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: Teresina Ika Pertiwi


: 101511123039


: AJ A Public Health 2015


: Organization

Below is a small sample about organizing that occurred and the flow of the
grant commands. On the position of the A is the highest position in the
organization. The position of A work based on the assignment, staple, and its
functions (in Indonesian called TUPOKSI) because of that the position can
be moved though without the commands.
Someone in the lowest hierarchy level will not be moved if there is
no command. B will only move when A commanded the position of B, and 1,
2, and 3 will

move if



grant command like this is the same


them. The


of the

command line that used by military

organizations. The command can only be given at least a level or two above level.

In the "New Public Administration" book describes the Debureaucracy and

the sense of Hierarchy. When using a theory based on the book it is said that the

positions 1, 2, and 3 are no longer had to wait for orders from the leader
or supervisor. Positions 1, 2, and 3 have their own tasks, staple, functionality and
already have their own job description. The task, staple, functionality and the job
description makes them not to work because of orders but because it was clear the
task, staple, and function as well as a job description.

1. Definition of Organization
The organization is a system that consists of the unitary process of its
members to achieve a purpose. The system here is more emphasis on the
process that exists in the organization.

2. The Evolution of Organization Theory

Classical Organization Theory (1930s), this organization theory has a focus on
maximum efficiency organization run for the purpose of financially but this type
of organization ignore members of the organization. In this theory there is already
a specialization in organization and the work on each member still using rational
Neoclassical Organization Theory (1945s), this theory is the development of
Classical Organization Theory by adding the Socioecologycal theory. In the
organization of already existing coordination as well as internal and external
Human Resources Theory (1957), in this theory there is already human
relationships, relationships between groups, or human relationships with groups in
an organization.

Organization Economics Theory (the second half of 20th century), organization at

this theory focus more on the benefits and how does it so that members of the
organization of the worker to manager to act for the benefit of that is the effort or
sacrifice given little but generate a lot of profit.
Modern Structural Organization Theory (after the second war world the second
half of 20th century), organization at this theory focus more on the structure of the
organization that is focused on the position of the Department and existing
processes within the organization.
Power And Politics Organization Theory (1970 through today), the organization is
a complex system which consisted of people and groups that sometimes form a
coalition, from each of the coalition that has a view on the value and the benefit
and value of their own to achieve the goal.

3. The Difference Between The Organizations Theory and The Theory of

Organization theory is more focus on the concept for Organization, while
management is the process of organization including the implementation of
planning, settings, and resources to achieve the goal. If we need to use the concept
were using the corporate governance of the Organization and use of management.

4. Principle Of Organization
The principle of organization is a direction that must be implemented in
an organization so that the objectives of the organization can reach its destination.

Authority and Responsibility

Division Of Work

Unity of Command


Unity of Direction

Esprit De Corps

Subordination Of Individual Interests To The Gener


Principle Of Organization

Stability Of Tenure Of Personnel



Scalar Chain

1) Division of Work
The Division of labor based on the workers specialization

2) Authority and Responsibility

Each worker has the authority and responsibility and must carry out its duties
by having good communication so that no individual interests interfere with
the authority and responsibility that has been given.
3) Unity of Command
The workers get orders from superiors in accordance with the command line,
but workers may have more than one task it so that workers know to whom it
should be responsible.
4) Unity of Direction
Each worker know and understands the objectives and the goals of the
organization based on its vision and mission.
5) Subordination Of Individual Interests To The General Interests
The public interest or the interest of the organization is above personal interest
or become the priority because it may inhibit public interest.
6) Remuneration
Remuneration or salary is a very important thing, salary given in accordance
with the contribution given by employees to the Organization.
7) Centralization
All authority and command at the center or at the tops. In addition centralized
there is decentralized. Decentralized is the center boss (the top leader)
authorize the subordinates and it makes the decision-making is located on the
lower level which had been empowered before.
8) Scalar Chain
Scalar chain is the series which is rated from the top position to the bottom
position. The communication must follow the chain. But, if by following the
chain even created slowness, cross-communication can be allowed if approved
by all parties, while the supervisor must be informed.
9) Order
The order will be realized if all workers doing their job with discipline and it
can happen if workers stationed in the right place and the right time.
10) Equity
There are no worker being treated special and they all have to work in
accordance with the policy or standard that has been set.
11) Stability Of Tenure Of Personnel

The rotation and transfer of employees with high intensity tasks can affect the
efficiency of the Organization so that if there is a specific position vacancies,
personnel manager should consider the decision to do the transfer tasks to
other workers.
12) Initiative
The management should give encouragement and it makes the workers can
have the initiative to do his job properly. The officials or workers who were
allowed to create and execute plans will try their best.
13) Esprit De Corps
Management should encourage harmony and general good feelings among
14) Coordination
Coordination is the orderly synchronization, balance, unity of action, all effort
and activity in the pursuit of a common purpose. There is a hierarchy principle
in the form of coordination relationships between superiors and subordinates
who gave rise to the chain of command.
5. The Structure of Organization
The structure of an organization is the manner in which various subunits are
arranged and inter-related. The basic principles are specialization, coordination,
departmentalization, de-centralization and centralization.

The basic principles of the organization




Command Scale
Spent of Control


6. The Structure of Organization

1) Line Organization Structure

Manager (Production)

Manager (Marketing)

Fabrication Foreman
Assembly Foreman
Sales Officer 1




Sales Officer 2


Has only direct vertical relationships between different levels in the

organization. In a line organization authority follows the chain of
command and it has the specific command line.
2) Line and Staff Organization Structure

The line and staff organization is the combination of the line organization
with staff departments that support and advise line departments. There are
two lines of authority which flow at one time in a concern, there are line
authority and staff authority.
3) Bureaucratic Organization Structure
This organization work by using the hierarchy principal.
4) Functional Organization Structure
This structure is the most logical and fundamental form, the supervision is
easy to do, and this is suitable for the Organization of a single location or a
single product. n the structure of this organization when you want to give
the Division a position of command, all divisions should report to the
leadership division and then in the forward to the leadership of the other
divisions so that the command will be given only comes from the
leadership of each division.
5) Divisional Organization Structure
Organization type is commonly used in military organizations. the position
that gives the command must have the same level and each of the
leadership of the Division may provide command on a member below it or
command on the command of other divisions that have the same level.
6) Structure Project
This is an organizational structure that is in a form based on an existing
project and structure similar to the structure of the Division and this is a
temporary organizational structure designed to achieve specific results by
using a specialist team from the different functional areas within the
7) Matrix Organizational Structure
Coordination on line organizational structures occurred between his staff
and staff-a combination of vertical and horizontal lines. This
organizational structure in all levels of positions could give each other

command even workers with lower level can give command on workers
who have a position on it. However, this structure has a weakness that is
too much of his line of command is formed.

7. Organizational Status

Organizational General Status

Formal Organization

Based On The Characteristic
Non Formal Organization

Informal Organization

Public Organization
Based On The Purpose
Business Organization

8. Organizational Culture

Values, norms
and rules that are there or in personal religious beliefs in

Power Dimension

Model of Organization

Role Dimension

Achievement Dimension
Support Dimension

Organizational Measurement




Model Of Organization
1) Power Dimension

This dimension is done by small organizations that have the power of the
dominant, quick reaction against the threat to the Organization, and the
organization moves based on the power and authority of the leader.
2) Role Dimension
In this organization already classifies the duties and functions of each of
its members to reduce conflicts of employees due to the vagueness of
tasks. Excess on this dimension that is a member of the organization
already knows his role while the weakness of the dimension members or
employees with low position feel less believable because it does not give
responsibility to the as well as the risk of error when making a decision to
have a high risk because each member is familiar with the work which has
been determined in advance.
3) Achievement Dimension
Organization in this dimension only result-oriented improvements alone so
it has shortcomings in achieving the goal because the process is not wellorganized.
4) Support Dimension
Organization in this dimension has a warmth and good attention in the
work environment and there is communication and comfort in any
relationship but members of this dimension has a weakness that is purely
subjective in taking the decision because the decision making to be taken
based on compassion.
Organizational Measurement
1) OCP (Organizational Culture Profile). The measurement is done based on
the indicators of the goals of the Organization.

2) OCI (Organizational Culture Inventory). Used to measure member

satisfaction, commitment, clarity of roles, role conflict and perceptions of
the quality of the service organization.
3) OCAI (Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument). Measurement by
using a questionnaire that containing 24 questions in six dimensions.