Vison and strategy are not one and the
same, but there interdependence is unavoidable.

M5A1: Quiz

M5A1: Quiz

References:

Leppitt, N. (2006). Challenging the code of change: Part 1. Praxis does not make perfect. Journal of
Change Management 6(2), 121142.
Light, P. C. (2005). The four pillars of high performance: How robust organizations achieve extraordinary
results. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Nanus, B. (1992). Visionary leadership: Creating a compelling sense of direction for your organization.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Palmer, I., Dunford, R., & Akin, G. (2009). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives
approach (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Pendelbury, J., Grouard, B., and Meston, F. (1998). The ten keys to successful change management.
England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd