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Murray Bookchin

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To «KOlVWVlXOr; AvaQxw/lOr; lj Lifestyle AvaQxw/lor;» TOV Murray Bookchin axoieset tva avanocnaato r/llj/la TOV EVQvrEQov OWAOyOV nov tXEl avo[l;El ueoa oto aVYXQovo avaQXlxo xivnua. Foauuevo TO 1995, avro TO OOX[/l1O avaoeoanietac ox; tva XOf1(3,xo EQYaAElO yui tua avaQXlxlj nOAtrtxlj nov 8a (3QiaXErat mivra exixcuon. Qr; vnEV(}V/lWfJ rov (3aatxov TErQanrvxov rwv «avaQX'xwv aQXwv»; rfJr; U/lWfJr; 0fJ/loxQariar;, rov avu-xoauouoo, rov ouvouooxovoiaxoii xotvottouini xai rov EAEV8EQtaXOV XO/l/lOVVWf1ov' wr; vnEV(}V/llOf] TOV XOlVWVlXOV xaQaxrljQa xat noooavatauauou EVOr; ana ta :nAtov OVVa/llXa xai, naQaMfJAa, aOlXfJ/ltva ioxooixa xlvlj/lara.

Meoa ana tnv ol;Eia nOAE/llxlj rov ° TEAEvra[Or; EAw8EQtaXOr; otoyaotn; avrov rov aubva xooananet va 0fJ/ltOvQyljaEl Qljl;Elr; ueoa oto aQxmtAayor; rfJr; avyxvafJr; nov xaQaxrfJQl~El ro aVYXQovo axn(3w/lo. Enavanooooiooice: ro nootavtu: rov, rov KOlVWVlxo AvaQxw/lo, ueoa ana tua xauupaon oto ooaua yta uia mo orXatfJ 8ta/lwfJ xcu ueoa ana tua aovnon rov vmxQxovror; xa8wr; xcu rwv xVQiaQXwv cpEnxonolljaEwv nov ro 0xvQwvovv. To xoaiTEIV rwv aywvt1;O/lEVWV - »a EOW ° Bookchin uouicec va XQOVEI rov "wowva rov XlVOVVOV - Ocv uxooet naQa va aipooa ro XOlVWVlXO "at va oQlO8Erdral oe ax/Of] tu: avro. 0 AvaQxw/lor; nQtnEl va l;avay[VEl KOlVWV'XOr;, va (3QEl tu; Ql~Er; rov xai va naUtpEl yu: tnv OIXOOO/lfJafJ EVOr; /la~IXOV enavaotatixou xlvlj/laror;.

o Murray Bookchin xat oe avro ro aQ8Qo rov nQoana8d va xrvnljaEl rnv xVQ[aQXfJ XOlVWVlXlj auvnoia nov tXEl nAljl;El xcu xouuatui rwv Ql~oanaarwv. 01 laroQlxtr; rov avaspoou; aMa xai fJ EVQv/la8Ela rov (30fJ80vv noo; avro TO oxono. Ana rfJv aMfJ, fJ aVVExljr; Enacplj rov ue tnv nQaY/lanxorfJra rov XOlVWVlXOV avtavonn-

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f.!an:ia, f.!w avayxlj nov LxavonOwutav, f.!£'ta~u aAAWV, an6 tl]v «Kntrixtnon rou WWf.!LOU» 'tOU KQon6'txLV (The Conquest of Bread - Aovbivo, 1913), ceto 'to El organismo economico de fa revolucion (Barcelona, 1936) rou Diego Abad de Santill xm an6 W The Political Philosophy of Bakunin 'tOU G. P. Maximoff) aYYALxrj EXOOOlj roo 1953, 'tQia XQ6vLa f.!E'ta'to 8avaw rou Maximoffn ljf!EQof!YJvia 'tYJe; nQaYf!atLxrje; ovYYQacprje; OEV unaQXEL ornv aYYALxrj f!£'tacpQaoYJ, tmoQEL va EtVm XQ6vLa, (owe; xm oExantEe; vWQL-rEQa). ~UQVEQLXEe; «Evoioe«; nov Evcnotorv», OOOV acpoQu au'ta nov ~EQW qw, OEV ava6U8YJxav xm OEV ;EXWQLoav nO'tE - ax6f!YJ XL av un08E'taf!E on fila 'tEtOLU OQYUVWOYJ 8a f.!nOQOUOE va LOQu8Et xru va Em~rjOEL coro 'tTl «uovuOLXO'tT)'ta» 'tWV qWXEvtQLXWV f!EAWV 'tYJe;.

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OL atOf!LXLmEe; avaQXLxot r]A8av 01:0 ltQOOxrjvLO tl]e; EAEU- 8EQLaxrje; oQaoYJe; XUQtWe; 010 moxEe; aUSYJf.!EVYJe; XOtVWvLxrje; XatamOA~e; xm UcpEOT)e; tou f!a~LXOU xLvr]f!atOe; - xru rors EOQaoav XUQtwe; we; 'tQOf!OXQa'tEe;. ~tYJ faAAta, rnv Ionovt« xm ue; HIlA Ot atOf!LXL01:'Ee; avuQXLXot EOQaoav us 'tQOf!OXQaUXEe; JtQa~ELe; JtOU Eowoav 01:0V avaQxwf!6 'tYJ cprjf!YJ f!Lae; ~tmYJe;, anELAYJUxrje; ouvcouootcc. Autot rtou O1:QacpYJxav omv roouoxQat(a OEV rj'tav rooo at EAEu8EQLaxot oOOLaALmEe;, 000 cotsYVWOf!EVOL UvtQEe; xm yuvatXEe; nou XQYJOLf!oJtOtOUoav 6JtAa xm EXQYJxuxa we; f!EOO JtUAYJe; evovn« O1:Le; aOLXtEe; xm W CPLALO1:a"(of!o tl]e; EJtOxrje; 'toue;, 8EwQWvtae; O'tL oQouv 01:0 ovouo 'tYJe; «JtQoJtayuvoae; fiE oQaoYJ». Qmooo 'tLe; nEQLOOO'tEQEe; cpOQEe; 0 mOf.!LXLmLXOe; avaQXLOf!Oe; EXCPQa~O'tav f.,lEOU aJt6 f!OQcpEe; JtOALnmLxrje; naQQEXALOT)e; xm avuJtaxorje;. '000 Ot avaQXLXO( Exavcv rnv Enacprj toUe; fiE W oYJf!omo XWQO, 't600 cvcouotcv f!EOa 01:0 avaQXLx6 XtvYJf!a 0 aWf!LxLOf!Oe;.

To OYJf.!EQLV6 cvuoououxo XOlVWVLX6 JtAatOLo E;YJYEi aQxE'ta xaAU rnv avaouOT) EVOe; VEOU cpmVOf!EVOU orov EUQw-af!EQLXUVLXO avaQXLof!6 nou OEV f!JtOQEt va aYVOYJ8Et: tl] OLUOOOT) 'tOU atOf!LXLOtLXOU avaQXLOf!OV. ~E fila EJtOX~ JtOU ux6f!a xm «a~LOOE~a01:Ee;» f!OQcpEe; oomaALOf!OV XUQrjooouv U'tUX'tYJ UJt0XWQYJOYJ an6 XU8E aQxrj nou 8a f!JtOQOUOE va 8EWQYJ8Et QL~OOJtamL-

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AocpaAWe;, 0 LOWAOYLXOe; mOf!LXLOf!Oe; OEV SE8wQLaOE evrsAWe; xmu 'tYJ oLuQXELa 'tYJe; JtEQLOOOU av-rrje;, 'tYJe; oaQwuxrje; XOLvwvLxrje; avmaQuxrje;. IlOAAOt mOf!LXL01:Ee; avaQXLXOt, HOLxa orov ayyA.6cpwvo xoouo, E1tljQEumYJxav cero ne; LOEEe; rou nov Aox xm rou T~ov ~'tLOuaQ't MLA, xa8we; xm aJt6 rov tOLO rov ~'ttQVEQ. faAouXYJf!EVOL us 'tYJV JtaQaoooYJ 'tOU mOf!LXLOf!OV, fiE 6LacpOQEtLX6 ~a8f.!0 acpootWoY)e; O1:Le; EAEU8EQLaXEe; aJt6IjJELe; OXOQmoav orov avaQXLXO oQ~Ovta. ~tl]V JtQa~Y), 0 avaQxo-mof.!LXLOf!6e; yOrj'tEUOE rirouc, OJtwe; 0 Benjamin Tucker mLe; HIIA, Evae; oJtaMe; f!Lae; YQacpLxrje; Exooxrje; roo EAEV8EQOU ovtuvcoVWf!OV, xm YJ Federica Montseny ornv Ioacvto, rtou OVXvu Ttf!y)OE tu mLQvEQLxa 'tl]c; mmEUW OXEMv f!EXQL tu aXQa. IlaQu TLe; Of.!OAOyLEe; ntOtl]e; rot«; 010 f.!La avaQxo-xO[.l[.lOUVLmLxrj LOWAoyta, VL'tOE"(XOt moxamEe; 6Jtwe; YJ 'E[.lf!a fx6Avt[.lav JtUQEf!Hvav OVYYEVEte; oro JtvEV[.la fiE roix mO[.lLXL01:Ee;.

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X~, Ta ~l]T~!laTa rou TQ6no'll ~w~£ (lifestyle) YLa aA.A.l] !lLa qJoQa fXTOn~O'llV Tl]v XOLVWVLX~ oQa011 XaL Tl]v EnavaCYtaTLx~ noA.mx~ orov avaQXLo!l6. LTL£ naQaoomaxa mO!lLxLCYtLXE£-qJLA.fA.E'lJElEQE£ HIlA XaL BQETavCa, l] OfxaETCa tou '90 nA.l]!l!l'llQ~fTaL coro fYWXEVTQLXOU£ avaQXLxou£ no'll -nEQa ceto Tl] qJaVTaXTEQ~ QL~OonaCYtLx~ Ql]TOQLX~ roue- XaA.A.LfQYOUV svov 611'L!l0 avaQXomO!lLXLO!l6, rtou Ela ovoudoco lifestyle avaQXLO!l6. OL aOXOA.Cf£ roo !lE TO EYW XaL Tl] !lOVa~\tx6Tl]Ta rou XaL TL£ noA.U!lOQqJE£ aVTLA.~1I'fL£ nfQC aVTCCYta011£ anooaElQwvo'UV O1:aElfQa TO oooicA.LCYtLx6 xaQaXT~Qa Tl]£ EA.f'llElEQLax~£ naQaoo011£. 'OXL A.Ly6TfQO an' 6TL 0 !laQ~LO!l6£ XaL aA.A.a OOmaA.LOTLXa QfU!laTa, 0 avaQXLo!l6£ !lnOQEC va Enl]QfaCYtEC svtovo an6 TO aCYtLx6 nfQL~aA.A.OV, 01:0 oaoto ElEWQl]TLXa aVTLTCElETaL, !lE anOTEA.EO!la l] a'll~aV6!lEVl] «EOWTfQLx6Tl]Ta» XaL 0 vaQxLomo!l6£ Tl]£ YfvLa£ 'tWV YLanl]OWV va EX0'UV aqJ~OfL rn O'IlJ.taOLa TO'll£ navw Of noA.A.OU£ Ol]A.W!lEVO'll£ QL~oonaCYtf£. E~ELOLXf'll!lEVO£ T'UXOOLWXTLO!l6£, nQoownLx~ xma~Cw011, !lLa anoCYtQoqJ~ CYtl] ElEwQCa naQa~fva o'UVaqJ~£ !If TL£ aVTL-oQElOA.0YLXE£ TaOEL£ rou !lfTa!lOVTEQVLO!lOU, U!lVOL O1:l]V EA.A.fL1I'l] ElEWQl]TLX~£ O'UVOX~£ (nA.O'llQaA.L(J!l6£), !lLa ~amxa anOA.LTLXl] XaL aVTL-OQyavWTLx~ orpootoxrn om qxrvtuoto; Tl]V EmEl'll!l(a XaL rnv EX01:aOl] XaL !lLa 61..0 XaL mo £OW01:QEqJ~£ E!l!lOV~ !If Tl]V xaEll]!lfQLV6Tl]Ta, aVTaVaXA.OUV TO fnaxElE£ TC!ll]!la no'll l] XOLVWVLX~ aVTCOQa011 EXfL CYtOLX(OEL 01:0V £'llQw-a!lfQLxavLxo avaQXLo!l6 TL£ 'tfA.fma(f£ OVo OfxaETCE£.

Kurd Tl] OLaQxHa Tl]£ OfxaETCa£ rou '70, YQaqJfL l] Katinka Matson, l] O'UYYQaqJEa£ !lLa£ EmTO!l~£ TEXVLXWV nQaxTLxwv yw 3tQoowmx~ 1I''llXOA.OYLX~ avanT'U~l], O'UVE~l] «uui ai;,LOa1Jf1E{WiYj aJJ.ayrj mov iQono nov aVUAa/1j3aVO/1ame r:ov WViO tuu; mov xoouo. H oexaetta r:ov '60», O'UVEX~fL, «acpoauv8Yjxe mov nOAItixo axuj3ta/10, to BleTVa/1, tnv oixosovto; ta be-ins (XOlVOj3taXE~ ovvxeviocoaeic], U~ xouuovvei; r:a vaoxontxa XiA. ~rj/1eQa otoeipouaace xoo; r:ov WWUQIXO eauto tuu; Ava~Yjr:ov/1e r:ov

osno-noooosoousu», i1JV nQoaw:Jttxrj j3eAi{waYj, xnv nQoaw:Jttxrj avanivi;,Yj sau tnv m;;JOaw:Jttxrj OtacpWTlarJ».4 H !lLXQ~ a~ 1I'E'llOOqJLA.OOOqJLX~ nQaY!lmECa Tl]£ Matson, rtou YQaqJTl]xE YLa 'to nfQwoLx6 Psychology Today, XaA.UJTTfL xaElf TEXVLX~ cero TO ~fA.OVLO!l6 W£ TO I-Ching, an6 TEXVLXE£ amo-nQaY!laTw011£ W£ Tl] QfqJA.E~OA.oyCa. AvaOQO!lLXa, Ela !lnoQouof XaA.A.LCYta va EXfL O'U!l3tEQLA.a~fL 'tOY lifestyle avaQXLO!l6 OE a'llT~ Tl]V EmTo!l~ Tl]£ fvoooxomx~£ UJTVW011£, l] oxoto avanaQaYfL X'llQCw£ LOfE£ nEQC mO!lLX~£ amovo!lCa£ XaL 6XL TO aCTl]!la Tl]£ XOLVWVLX~£ fA.f'llOfQCa£. H 1I''llX08EQanECa OE 6A.E£ TL£ fXqJaVOEL£ XaA.A.LEQYfC Evav WWCYtQE~ «ernrto- ztou Y'UQEUfL tnv mrrovoutc OE !lLa EqJl]O'UxaO!lEVl] 1I''llXOA.OYLX~ o'UVO~Xl] O'UVaLoEll]!laTLX~£ amaQXfLa£ - 6XL TOV XOLvwvLxa nQooaVmOA.LO!lEVO Eam6 ztou aVrurt'1JOOETaL Of O'UVO~XE£ fA.f'UOEQCa£. LTOV lifestyle avaQXLO!l6 W£ 1I''llX08EQanf(a, TO fYW ECVaL Ton08fTl]!lEVO anEvaVTL 01:0 0'UA.A.oYLx6. 0 fam6£ anEVaVTL O1:l]V xowrovtc, To nQoowmx6 anEvaVTL 01:0 XOLVOTLX6.

To fYW - !lE !lEYaAUTfQl] aXQL~ELa, l] fvoaQxw~ rou orou; OLaqJoQO'll£ TQ6no'll£ ~w~£ - EXfL Y(VH Eva id & eacuatae· nus'ta~A.l]TO YLa noA.A.ou£ avaQXLXOU£ !lETa Tl] OfxaETCa rou '60, nou xaVO'llV Tl]V EnaqJ~ us Tl]V avaYXl] YLa !lLa oQyaVW!lEVl], O'UA.A.OYLX~, nQoYQa!l!lmLX~ aVTCCYtaOl] CYtl]V 'llnaQXO'lloa XOLVWVLXtl Ta~l]. Aon6vO'llA.E£ «OLaOl]A.WOEL£», aoxonE£ anOOQaOH£, !lOQqJE£ amOEnL~E~aLW011£ XaL Eva£ noA.U nQoowmx6£ «EJTaV-EnOLXLO!l6£» Tl]£ Xa8l]!lEQLV~£ ~W~£ O'U!l~LWVO'llV naQaA.A.l]A.a !lE OLacpoQa QfU!lma 1I''llX08EQanELa£, new age XaL aME£ WWCYtQfqJEL£ EVaOXOA.~OH£ Tl]£ ~aQLECYtl]!lEVl]£ YEVLa£ TWV baby boomers (OL O11!lEQLVOC nEVl]VTaQl]Of£) xa8w£ XaL Tl]£ nEQLqJl]!ll]£ rEvLa£ X (20 !lE 30). L~!lEQa a'llT6 nou nEQvafL YLa avaQXLo!l6£ ornv A!lEQLX~ XaL 61..0 XaL nfQLoo6TEQO orqv E'llQwnl] ECVaL nfQ(nO'll Eva£ Evoooxomx6£ nEQoovaA.LO!l6£ rtou 'llnoTL!la Tl]V 'llnfu81Jvl] XOLVWVLX~ O1:QaTE'llOl]· MLa o!laoa ouvdvrnorj; !lE oLaqJoQa

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«aVEI:;EAtyX't0».5 Ot aoxonwe::; nEQLJtAaVW[lEVEe::; LCEEe::; rou xrrruA~YOllV O't11v av'tLA11'f!11 O'tL 11 aV'tLO'ta011 nQEnEL anuQUl't11'ta vc aJtO'tEAEL EVUV UV'tUQ'tLXO nOAE[lO nOll ELVUL nUV'tO'tE naQwv - XUL nOll uvunocpEllX'ta 11UU'tUL.

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H L()EOAOYLX~ rou; YEVEaAOYLa ELVUl flumxu CPlAEAE1J8Eg11, 8E[lEALW[lEV11 ndvco 0't0 [lv80 EVOe::; anOAll'tU UlJ'tOVO[lOll rrrouou roo onoto» 'ta m't~[la'ta YLa all'tOxu80QlO[l0 XllQWVOV'tm ano Ul:;lW[la'tLXU «cpllmxu ()LXUlW[la'tU», [lLa «EYYEV~ UI:;(U» ~ OE EVU l'tLO EXAEmllO[lEVO EnLnE()O, urto EVU ()Lm0811'tLXO xovnovo l()EaALO'tLXO EYW nou nUQUYEL OA11 T11V nguY[la'tLXO't11TU nou E(VUL 6llVa'tOV va YVWQ~Oll[lE. AlJ'tEe::; oi nUQuoomaXEe::; unO'f!ELe::; smnA£OllV nuvw O'tO «Evo» tou Mal:; L'tLQVEQ, to onoto ~lOl.QU~E-' 'tal us 'tOY llnUQI:;LO[lO [lLa tU011 vo unoQQocpu OA11 't11V nQuY[laUXO't11'tU [lEOU rou, AEe::; XUl to oiiumrv XLv~811XE uno 'tLe::; El'tLAOYEe::; rou UlJ'to-nQOO()LOQLO[lEVOll orouou,

IILO nQoocputU Egya nrivco orov lifestyle avagXLO[lO, YEVLXU, nagU[lEg~ollV 'to 11YE[lOVLXO «Eve» rou L'tLQVEQ nou EVOW[lU'tWVEL 'ta nuV'tu o» XUL ()latYIQEL rnv EYWXEV'tQlX~ TOU E[lcpu011 XUL 'tELVOllV ngoe::; 'tOY llnagI:;W~o, avuxllxAWVOllV rou; xutuoramaxove::;, ~nA£xollV ~OU()LO[lO, 'tUO'LO~O, uV'tL-oQ80AOYLO~0 XUL nQw'toyoVLO~O - ~ O1JV()UU~OUV OAU UlJ'tU OE ()LUCPOQOllC::; ~u8[love::; OE ~LU OLXOll~EVLX~ oovnu. Ot xorvorome; roue, onwe::; 8u ()OV~E, CPEQOllV tn (XV11 ~lae::; «ngo-'t11e::;-mwoEwe::;» El'tLO'tQOCP~C::; OE EVU

'f!EUOWVU~U onwe::; «XOAEx'tL~a» Xat «affinity group» *. EVUe::; 'f!llXLo~oe::; ztou UAU~OVLXU XAEllU~EL 't11 ()O~~, t11V oQyuvwo11 Xat't11V uvu~LI:;11 0t11 ()11~omu OCPULQU' XUL ~La nat()LX~ xaQu YLU VEaVLXU Ev8v[lLU.

LlJVEL()11'tU ~ ~11, nOMo( lifestyle UVUQXLXO( EXCPQU~OlJV nEQLoOO'tEQO t11V nQooEYYL011 rou MLOEA <l>OllXO YLU 't11v «nQoowl'tLx~ avuuxno», nagu T11v XOlVWVLXlj Enuvuma011, TUY~EVOl xu8we::; ELvm OE ~LU nvuqxrnxr] XUL XOO~LX~ XQLUXlj 't11e::; EI:;OllOLUe::; we::; 'tEtOlUe::;, nUQu OE EVU u(tYI~U Yla tYI 8EO~LO~EV11 EV()UVUIlW011 rcov xa'tamEO~Evwv IlEOU uno AaixEe::; O1JVEAEVOELe::;, O1JIl~OVAla lj / XUL O1JVOIlOOnOV()LEe::;. L'tO ~E'tQO rtou UlJ't~ 11 'tU011 unoxAE(EL 't11v aA118LV~ ()uvm6't11ta ~LUe::; XOlVWVLXlje::; EnuvuO'tu011e::; - El'tE we::; XUU 'to UVECPLX'tO El'tE WC::; EVU «qxrvtuotuxr» - UnO()llVU~WVEL 'to oomuALO'tlxO lj XOIlIlOllVLO'tLxo uVUQXLOIlO IlE IlLU 8EIlEALW()11 EVVOlU. L't11v nQuY~a'tlxo't11'ta, 0 <l>ouxo nvcerniooat ~LU nQoonuxlj onou «rJ aviiotaon DE (3QlmaTat xote Of uta eiorJ f~WTfQtxorrJTa~ OfaxiO'Y} W rrJv f~ovola ... 'Etoi Of V vnaQXfl evas; uovo [ota(3aof: OtXOVflEVtXO~!] tonoc rrJ~ f1EyaArJ~ AQV1JOrJ~, OVTE 17 1jJvxrj rrJ~ E~iYfQOrJ~, uta nrJyrj OAWV rwv otaoeow rj evai; oxeu»; VOflO~ trp; enavdataonc», Ka8we::; EL[laO't£ OAOl EYXAW~LOIlEVOl . [lEOU O't11v navtUXov nUQovoa uyxaALu IlLUe::; EI:;OUO(Ue::; tOOO xooIlLxlje::;, XWQLU ne::; lln£Q~oMe::; XUL'ta ()LcpoQovIlEVU TOll <l>ollx6, 11 UV'tLO'tu011 ~ue::; YLVE'tUL OAOXA11Qw'tlXU nOAll()LaOnUO~Ev11 xm nUQu01JQo~UO'tE avwcpEAa UVU[lEOa O't11v «corouovcoon» xm to

*( l::t.M.): Ta affinity group ~ grupos de affinidad ID'0Qouv v« ~E1U<PQamouv ws "O~(\I\ES O'UyyEVELUS»··· 'O~WS Jt(las aJto<p1Jy~v OUYXUOEWV TO a<prjvw ws EXEl. AUTES Ol o~aOES lOQu8'lXUV coto rnv LOJtUVlXrj FAI (IB'l(llxrj AvuQXlxrj Ouoonovotc). AJt01EAouv Eva TUJtO oQyavwO'1S nou =0 T!] flla OlaT!]QEL TO JtOAITlXO TOU JtQomwa )tal une) T'lY aM!] lO(lUEI Eva ~afl~e) "Ollt0YEYElaxriS» O'UyyEVELas. O, Ol-'aliES rjTav I-'lXQES, uutovouec, XOlyoB,UXES xcu cq.lEOO&l1J..loxQanxE;. «Luvouci~£l rnv E:rravautanxr] 9Ewg(a IlE TOV Erravumuu'X,o TQono l;wr]s orqv xa8'lflEQlvrj TIlS (YUID'EQl<pOQa. ~'ll-'101JQYEL Evav EAEU(JEQO XolQO orov OJtOLO Ol EJtUVuatUtE; !Anogouv va savacptl<lSOUV roue EUUtOU; 10V; at0f..llXa 'X.aL EJtCOlJ; W£ XQl.VWVlXU ovro» (A,,01J MaQi;{(mj! Murray Bookchin, oru EM'lVlXU =6 TIl ~LEIlvrj Blj3AL08rjx'l Xat DE I-'£tU<PQUO'1 T01J 0flLAOU BavliuAWV ElwoaAOVLX'l£).

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bE XQ1]OLflOnOLoutav EUQEW£ ano tOU£ 'EAAl]VE£ CPLAOOOcpOU£· ovrox, bEY avacpEQEtm xov oirte oro LatOQLXO AEI;LXO tWV EAAl]VLXWV <JhAOOOCPLXWV 'Oocov tOU F. E. Peters. H uutovouio, onw£ xru l] EAEu8EQ(a (liberty), avacpEQEtm orov avbQa (li tl] yuvaLxc) tOY onoio/ rnv onoLa 0 nAatWVa£ ELQwvLxa anoxaAouoE «acpivr1] TOV EaVTOV TOV» flta ouv8lixl] «xata T1]V OJTo{a 1] XaAVTEQ1] aQxrj T1]C; av8QwJTlv1]C; 1jJvxrjc; EAEYX,El T1] XElQOTEQ1]». AXOfll] xm yta toy nAatWVa, l] nQoona8ELa va EmtEux8E( l] uurovoutc flEoa cero rnv xUQLaQx(a tOU xa8Evo£ YLa toy EautO tOU OUVLatOUOE Eva naQabol;o, «yta TOV axpevrn vmiQXEl EJT{01]C; ° 60'15- AOC; xai yia TO 60'15..1.0 ° oxpevtn; sau OJTWC; xcu va TO JTOV/-lE TO iva JTQOOWJTO aJTOTEAEl avayxaia JTQOVJT08E01] TOV aMov» (Republic, ~L~A(O 4, 431). XaQaXtl]QLatLXa, 0 Paul Goodman, Eva£ ~amxa at0flLXLatli£ avaQXLXOe;, bLaXl]QuOoEL OtL «yea ueva 1] xVQla aQxrj TOV avaQXlO/-lOV <5Ev eivcu 1] EAw8EQ{a aMa 1] autovouia, 1] txavotnta va aQXll;ElC; uta 6QaOT1]QIOT1]Ta xai va T1]V 6IEXJTEQatWVElC; ue TO 61XO oov /-lOVa61Xo TQOJTO» - flta anoljJl] rtou ovunQoownEUEL evov EatEt aAAa 0XL xru evo» XOLVWVLXO srmvuatatl]."

Evr» l] mrrovoutc OXEt~Etm nQocpavw£ us to aUtEI;Oumo atOflO, l] EAEu8EQ[a bLaAEXtLxa ouvuqxuve, to atOflLXO us to OUAAOYLXO. H MI;l] EAEu8EQ(a (freedom) EXEL to avaAoyo tl]£ oro EAAl]VLXa «EAEu8EQ[a» (EAAl]VLXa oro XE[flEVO) xm aVtAEL cero t1] fEQflavLxli Freiheit, svov oQo nou aXOfll] btatl]QE( flLa XOLvottxr] (gemeinschaftliche) xataywyli cero tl] ~wli xm toU£ VOflOU£ tcov CjJUAWV nov TEutOVWV. 'Ourv avacpEQEtm oro atoflO, l] EAEu8EQLa (freedom) Etm bLatl]QEL flLa OUAAOYLXli li XOLVWVLxli EQfl1]vE[a trov Xata~OAwv xm tl]£ avamul;l]£ autov tOU orouou W£ Eautov. ~tl]V «EAEU8EQ[a» 0 a'tOflLXO£ EautO£ bE ffiEXEtm anEVavtL li flaxQLa coro tl] OUMOYLXOtl]ta aAAa OUyxQotE(tm OE onunvnxo ~a8flo - XaL OE flLU OQ80AOYLXli xowcovto, auto 8a nQaYfla'twVOtav - cero tl] bLXli roo XOLVWVLXli vnaQI;l]. H EAEU-

Au't'oVOf.liu 11 EA£u9£Qiu;

XWQLe; va nECjJtouflE orqv nay[ba tOU XOLVWVLXOV bOflLOflOV nou ~MnEL xa8E Xa't1]yoQ[a we; Eva nQo'Cov flLa£ bEboflEV1]£ XOLVWVLXli£ tal;l]£, E(flaatE unoXQEwflEVOL va ava~1]tliOoUflE svov OQLOflO yta to «EAEV8EQO atOflo». Iloic l] «rojuxornr« I1EtatQEnEtm OE ov xm xatw cero nOLEe; nQoiin08EoEL£ E(vm EAEV8EQl];

"Otov, AOLJtOV, OL lifestyle avaQXLxo[ ~l]tOVV autOVOI1La naQa EAEu8EQLa, xavouv tou; nAovOLou£ XOLVWVLXOV£ OUVELQI10Ve; tl]£ EAEu8EQ(a£. ~tl]v nQaYl1anxotl]ta, l] OlJI1EQLVli ata8EQli cvcoxLxli tU!lnavoxQouo(a Yla rnv mrrovoutc naQa YLa t1]v XOLVWVLxli EAEu8EQ[a (freedom) bEY !lnoQE[ va ayvo1]8E[ w£ xan to tuxaLo, OUYXExQLI1EVa atL£ AYYAO-A!lEQLxavLxE£ nOLxLALE£ t1]£ EAEu8EQlaxli£ OXEljJl]e;, onou l] LbEa tl]£ aUtOVO!lLa£ aVtLatOlXE[ mo otsvd orqv nQoowmxli EAEU8EQ[a (liberty). H Q~a tl]£ ~Q(OXEtm orn QW!la'Lxli autoxQatoQLxli nagabool] tl]£ libertas, onou to anEQConaato EYW ELvm «EAEV8EQO» va Xa'tEXEL tl] blXli tOU nEQLouoLa - xm va LxavonOLEL tL£ nQoownLxE£ tOU EI1110VE£. ~li!lEQa, to ato!lo oro onoto XOQl]yovvtm «xuQlaQXlxa bLxmwl1ata» 8EwQE(tm ceto nOAAov£ lifestyle avaQXLxov£ nvnflenxo OXt !lOVO oro KQato£ aAAa xm ornv (bta rnv xorvcovto;

Auat1]Qa xa80QLO!lEVl], l] EAA1]Vtxli MI;l] outovoutc; 01]l1aC- VEL «avEl;aQtl]OCa», uaovoorvtce; Eva aut6-xa80QL~0I1EVO EYW, aVEl;aQtl]tO ceto onOLablinotE OXEOlJ avtaMaYli£ li E!lJtLatOaVVl]£ croix aAAou£ YLa tl] bLatliQl]a1l rou, ~E OXEOlJ us ooc yvwQ~w,

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8EQLa E'tm bEV uJ'HiYE'tm O"tT]V EAEu8EQLa 'tau aLO!tOU aAAU. unobT]AWVEL rnv :n:QaY!tu't(j)o~ 'tT]£.

H aUYXUOT] !tE'ta~u amOVO!tLa£ xm EAEu8EQLa£ ELvm E:n:LOT]£ :n:QOCjlav~£ O"tT]V «nOAmx~ 'tOU AW!tlXLO!tOV» (The Politics of Individualism - POI) 'tT]£ L. Susan Brown, !tLa :n:QooCjlaLT] :n:Qoo:n:u8ELa va aQ8Qw8EL xm va avaJ't'tux8EL DLE~ODLXU Eva£ Bamxu aLO!tLXLO"tLXO£ avaQxw!to£, :n:ou oiotooo DLaLT]QEL XU:n:OLE£ XaLaBOAE£ a:n:o 'tOY avaQxoxo!t!touvw!to.7 Av 0 lifestyle avaQXLO!tO£ XQELU~E'tm Eva aXaDT]!taixo YEVWAOYLXO DEv'tQo, 8a 'to BQEL omv :n:Qoo:n:u8ELU 'tOU va auYXWVEVOEL 'tOY M:n:aXOUVLV xm 'tOY KQO:n:O'tXLV !tE 'tOY nov ~'tLouaQ't MLA. A},L!tOVO, EOW u:n:UQXEL Eva :n:QoBAT]!ta nou ELvm XU'tL :n:aQa:n:uvw coro axaDT]!ta·Lxo. To EQYO 'tT]£ Brown Ex8E'tEL 'to OQLO 0"t0 O:n:OLO aV'tLA~1jJEL£ 'tT]£ :n:Qoowmx~£ amovo!tLa£ EQxoV'tm 010 Q~~T] us aV'tLA~1jJEL£ 'tTJ£ XOLVWVLX~£ EAEu8EQLa£. 'O:n:w£ xm omv 0 Goodman EQ!tT]VEUEL 'tOY avaQXLo!to W£ iuo CjlLAOOOCjlLa 0XL XOLVWVLX~£ EAEu8EQLa£ aAAu :n:Qoowmx~£ EAEu8EQla£. Moe :n:QOOCjlEQEL E:n:EL'tCt !tLa LDEa YLa svov «u:n:aQ~Laxo aLO!tLXW!tO» rtou E~u:n:va aV'tL:n:aQaBUAAEL xm !tE 'tOY «AEL'tOUQYLXO aLO!tLXLO!tO» (ri rov «conxo a'to!tLxw!tO rou XaLEXELV» 'tOU C. B. Macpherson) xm!tE 'tOY «XOAEX'tLBLO!tO» - :n:ao:n:aALo!tEvO !tE Ex'tE'ta!tEvE£ OT]!tELWOEL£ ceto 'tT]v 'E!t!ta rXOAV't!tav, T] ccroto !tE xcvsvov 'tQo:n:o bEY ~LaV T] mo Lxav~ oroXUO"tQLa'tOU EAEu8EQLaxou :n:UV8EOU.

o «u:n:aQ~Laxo£ aLO!tLXLO!tO£» 'tT]£ Brown, YQUCjlEL, auvDuu~EL «i1JV axpooioxm Oi1JV aiOluxlj aotovouia xcu tov auto-xadoQLO/lO» rou CjlLAEAEU8EQLO!tOV (POI, OEA. 2). «Evw W,yaAo /liQo~ i1J~ avaQXlxlj~ 8EwQia~ viveuu aVilA1JniO W~ xO/l/lOVVLOilXO ano iOV~ avaQXlxov~ xai iOV~ /l1J avaQXlxov~ xaia iOV ic)to toono» :n:aQaLT]QEl, «auto nov blaxQivEl iOV avaQXLO/lO aito tu; aME~ XO/l/lOVVLOuxi~ CPlAooocpiE~ eivai 1J avaQXlxlj aov/lf3if3aOi1J xai abvOwn1Ji1J v/lvoAoyia ioo atouoani auio-xanooiouoo xat i1J~ autovouuu; To va dow avaQXLXo~ - fire XO/l/lOVVlOilj~,

eite aiouoaooic, euoinouasurcn;» (axo iO mutual, auoukuotnta), ovvbLXaAlOilj~ lj CPE/llVLOilj~ - amuuve: va aspoouoveocu Oi1JV avtoreootnta i1J~ aiO/ltxlj~ cAEv8EQia~» (POI, OEA. 2) - XL EDw XQT]m!to:n:OLEL 'tTl AE~T] EAEu8EQLa ue 'tT]V EVVOLa 'tT]£ truroVO!tLa£. Av xm «1J XQlilXlj iOV avaQXLO/lOV Oi1JV lblWilXlj uuoxinota xai 1J nQow81]01J iWV cAEv8EQwv XOtVOilXWV OIXOVO/llXWV OXiOEWV» (POI, OEA. 2) J'tT]yaLvovv 'tOY avaQXLo!to 'tT]£ Brown J'tEQa cero 'to CjlLAEAEU8EQLO!tO, uJ'tEQa!tuvHm oxrtooo nov aLO!tLXWV DLxmw!tu'twv J'tuvw cero - xm evdvnn 010 - au'tu 'tT]£ auAAOYLXO'tT]'ta£.

<<AViO nov !;EXWQtt;Et [iOV vnaQ!;taXO arouoaauo] ano i1JV XOAEXUf310ilXlj O:n:ilXlj» auVEX~EL T] Brown, «ELvm on OL «to!tLXLO"tE£» - OL avaQXLxoL 0XL AlYO'tEQO aJ'to WU£ CjlLAEAEUtlEQOU£ - «nLOrEVOVV Oi1JV vnaQ!;1J uuu; EOWrEQlxa EVEQyonot1J/liv1J~ xat av8Evilxlj~ cAEv8EQ1J~ f30VA1J01J~, EVW iuo nOMoi XOAEXUf3tore; xaravoovv to av8Qwmvo VnOXcl/lEVO oa va 0X1J/laitr;EiW E!;WrEQlxa ano iOV~ aMov~ - iO dtouo yt autotu; «xataoxcixi~Erat» ano i1J oVMoytXOi1Jia» (POI, OEA. 12, bLvE'tm E!tCjlaOT]). Ouotcouxo, T] Brown aJ'toQQLJ't'tEL 'toy XOAEX'tLBLO!tO - 0XL uovo 'toy xQanxo oomaAw!to, aAAu 'toy XOAEX'tLBLO!tO w£ 'tE'tOLO - !tE 'tTl CjlLAEAEV8EQT] CjlT]!toAoYLa on !tLa XOAEX'tLBLO"tLX~ xotvorvto; auvEJ'tuYE'tm rnv uJ'to'tay~ 'tOU aLO!tOU O"tT]V oucoo, 0 LDLO!tOQCjlO£ LOXUQLO!tO£ 'tT]£ O'tL «ot suo nOMoi XOAEXilf3[(Jii~» J'taQaLT]QOuv La riroun «anAa W~ av8Qwmva iQ/lwa vavayiov xat af3aQia~ naoaooooueva ueoa 0i0 QEV/la i1J~ iotoouu» (POI, OEA.12) aJ'to'tEAEl'tO J'tQOXEL!tEVO. 0 ~'tUALV BEBma ELXE am~ rnv OJ't'tLx~, 'to LDLO xm J'tOAAOL !t:n:OAOE~LXOL, !tE 'tT]v Em~oA~ nov XOLVWVLXWV DvvU!tEWV J'tuvw O"tL£ aLO!tLXE£ Em8u!tLE£ xru oxoJ'tou£. AAAU'tO LDLO xm OL XOAEX'tL~LO"tE£; ea 'J'tQEJ'tE va ayvo~ooU!tE 'tL£ YEvvmoDwQE£ J'taQabooEL£ tou XOAEX'tL~W!tOU J'tou YVQE- 1jJav !tLa OQ80AOYLX~, DT]!tOXQa'tLX~ XL aQ!tOVLX~ XOLVWVLa - rc oQu!taLa'tou William Morris ri, a£ J'tou!tE, rou Gustav Landauer;

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ELVaL mOLXEL<hoE~ OTL, J'taQa 'tll 80Qu~WOll ELoaywy~ rot:

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To EmXELQllfla 1:1']~ Brown oOl1YEL OE Eva ExJ'tAllxnxa UJ'tEQaJ'tAoumEuflEvo OUflJ'tEQaofla. «Llev eivai rJ ouaoa nov Ofvet aX/llw OTO a TOIW», uxoiiue va AEEL, «aUa /laUov ta atoua

nov Ofvovv /loQCPIj xai neQtexo/levo OTrJV ouaoa: Mia o/laoa eivai tua ovUoy1j atouaw, ttnota xeoioooteoo xai tinota At yoUQO· Llev EXet OUT£:: ~wlj, OUT£:: ovve{orJOrJ otxta TrJ~» (POI, OEA. 12, O(VELaL EflCPaoll). 'OXL flOVO floLa~EL aQxE'ta am~ 11 aJ'tLotsurn oXllflmoJ'toLlloy] ue tnv J'tEQL~Ol1'tll O~AWOllTll~ MaQyxaQEt 8awEQ OTL OEV uJ'taQXEL TE'tOLO J'tQaYfla J'tou AEflE xoivcovto J'taQa flOVO aTOfla, EJ'tL~E~aLWVEL, axoflll, flLa 8EnxLmLx~, J'tQayurrn acpEA~ XOLVWVLX~ fluwJ'tLa flEoa omv onoto TO aUflJ'tav ELVaL OAOXAllQW1:LXa oLaxwQLoflEVO coro 'tllv UALX~ uJ'tomaoll. 0 AQLmOTEAll~, 8a oxerptorov xaJ'tOLo£, EAUOE 'to J'tQo~Allfla orov xawaOLaOE TOV IIAaTwva YLa 1:1'] 0l1flLOUQYLa flLa~ ocpaLQa~ acpaTWV «flOQCPWV» J'tOU 'UJ't~Qxav SEXWQLma aJ'to La ama XaL mEA~ «aVT(YQacpa» TOU~.

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A<pI']IJEVO 01:OV sceoto 1:0V, 1:0 U1:01J0 XUVEl n£ avayxa(E£ XOlVWVlXE£ avacpogE£ nov anElXOV~OVV aV1:0 nov Sa nEgLIJEVE xaVEL£ va VlJvrjOEl Eva£ avagXLxo£ O1:I']V a1:OIJlX01:I']1:a: 01:0- xa01:LXE£ DVVUIJEL£, nov nl']yu~ovv OE Eva IJEyuAo ~a81J0 ano1:o

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~1:I']V ngaYlJanxo1:1']1:a, I'] 8E01'] 1:1']£ Brown EXH aVI']01.JXI']1:LXE£ EmmwoH£ YLa 1:1']v XOlVWVLXrj DgU01']. Av I'] mOlJlxrj «amOVOIJLa» ngoEXEl onotooorprote O1:gU1:EV01']£ OE IJLa «01.JAAoYLxo1:1']1:a», DEV vnugXH onOlaDrjnO'tE ~UOI'] Yla svcv XOlVWVLXU 8EOIJLOIJEVO OVV1:0VLOIJ0 Arj1jJl']£ «noqxioscov rj axolJl'] xm DLOlXI']1:lXO OVV1:OVlOIJO. To XU8E U1:01J0, Jl:OV Jl:EgLEXE1:m 0't1'] DlXrj 1:0V «av1:OVOIJLa» ELvm EAEVSEgo va XUVEl ouorpcors 8EAEl - ngo<pavw£, nxoAov8wV1:a£ rnv naAlu <plAEAEv8Egl'] <poglJovAa, av DEV EIJJl:ODL~El rnv «aV1:0VOIJLa» 1:WV uAAwv. AxolJl'] xm I'] Dl']lJOxgmlxrj Arj1jJ1'] ano<puoEwV aJl:oggLmE1:m W£ E~OVma01:lxrj. «H 01]flOxQaTlx1f olaxv(3EQV1]a1] xaoauevei olaxv(3EQV1]a1]» ngoHDoJl:OlEL I'] Brown. <<Evw ElflTQEJU:1 flEYaAVre(J1] avflflETOX1f TWV atoJIWV otnv xv(3EQV1]a1] ait' OTl ElflTQElTETal aT1] flovaQx{a 1f oinv OAOXA1]QWTlX1f OlXTaTOQ{a, oxpooa EYYEVW~ axofl1] T1]V xaTaIT{Ea1] TWV (3ovA1faEwv XalTOIWV av8QwlTwv. AVTO EQXETaI ~Exa- 8aQa oe Q1f~1] tu: TO vlTaQ~taxo atouo, lTOV lTQElTEI va OtaT1]Q1faft T1]V aXEQwoT1]Ta T1]~ (3ovA1]a1f~ TOV ware va eivai VlTa(J~laxa cAEV8EQO» (POI, oEA. 53). 'OV1:W£, 1:000 vnEg~moAoYlxu lEgrj E[vm I'] ~ovAI']01'] 1:0V mrrovouou ntouou, xmu rnv un01jJ1'] 1:1']£ Brown Jl:OV nagaSE1:El EmDOXlIJU~OV1:a£ 1:0V lOXVglOIJO 1:0V Peter Marshall on, oVlJcpwva IJE n£ avagXlxE£ aQXE£, «1] lTAftOlj!1]cp{a Ocv EXEI lTMov olXa{wfla va Elfl(3riMETaI aT1] flEI01./J1]cp{a, aXofl1] xat aT1] flEI01./J1]cp{a TOV EVO~, naod. 1] flEI01jJ1]cp{a atnv lTAEI01jJ1]cp{a» (POI, OEA. 140, D(vE'tm EIJCPaOI']).

Yno1:llJwv1:a£ n£ og80AoYlxE£, DlaIJEOoAa~I']IJEvE£ cero 1:0 A6yo xm aIJEOO-Dl']lJoxganxE£ DlaDlxaoLE£ Yla 1:1'] O1.JAAOYlXrj Arj1jJ1'] ano<puoEwV W£ «Em~oArj» xm «Dlaxv~EgVI']OI']», Em~ga~EVEl 1:0 DlXaLWlJa IJla IJHo1jJI']<pLa£ EVO£ I']YEIJOVlXOV EYW va

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anoggCmEL t1']v anocpao1'] t1']e; nA£LO'tjJ1']cpCae;. AAAa to YEYOvoe; nagaf,lEVEL OtL f,lLa £A£11S£g1'] XOLVWVCa £L1;£ 8a £Cvm b1']f,lOxgatLX~ ~ b£ Sa £rtLt£UXS£L xaSoAou. ~t1']V CbLa t1']v unagl;LaX~ xataotao1'], av SEAEt£, f,lLae; avagXLx~e; XOLvwvCae; - f,lLa af,lW1'] £A£uS£gLaX~ b1']f,lOxgatCa - OL anocpaOELe; 8a naCgvovtav otvouga axoAouSwvtae; f,lLa aVOLXt~ OU~~t1']01']. 'EnELta 1'] f,lELo'tjJ1']cpCa nou Sa xata'tjJ1']cpL~OtaV - axof,l1'] XL 1'] f,lELo'tjJ1']cpCa tou evo; - Sa £CX£ Oo£e; £uxmgL£e; ~S£A£ va aVtLnagaSEOEL £rtLXELg~f,lata YLa va ngoona8~oEL va aAAciI;EL aut~ rnv anocpa01']. H A~'tjJ1'] cetoqxiosiov f,l£ t1']v ouoqxovto, cero rnv aM1'] f,l£gLa, xaSwta aMvato Eva OUV£XL~Of,l£VO bLaAoyo - t1']V noM O1']f,lavtLX~ bLabLxaoLa t1']e; ouv£xoue; avtaAAay~e; ano'tjJ£wv, t1']e; bLacpwvCae;, t1']e; ngoxA1']01']e; xm t1']e; avtL-ngoxA1']01']e;, XwgCe; tLe; onoL£e; 1'] XOLVWVLX~ xa8we; xm 1'] atOf,lLX~ b1']f,lLOugYLXOt1']ta 8a *av aMvat£e;.

To va AELtOugy£Ce; 0t1'] ~a01'] t1']e; ouoqxovtoc, av O1']f,laCvEL XatL YLa t1'] onucivouoc A~'tjJ1'] ceroqxicecov £Cvm to £I;~e;: etrs Sa XELgaywy1']S£C coro f,lLa f,lELO'\jJ1']cpLa £Ct£ Sa xatagg£uoEL £vt£Awe;. Koi OL anocpaoELe; nou naCgvovtm evorountorvouv to xaf,l1']AOt£go XOLVO nagavof,laot~ ano'tjJ£wv xru ouyxgOtouv to £AaXLoto b1']f,lLOUgYLXO £nCn£bo OUf,lcpwvLae;. MLAw £bw f,lEOa urto f,laxgEe; xm £nCnov£e; bLabLxaoC£e; f,l£ t1'] Xg~01'] t1']e; ouoqxovice; ornv Clamshell Alliance t1']e; b£Xa£tCae; tOU 1970. AxgL~we; t1'] otLYf,l~ nou to 1']f,lL-avagXLxo avtL-nug1']vLxO xCv1']f,la *av ornv axf,l~ tOU aywva tOU, ue XLALab£e; aXtL~LotEe;, xataotgacp1']x£ f,lEOa coro t1'] xngaywy1']01'] t1']e; ouoqxovicc; ano f,lLa f,l£Lo'tjJ1']cpCa. H «tugavvCa t1']e; anouoCae; oouorv» * nou 1'] ouoqxovn A~'tjJ1'] ceroqxioerov nag~yay£ £nE'tg£'tjJ£ O£ xanOLOUe; ACyoue; rtou *av xaAa ogyavWf,lEVOL va dEYI;OUV tOUe; buoxCv1']toue;, an08Wf,lOnOL1']f,lEVOUe; xm £ug£we; avogyavwtOUe; nOAAOUe; f,l£oa oro xLv1']f,la.

H £f,lf,lov~ YLa rnv £nL't£UI;1'] t1']e; ouoqxovtce; £f,lnObL~£ rnv avtaAAay~ ano'tjJ£wv xm t1'] b1']f,lLOUgYLX~ rovcoon t1']e; OU~~t1']01']e;, f,lEOa ano L6££e; noi: Sa f,lnogouoav va anocpEgouv VE£e; ngoomLXEe; YLa £I;EALI;1']. ~£ onOLab~not£ xowomr«, 0 bLaAoyoe; - xm tn «vrupoovoiivtu ritouu - £f,lnOb~OUV rnv xorvorqtc va f,lEVEL otamf,l1']. YnotLf,l1']tLXEe; AEl;ne; onwe; «£rtL~aAAOf,lm» xm «xugLagXw» xcvovtxd avacpEgoV'tm orn mwn~ tWV bLacpwvouvtwv, 0XL ornv £cpagf,loy~ t1']e; b1']f,lOxgatCae;' ELgwvLxa 8a EAEYa, OtL £Cvm 1'] ouoqxovn «Y£VLX~ ~OUA.1']01']» nou Sa unooouoe, xata t1']v al;Lof,lV1'Jf,lOV£Ut1'] cpga01'] tOU Pouoo ano to KOLVWVLXO ~uf,lr30Amo, <<va £l;avayxaoEL tou; av8gwnoue; va £Lvm £A£u8£gOL».

Moxpui ano to va £rvm unagl;Laxoe; f,l£ onOLab~nO't£ £nLyna svvoto t1']e; MI;1']e;, 0 «unagI;Laxoe; atOf,lLXLOf,lOe;» t1']e; Brown avtLf,l£tWn~EL to ritouo a-LotogLxa. El;nbLX£UEL to atof,lo we; f,lLa un£g~atoAoYLx~ Xat1']yogLa, Etm onwe;, t1'] b£Xa£tLa rou '70, 0 Robert K. Wolff nagEtal;£ tLe; XavtLaVEe; avtLA~'tjJne; YLa to unoX£Lf,l£VO otnv ev ouYXUOEL «Yzepriomon tou AvagXLOf,loU» tOU (Defence of Anarchism). OL XOLVWVLXOL nagayovt£e; nou aAA1']A£rtLbgouv ue to ritouo YLa va to xovouv Eva aA1']8LVo ov ue 8EA1']- 01'] xm bl1f,lLougYLxOt1']ta unayovtm otLe; un£g~atoAoYLxEe; 1']8LXEe; acpmgEOELe; rtou, b£bOf,lEV1']e; f,lLa xaSaga bLaV01']tLX~e; ~w~C; tWV CbLWV, «unagxouv» EI;W ano 't1']V LOtogLa xru mv ngal;1'].

ITaALvbgOf,lwvtae; f,lEtaI;U 1']8LX~e; un£g~atoAoYLxot1']'tae; xm £voe; anAouot£utLXOU 8£'tLXWf,lOU omv ngooEYYLO~ t1']C; YLa t1'] OXE01'] rou rrrouou us t1'] OUAAoYLx6t1'jta, 1'] Ex8£01'] t1']e; Brown trugLa~EL tOOO ayagf,lna 000 XL 0 xgwmovwf,lOe;* us rnv £I;EALI;1']. H nAouma bLaA£XtLx~ xm 1'] aVOLXt~ LotogLa rtou b£Lxvn nwe; to rrrouo 0X1']f,latCot1']x£ xugLwe; uno xrn aAA1']A£nfbgao£ f,l£ I-ua

*(~.t.M.): Ava'PoQa 0100, nOAuau~!]TI]I'EVO at!] OEXaEtla rou '70 OOXll'lO, «H TUQavvla TI], Anouola, tJ.Ol'wv» t!], Ql~oOnaatQla, 'PE~lVlatQla, 10 Freeman. ~ta EM!]VlXa ExM8!]xE ano t!]V xOAExtl~a ALA!] (ExMoE<, scorched earth, I't<p HAla, tJ..).

*(~.t.M.): KgWOlOVlOI'O,: 8Q!]OXEUllXO MYl'a nou unoat1]Qll;E< on 01.0, 0 xoouoc EXEl C1]l'lOuQY1]8El cero to SEO xm fJtOI'EVW, Oll 0 av8Qwno, CEV Enm!;E xavEva QOAo ornv E!;EAl!;1].

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lWtVWVtX~ aVanLU~Y), O)(EMv anouma~Et coto ro EQYO 'tY)e;. Aro~tXtcrttX~ xm otsvd aVaAUnX~ OE nOAAEe; cero ne; ano1jJEte; 'tY)e;, axo~Y) acpr]QY)~EVa Y)fltx~ xm UnEQ~mOAOYtxrj oru; EQ~Y)VELEe; 'tY)e;, Y) Brown nQoocpEQEt Eva flau~amo oxY)VtXO YLa ~ta aV'tLAy)1jJy) 'ty)C; uutovoutce; nou anO'tEAEL 'tOY av'tLnoba 'tY)e; XOlVWVtxrje; EAEUflEQLae;. ME 'to «unaQ~taxo drouo», am) 'ty) ~ta ~EQta, xm ~ta xotvorvto. nou ouvurrd ~ta «aunoyrj uroucov. xm 'tLno'ta naQanavw, ceto 'ty)v aAAy), 'to xao~a ~E'ta~u amovo~Lae; xm EAEUflEQLae; xaflLcrtmm aYEcpUQw'tO.

oro on au'trj Y) «crtQocprj nQoe; rn ~Eoa», onwe; 'tY) xaQax'trjQtaE xm Y) Katinka Matson, tOXuQL~E'tm on anO'tEAEL ~ta nOAt'ttx~av xm ELvm ~ta nOAt'ttxrj ztou ~Ola~Et ~E tnv «nOAt'tLxrj 'tY)e; E~nEtQLae;» ton R. D. Laing. H ~auQy) oY)~aLa, nou ot Enavacrta'tEe; XOlVWVtXOL avaQXtXOL u1jJwoav otouc E~EYEQ'ttXOUe; aywVEe; orqv OuxQavLa xm rnv Ionrrvto, 'twQa xutrrvtd Eva ~oba'to xoototnu yta 'tte; anOAaUOEte; tcov OlX ~lxQo-acrtwv.

'Eva cero tn ruo rivorrtu naQabELy~ma lifestyle avaQXto~ou ELvm 'to T AZ tou XaxL~ Mnet (Hakim Bey, 'tOU'tEO'ttV Peter Lamborn Wilson): H IIQoowQtvrj Airrovoun Zorvq, OvtoAOYLXOe; AvaQXto~Oe;, IIOtY)nx~ Toouoxoono (The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological Anarchism, Poetic Terrorism), Eva xoo~l1~a 'tY)e; oEtQae; New Autonomy (~ta xafloAou LUxa(a EntAoyrj AE~Y)e; Ebw), nou ExMflY)XE ano 'tY) ~aQEWe; ustnuov'tEQva o~aba Semiotext( e )/Autonomedia oro MnQouXAtV.8 Avriueon orou; nmavEe; yta 'to «Xrioc», 'tOY «TQEAO "Eoorm», tn «AYQta IImbta», 'tOY «Ilcvovrouo», 'ta «La~nO'ta~ ornv TEXVY)>>, 'tte; «IIEtQanxEe; Outomso-, 'tY) «MauQY) MaYELa we; Enavacrtmtx~ IIQa~Y)>>, 'to </EyxAY)~a» xm'tY) «MayyavELa», yta va ~Y) ~tA~OW yta roue EnaLvOUe; tou «MaQ~txou L'ttQVEQtouoii», 'to aL'tY)~a 'tY)e; «urovouice; naLQVEt 'tE'tOla floArj Ex'taoy) rtou ~Ota~Et naQwbLa, ~ta acpo~Olw~EVY) xrn orpououottxr] tbEoAoyLa.

To TA.z. amo-naQouma~E'tm we; Evae; 1jJuXtO~Oe;, ~ta Evfloumwbwe; avn-oQfloAoytxrj xm avn-noAt'tto~txrj btaflwy), ~Eoa omv onoto Y) avoQyavwma Aa~~avE'tm we; ~ta ~oQCPrj 'tEXVY)e; Xat 'to yXQacpL'tt Ex'ton~Et ro nQoYQa~~ma. 0 Mm'Y)e; (ro 1jJEubwvuuo rou ELVat Y) 'tOuQXtxY) AE~Y) «aQXl1Yoe;» rj «nQ(yxtnae;») La /..EEt E~W an' tn bov'tta orov ~tAa ana~twnxa yta rnv XOlVWVtxrj EnavacrtaoY): «Ttati va aoxoAlJ80Vl-u: f.1E TlJV aVTlf.1ETWm01J uuu; «El;ovofar;» nov EXEI xaOEI xa8E vonua xai EXEI anOY{VEI xa8a(pj nQo00f.10{WOlJ; TETOlEr; OVYXQOVOElr; aa ExovvanoUAE-

o AvaQXH1J16~ (!)~ Xao~

'OnOlEe; Xat av ELVat oi nQoOWntXEe; nQO'tt~rjoELe; 'tY)e; Brown, 'to ~t~ALO 'tY)e; rooo aV'tavaxAa 000 Xat nQowflEL tn nQo'tay~atn nou bELXVOUV 'ty)v ano~axQuvoY), ~E'ta~u nov EUQw-a~EQtxdvcov avaQxtxwv, ceto 'tOY XOlVWVtXO avaQxto~o Xat rnv XLVY)orj 'tOue; nQoe; Evav ntojuxumxo rj lifestyle avcxQXto~o. L'ty)V nQay~anx6'tY)'ta, 0 lifestyle avaQXlO~LOe; orj~EQa ~QLOXEt 'ty)v xUQta ExcpQami rou omv avaYQacprj auvflY)~a'twv ~E onQEt, 'to ~E'tCX~OV'tEQVO ~Y)bEVLO~O, 'toy avoQfloAOyLO~O, 'to vso-nocorovoviouo, 'ty)v aV'tt-'tExvoAoYLa, 'tY) vEo-xa'tcxcrtamaxrj «noAt'ttcrttxrj toouoxoctto», 'to uoouxiouo Xat ~tCX «nQax'ttxrj» orebtaxwv cpOUXO·LXWV «nQoowntXWV E~EYEQOEWV».

AmEe; oi ~oba'tEe; nO~Ee;, rtou 0XEMv OAEe; 'toue; axoAouflouv ne; 'tQEXOUOEe; ~ObEe; nov ytanY)bwv, ELvm a'to~tXtmtXEe; ~E 'ty) onuctvouoc EVVOta on ELVat avnflEnxEe; omv avaJtLlJ~Y) oopoQWv oQyavwoEwv, ~tae; Qt~OonacrtLxrje; nOAt'ttxrje;, EVOe; orouTEU~EVOU XOlVWVtXOU xLvrj~moe;, ~Lae; 8EWQY)'ttxrje; auvoxrje; xm ~tae; nQoYQa~f.-Lmtxrje; auvacpEtae;. Iho noAU nQoocxvmOAtO~EvY) oro va nEWXEt TY)V «cuto-ouvetonor;» tOU xaflEVOe; ncxQa oro va EntbLW~EL ~La ~amx~ XOlVWVLXrj aAAay~, amrj Y) ~oba ~Eta~U tWV lifestyle avaQXLxwv ELvm auYXExQt~EVa Ent~Aa~~c;

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ouata uovo W: fJwdvovva xai a(rl.!l/la ;wnao/lara f3{a~» (T AZ, m;A. 128). H El;ouoLa 010 ELOaywYLxa; MLa altA~ «ltQ000I10LW- 01]»; Av auto rtou OUI1~aLVEL oty) Boovio 11£ La oltAa ELVaL I1La aJtA~ «ltQ000I10LW01]» ~OUI1E ltQaYl1mL 010 svov ltOAU aocpaA~ XaL dvsro XOOl1o! 0 avayvwoty)~ taQaYI1EVO~, 010 OXEOy) 1110 tL~ ore- 8EQa ltoAAaltAaOLa~OI1EVE~ XOLVWVLXE~ lta80AoYLE~ ty)~ oUyXQovY)~ ~w~~, I1ltOQEL va ~OAEUEtaL 1110 tY)V OAUl1ltLa oXE1jJy) tOU MltEY) on «0 QEaAL0I10~ altaLtEL 0XL 110VO va ltaQaLtY)80UI1E alto tnv nvnuovt] ty)~ «Eltavaota01]~» aAAa mLoY)~ va ltaQaLtY)80u- 1110 XaL alto ty) ~ouAY)01] yL aut~v» (TAZ, 0101... 101). Mce; ~a~EL orov ltELQaol1o auto to altooltaol1a va altoAauooul1E ty) yaA~vn ty)~ vLQ~ava; 'H I1La vso «ltQOOOl1o(woy»> a Aa MnovroiYLaQ; 'H ltL8avov Eva VEO xaotoQLaoLxo «qxxvmotcxo»;

'Exovta~ El;acpav(OEL tOY xAamxo mavaotanxo OXOltO tOU I1EtaoXY)l1atLOl10U ty)~ xOLvwvLa~, 0 MltEY)~ ouyxata~anxa XOQO"LOEUEL amou~ ltOU XaltOtE QLoxaQav ta ltavta yL mrrov: «0 o1j/lOxQaT1j~, 0 oooiasuniii; 0 OQ(}OAOYtaTrj~ IOEOA6yO~ ... eivai xotxpoc OT1j uouoixt] xai wv AEfnfl X6.(}E aio(}1jo1j QV(}/101J» (T AZ, 0101... 66). AA.~8ELa; KmEXEL 0 MltEY)~ XaL rn tmQaxLa rou tOU~ otLXOU~ XaL tY) 110umx~ ty)~ MaooaALwnoa~ XaL EXOUV XOQE1jJEL Exotauxa orouc Qu8110U~ tOU XOQou tOU Poioou Nrnm] tOU Gliere; Y ltaQXEL I1La xouQaotLx~ aAa~ovELa orov MltEY) 010 0XEOy) 1110 ty)v altoQQL1jJy) ty)~ ltAouOLa~ xouAtouQa~ ltOU Oy)I1LoUQy~8Y)XE alto TOU~ EltavaotatE~ xata roi»; ltaQEA.80vtE~ aLWVE~, omv ltQaYl1mLXOtY)ta alto OUVY)8L0I1EVOU~ EQya~OI1EVOU~ av8gwltou~ ornv ltQO gox EV 1201.., ltQo I'ouvrorox EltOX~.

Acp~otE tOY OltOLOVO~ltOtE ztou I1ltaLVEL I1EOa orov OVELQEI1EVO X00l10 tOU MrtEY) va ltaQa~oEL OAE~ tL~ avOY)o(E~ 010 OXE01] 1110 rnv XOLVWVLX~ otQatEuoY). «Eva o1j/loxQaTlxo OVEIQO; Eva OOmaAlaTlXO OVElQo; Aocvatovb tOV~EL 0 MltEY)~ 1110 amaQXLx~ myouQLa. <<J:w OVEI(!O DeV d;ovma~O/laaTE nOTE na(!a uovo ana T1jV ayan1j rj T1j uaveia» (TAZ, 0101... 64). Autd 10 (Val rn OVEL-

ga EVO~ VEOU X00l10U ltOU ltaQax8y)xE ava tOU~ aLWVE~ alto tou; LOEaALotE~ rcov I1EYaAwv EltaVaotaOEwv tn onotc ltEQLOg~OvtaL ~avauoa alto tOY MltEY) oty) l1aYE(a roo ltUQEtWOOU~ OVELgLXOU X00l10U rou,

'Ooov acpoQa Evav avaQXL0l10 nou E(VaL «OAOXA1jQO~ aoaXVtaO/lEVO~ ana evav H(}IXO Ov/laVIO/lO, uia EAEV(}EQ1j LXE1jJ1j, Eva Mvwo1j A(}Elo/lo xcu tua XOVOQOEIOrj lPoVra/lEVTaAIOTlx'Ij Kaoteotavn AOYIXrj» (T AZ, 0101... 52) -I;ExaotE to! 0 MltEY)~ OEV 1;ECPOQ"tWVEtaL 110VO, 1110 Eva cotoqxroiouxo ltA~Yl1a, rnv ltaQa- 0001] rou LlLacpwtLol10U ornv oxoto 0 avaQxwl1o~, 0 oomaALol1o~ XaL to Eltavaotanxo x(vy)l1a *av XaltOtE QL~WI1EVa, aAAa ouyXEEL XaL to aOltgo - OltW~ Y) «Buotxri KagtEOLav~ AOYLx~» -1110 to l1auQo OltW~ Y) «EAEU8EQY) LXE1jJY»> XaL 0 «MuwoY)~ OUl1aVL- 0110~» AE~ XaL to Eva I1lt0QOUOE va EvaA.A.ax8E( 1110 to aAAo ~ to Eva E(VaL altaQaLtY)tY) ltQoiilto8wy) rou aAAou.

Av XaL 0 (OLO~ 0 MltEY)~ rtore 010 OLota~EL va xavEL OAUl1ltLE~ oLaxy)QuI;EL~ XaL va El;altOAUOEL I1La 01;u8ul1y) ltOAEI1LX~, OEV EXEL Ult0I10V~ 1110 «TOV~ avaQXlxov~ xai EAEV(}E(!taXOV~ IOEOAOyov~ nov waXWVOVTaI» (TAZ, 0101... 46). IOXUQL~OI1EVO~ OtL «H AvaQx{a De YVWQI?;EI 06Y/laTa» (TAZ, 0101... 52), 0 MltEY)~ rocro- 00 EI1~aJtt~EL tOU~ avayvWotE~ tou 010 Eva tQaxu oOYl1a, av ultagXEL ltOtE xan tEtOLO: «0 AvaQXIO/lO~ EV TEAEI avvEnaYETaI T1jV avaQxia·_ xat ava(!xia eivcu TO xao~» (TAZ, ad. 64). TaOE ECPY) 0 AOQoo~: -Eiucu aVTo nov eiuai» - XL 0 Monxnj; OE(otY)XE alto to x~QuYl1a!

ITgaYl1an, I1EOa 010 Evav ltaQol;uol10 l1aVLaXOu vaQXLOOL- 0110U, 0 MltEY)~ EltLtaOOEL on ELVaL 0 Eamo~ rtou XatEXEL ta rtdvrc, 0 ltuQYo~ tOU «Evoi», to MEyaAo «EI1Eva» nou E(VaL xUQLaQXo: «0 xa(}Eva~ ana uai; (eivai) 0 E;OVmaaTrj~ T1j~ oaQxa~ uas; TWV OIXWV /la~ 01Jf.UOVQYIWV - xat OTtorjnoTE aMoV unoQOV/lE va YQanwOOV/lE». I'to; tOY MltEy), avaQXLxoL XaL ~amALaOE~ - XaL I1ltEY)OE~ - E(VaL Eva XaL to auto, xa8w~ OAOL tOU~

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£lVat aUtaQXLXO(:

OL nQaS£LS !!as ()L1WLOAOYOUvtat coto tTjV aU'taQXLX~ ()Latay~ xat OL 0XEO£LS !!as OX11!!m~Ovtat coto OU!!cpwv(£S us aAAOUS amaQXLXOUS. <l)'naXVOU~l£ 'to VO!!O YLa rn 6lxa ~las 6lXmW!!ma - xru OL aAuo(6£S LOU vouoo EXOUV onaOEL. Ilooc 'to naQov (OWS £mBlWVOU!!£ wS aJtAol LlL£x()LX11'tES - aAAa axo!!l1 XL E'tm !!Jt0QOU!!£ vo aQnaSOU!!£ AlY£S OUY!!ES, ACya 't£'tQaYWVLxa JtQay!!anxo't11WS navw oro oaofo, vu £1tlBaAAOU!!£ rnv anoAU't11 BouA110~ !!as, 't11 BamA£(a !!as· To xQa'tos £l!!m cyw (L'etat, c'est moi) ... Av £(!!aO't£ orpoououtvor O£ xanOLa 118Lx~ ~ £vtL!!o't11'ta, JtQEJtH va £lvm xaJtOLa nou EXOU!!£ cpavtaO't£C OL ()LOL. (T AZ, o£A.67)

To xQa'tos £(!!m £yw; MatC !!£ rou; !!JtE11()£S, !!JtoQw vc oX£cpTW 'touAaxLO'tov Mo av8Qwnous O£ aULo rov aUllVa JtOU aJtOAauoav aULa tu oaQW'tLxa JtQOVO!!La: 'tOY Iwo~cp I'taALV xce.tov AMAcpo XC'tA£Q. Oi mo nOMoC coro 'tOUS unoAOLnous 8vr]LOUS, OL nAoumOL xru OL cpTwxo( 'to C6LO, ~OLQato~aO't£, onws 'to E8£O£ xaJto't£ 0 AVaLOA cI>Qavs 't11V anayoQ£uo11 va XOL!!1180u!!£ xa'tUl aJto 'tLS YECPUQ£S LOU I11xouava. llQay!!ml, av 0 cI>QELb£QLXOS Evyx£AS O'tO «On Authority» (llEQC KUQouS) !!E tTjv unEQaomo11 't11S L£QaQXlas, avanaQLOta !!La aO'tLx~ !!oQCP~ oootoALO!!OU, 'to T.A.Z. xm tu JtaQaxAa6LU 'tOU avanaQlOLOUV !!La aOLLX~ ~OQCP~ avaQXLO!!OU. «L1Ev vnaQXEl nQomjxov» ~Las M£L o MnE11S «OVU enavturuum, ooie aywva~, oote uovonati» [av J dow ryb1] 0 flOvaQX1]~ rov bti-COV aov touaoioc -1] anaQa{3{aar1] EAEvf}EQ{a aov neoiueve: va OAOXA1]Qwf}c[ fLoVO ano T1]V ayan1] aAAwv fLovaQXwv: uui nOAtrlxrj rov oveioou, En{fLOV1] oxox; 1] yaAavoT1]Ta TOV oVQavov» - MSHS nou 8a unoooooov va unaQXOUV UlS £mYQacpES ESW uno LO XQ11!!mLOL~QLO 't11S NEas YOQx11S WS bLax11QusHS nCO't11S orov EYWtO!!O xm 't11v XOLVWVlX~ ana8na (TAZ, O£A. 4).

ICyouQa, au't~ 11 O:rt'tLX~ bE 8a aJtw8~oH ns ~noULCx 't11S

xanL'taALOLLX~S «XouALOuQas» n£QLOOOt£QO an' 000 EXOUV anw()~OH tn !!aXQLa !!aAALa, OL y£vHab£s xm tn 'ttLV LOV £mXH- 1l1]~tanx6 xoouo 't11S u'ljJ11A~S !!6bas· LluO'tUXwS, O£ 't600 nOAAous uvHQwnous O£ mrro LOV x60!!0 - 01h£ «nQoOO!!OLWOHS», OU't£ «6vElQa» - osv tou; ovrixovv 'ta (bLa LaUS 'ta 'to!!aQLa, 6nws unollOUV va £mB£Bmwoouv xrn !!£ 't11V mo ou!!nay~ £Q!!l1v£(a'twv 111lWV OL mb11QobEo~LOL XaLabLXOL xm OL cpuAaxEs. Kovsvr«; nOLE b£v EXH SEXLV~OH coto 't11 Q£aALOLLx~ ocpa(Qa 't11S buO'tUx(as !!la «noAmx~ trov oveiocov», £x'tOS ceto LOUS nQoVO!!LOUXOUS !!tXQOUOLOUS, nou !!JtoQouv va BQouV tLS bLax11QuSHS rou MnEl] UV£X'tES, Hbtxa O£ O'tlY!!ES aVCas.

flu LOV MnE11, O't11v nQay!!mtx6tTj'ta, ax6!!11 xm OL xAamxES mavaO'tanXES ES£YEQOHS nQoocpEQOUV xan uovo naQanavw ((n6 ns nQOOWntXES, EVLOV£S, «OQLaXES E!!1tHQC£s» nou CPEQOUV tu (XV11 'tOU cI>OUXO. Mio £SEY£QOll £Cvm oav !!La «xoQucpa(a £!!JtHQCa» !!as bLaB£BmwVH (TAZ, o£A. 100). Iorooixd, «xastot(){ avaQXtxo{ ... aVfLfLETE{xavaE XaeE db()v~ E~EyiQaEt~ xai enavaataaeu; axofL1] xai ot XOfLfLOVVtari~ xcu Ot oootasurtec» aAAa Hm6 ouvEBmv£ « • .16yw TOV art i{3QtOxavar1]v {bta T1] artywj T1]~ /'~iyEQ01J~ TO etoo; T1]~ cAEVeEQ{a~ nov il/Jaxvav». "Etoi, EVW !!EXQL nl)(_la OL oULOn(£s anowYXavouv, OL aLa!!LXtO'tES ~ unaQSLO'tES ((VaQXLxo( EXOUV n£wXH 0't0 !!E'tQO nou EXOUV xmacpEQH (ov xm I nivrouc) «T1]V nQaYfLaTw01J T1]~ {30VA1]arj~ TOV~ via E~ova{a arov JT()AEfLO» (TAZ, o£A. 88). H £SEY£QOll nov aUOLQLaxwv £Qymwv TO cI>A£BaQ11 rou 1934 XL 0 LonavLx6s £!!CPUALOS n6A£!!os LOU 1936, !!noQw vc oas B£Bmwow, ritov xdn naQanavw coto OQYLW{)£lS «O'tLY!!ES ESEY£QOllS». "Htrrv OXA11QO( aywv£s nou, naQa ns 6A£S m0811nxES un£QcpumxES £xcpavoHS LOUS, bL£Sayovwv !!E Wa an£yvWO!!EV11 8EQ!!11 xm Eva 8au!!amo 0XEbLO.

H ESEYEQ011, wO't600, xaLavta YLa 'tOV MnEl] n£Q(nou Eva «'ljJUXE()EALx6 'taSCbL», evoi 0 VL'tOC'LX6S YnEQav8Qwnos, LOV onoto 0 MnEl]S EmboXL!!atEL, anOLEAEL Eva «EAEVeEQO xveoua»

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nou «ana~lEf va onaraAd XQovo oe xivntoxomaeu; via uetaoQV(}j1{Oet~, oe OlaOrJAwOet~, oe ooauata, yta OAWV TWV elOwv ra "enavaotauxa j1aQTVQta"». ~UVEltWe; Ta OVELQa ELVaL xaAci CYtO flETQO nou CE YLVOVTaL «oodprrro» (cLci~aoE: XOLVWVLXci CYtQaTEUflEva)' [tciMOV, 0 MltElle; 8a ltQOTL[tOUOE va «ltLVEL XQaOL» XaL va UltOCYtEL [tLa «LCLWTLX~ UltEQqmOLX~ E[tcpcivL011» (T AZ, OEA. 88), TO OltOLO O11[taLVEL ltEQLltOU svov ljJUXLXO ouvoviouo, ym va CPQOVT(OEL va EAEU8EQw8EL alto LOUe; ltEQLOQLO[tOUe; Tlle; KaQTEOLav~e; AOYLX~e;.

~E 8a ltQEJtEL va flae; EXltA~OOEL orov [ta8aLVOU[tE OTL 0 MltElle; aQEOXETaL CYtLe; LMEe; TOU Ma~ ~T(QVEQ 0 OltOLOe; «()ev axpooubvetai OTrJ uetospooixn; oxnooo ano(j{OEl OTO MovaOlXO [nx, TO Eyw] uta auYXEXQlj1tVry anoAvrOTrJra» (TAZ, OEA. 68). o MltElle; CEV ltaQaAE(ltEL va EVTOltLOEL Eva eoootauxo nov Ae{nel ana TOV l:r{QvEQ»: «uui AetTOvQymrj avr{Ary1/JrJ yta TrJ j1ry CPVOLOAOYlXrj ovveionon» (T AZ, OEA. 68). IIQocpavwe; 0 ~TLQVEQ ELVaL ltOAU OQ80AOYLCYt~e; YLa TOV Mnsn. «To oQlEvTaA, TO anoxoixpo, Ol cpvAeTtxt~ XovATOvQe~ xartxovv TEXVlXt~ tu; onoia;

uxooei va «oocuonotniie!» rJ nQaYj1auxrj avaQXlxrj j100a .

XQEta~Oj1aOTE tva nQaxuxo eioo; «j1VOTlXOV avaQXlOj1oV .

tvav eXOryj10xQaTLOj10 TOV oauaviouoii, j1E(}vOTmo xat yaArjVLO» (TAZ, OEA. 63). 'ETOL 0 MltElle; xaAE( EltLTaXuxci TOUe; cxoAou80ue; TOU va y(vouv «YllTEUTEe;» XaL ltQOTE(VEL va XQllOL[toltOLOUV Tllv «Black Malay Djinn Curse» (MauQll MaAaLOLaV~ KaTciQa TOU Djinn). TL E(VaL, TEALXci, [tLa «ltQOOWQLV~ outovoflll ~WVll»; «H TAZ j1Ola~El ue tua e~iyeQOrJ nov ()c oxeus,eral aueoa tu: TO KQdTO~, (anordd) tua avraQuxry emXdQryory nov aneAw(}EQwVEl uta nEQLOxrj (Y'f/~, XQovov, rpavtaoiac] sa enetta auto-xataoyeitcu; via va j1Era-oxryj1anOTE{ xano» aMov xai ae tva OtacpoQenxo XQovo, nQlv TO KeaTO~ TrJ oovtonpe» (T AZ, OEA. 101). ~E [tLa TAZ [tltOQOU[tE «vc ltQaY[taTWOoU[tE JtoAMe; aJta TLe; aA118LvEe; [tae; EltL8u[tLEe;, axo[tll XaL YLa [tLa EltOX~ uovo,

[tLa aVVTo[tll IIELQauxrj Ouromn, [tLa CYtQE~AW[tEVll EAElJ8EQT] ~wVll CYtO ltaALO auvEXEe; TOU XWQOXQovou» (TAZ, OEA. 62). «Ot (5VVaj1lxt~ TAZ» ltEQLAa[t~civouv «Try «cpVAeTlxrj aVva~rJ» CYtO OLLA LOU '60, tn [tUCYtLXo-au[t~ouALa (XovxAci~La) oto MOll YLa LOUe; OLxo-oa[tJtOTEQ, TT]V ELCUAAaxrj IIQwTo[taYLci (Beltane) TWV VEOltayavLCYtwv*, Ta avaQXLxci auvECQLa, XaL TOUe; [taYLXOUe; XUXAOUe; TWV o~OCPUMCPLAWV» YLa va [tll [tLArjoOU[tE ym ru «nightclubs, ra ouuitooui» XaL Ta «naAlOj1o(j{nxa EAw(}EQlaxa mX-VlX» - TCltOTa, ALy6TEQO!, (TAZ, ~EA. 100). 'OVTae; [tEAOe; Tlle:; EAEU8EQLaxrje; ALyxae; TOU 60, JtOAU 8a 8EAa va Cw TOV MJtEll XaL TOUe; uxoAou80ue; TOU va ~ECPUTQWVOUV 010 Eva «ltaALO[tocCTLxo EAEU8E~lLaXa mX-VLX»!

Tooo ~Qaxu~La, TOOO Ecprj[tEQll, TOOO aVE(ltWTll ELVaL [tLa T ~z_ OE aVTL8E011 y-E TO TQO[tEQa CYta8EQa KQaLOe; XaL TT]V aCYtLXll Ta~T] nou «a no Try OTlYj1rj nov ry TAZ (}a Ad{JEl tva ovoua ... nQtnEl va e~acpavlOTef, (}a El:,acpavLOTEf. .. j10VO xat uovo yu: va avaov(}d~ava xanou aMOv» (TAZ, OEA. 101). MLa TAZ, CYtT]v ouoto, CEV E(VaL [tLa E~EYEQ011 aUci aXQL~We; [tLa ltQOOO[tOLW- 011" [tLa E~E:EQOll oJtwe; EXEL ~Lw8E( CYtll cpavTao(a EVOe; ECPll~Lxou [tuaAOu, [tLa aocpaArje; Ult0xw(ll1011 CYtll [tllltQaYflauxoTllTa. ~Tllv Jt(la~l1, 0 MltElle; ayo(lEUEL: <<LVVlOToVj1e [TrJV TAZj E1tElOrj ,:noQd va naQtxel TryV nOlorryra Try~ {JEAT{WOry~ XWQ{~ anaoaitma [Ij va oOryye{ OTry {J{a rj OTO j1aQrvQlxo Oavaio» (TAZ, ?EA. 101): ME [tEYaAUTE(ll1 aXQ(~ELa, OltWe; Eva xaltEvLVYx LOU ::VTL rOUOQ~OA * *, [tLa TAZ altOTEAE( Eva CLE(lXO[tEVO YEYOVoe;, Eva CYtLY[tL,aLO oQyao[to, [tLa cpEUyaMa EXCPQaoll Tlle; <<{JovAryOrJ~ via e~ovOla» ltOU O11[ta(vEL, OLT]v ouoto, au E(VaL m0811Ta av(-

'(L.t.~.): Beltane; AQJ(uCu ~eAtt~T] YLOQt~ tT], TIQOltO!lUYLa,. Tu !lUmLXO-01Jf'~OUAlU (XOVXAU~LU) lUO nrrvco UvtAOtJV uao TT] <jllAoAOYlU Jt£Ql EAEU8EQDtEXt6vwv. MOtEAovouv D'tT]V JtQuY!latLx6tT]tu tU ouveOQLU twv XUQOlVUAlWV YLU "IV EXAOy~ rou TIaJtu.

.: (L.t;M.): 0 XVQLO, E_xJtQ6owJto, rou _XUMltEJ(VLXOV QEV!latO, tT], Pop Art. -Y!'VT]OE !'LU tEJ(VT] U!'WU O1JVOEOE!,EVT] !,E rnv XUtuv<iAw<n], to 8eu!'u XUL tOO, oVYXQOVOll, tQ6JtOll, t~,.

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0xuQll xm aVlxavll va mf'~OEl onOl06~nO'tE anOTlhTIII!lCt omv nQooUlJtlxO'tll'ta rou rrtouou, tnv unoxEl[.tEVliHiTl]TIt XItt rnv mno-ouYXQo't1']01'], aXO[.tl] AIYO'tEQO OTl'] Ola[.tOQqJ(IIITl] T(I)V yEyOvotorv xm t1']<; nQay[.tanxtiT1']'ta<;,

~EOO[.t£V1']<; 't1']<; naQoOIX~<; nOlO't1']'ta<; [.tla<; T AZ, ot onaOol rou MnE1'] [.tnoQouv va anOAauoo'UV 'to epEuyaAEo nl_loV6[110 rou va ~El<; [.tla «voj.1aonaj {maQ~r;» xa8w<; «ro va eiocu (!!TTfyot;" Jawoei va Y{VEl tu: iua iWOUl iua aQET1j 1j uia neomrrno» (T AZ, aEA. 130). AA([.tovo, 'to va Elom aOlEYo<; [.tnoQFI vu y(VEl [.tla «nEQlnE'tEla» orov xanOlO<; EXH Eva rivero omn 01:0 oxoto [.tnoQEL va EJ'tlOlQf'IjJEl, EVW 0 vo[.taOLO[.to<; E(vm 1'] OI((XQL~ nOAu'tfAHa rnruov no'll [.tnoQouv va ~~oo'UV XUlQ(<; vo OO\lAFUO'UV Yla w «nQo<; 'to ~1']v». Oi mo nOAAo( ano rou; «vounorxoii;» aVEOllOU<; nou 8u[.ta[.tm 'tOOO xa8aQa ano 't1']v EJtOX1l Tl']c: MqaA1']<; 'YepW1']<; unEepEQav ~WE<; anEAJtlo(a<; xm nElvu<;, uQQwOlla<; xm avaSLonQ£nELw; xm O'UVl18W<; n£8mvav JtQ6wQa - xa8w<; 'to (OLO y(vELm xm o~[.tEQa OlOU<; OQo[.tou<; torv mlAI'Ulv 't1']<; A[.tl'QLX~<;. 01 EA6.XLOlOl vO[.ta6E<; nou f[.tOLa~av va ((JtoAa[.t(3avo'UV «Tr; ~w1j TaV 6Q6j.1ov» anOLEAouoav Eva 8f[.tU lOLOuuyxQao(a<;, otnv xaAU'tEQ1'], xm LQaYlx~<; VEUQUlO1']<;, Ol1'] XHQOtEQ1']. OUtE [.tnoQw va cvvoriooi [.tLa axo[.t1'] «ESfYEQ01']» non nQoOJ8El 0 MnE1']<; navUl an' oAa, tnv «E(JEAovwe1j j.16Qcpwar;» (T AZ, OEA. 129). Av xm 1:0 nQoUl81'l amo Ul<; [.tta ESfYI'QOl'] anfvavn oro EXnmOE1JtlXa oiiotnuo, ama no'll [taAAov Em8u[tEl va JtELUXELervrn va xmaOl~oEL 'tLC; nOLXLAf<; cero xa8EOQac; fvtOAEC; to» nQoOLLf<; otouc avayvwOlE<; tOU.

Tcox; OEV [tnOQEl va 608E( xaAU'tEQ1'] nEQLYQaep~ yw to [t~v'U[.ta ty]<; T.A.z. aJt' aut~ nou E[tepaV(Oly]XE o'rqv Whole Earth Review, orqv onotu 0 XQLUXOC; O(VEl £[tepaoY] oro OtL 'to epuAAa- 6LO roi: MJtE1'] «E~E)JaaEral Qay6a{a OE aVEQXOf.1EVr; f3{f3Ao T1J~ aVil-XOVATavQa~ Tr;r; oowET{ar; TaV '90 ... Evoi nOMi~ ano tu; aVilA1j1jJElr; TOV Mnir; fAolQd~ovral uia avyyiVEta fAE ra 66yj.1a-

ta TaV avaQxwfAov» xa81']O'Uxa~ovw<; oxrrooo 1'] Review tY] YUlmxY] nEAatE(a ty]<; on (0 XaxL[t MnEl) ano[taxQuVEtm coro tY] O'UVf]8LO[tEVY] QlltOQlXtl YUQUl coro tY]V xmuQYf]of] ty]<; xU~£Qvllof]<;. AvtL8na, nQotL[tu rnv nVEu[tmwoY] epuoY] rorv «fSq£QOEUlV», nou JtLOTEUEL ou naQ£Xouv «OTIYj.1ir; evtoom; nov [ustooovv va] Ofvovv ax1jj.1a xai vonua OTr;V oAorr;ra rr;r; ~W7]r;». AutoL oi 8uAaxE<; EAEu8EQLa<;, ~ nQooUlQLVE<; ourovoue; ~WVE£, xa81- orotiv TO UtO[tO lxavo va SEepEUYEL ano tn oxY]~mlxu nMy~atn tl']£ MqUAf]£ KU~fQvY]01']C; xm va ~EL n£QlmaOlaxu ~foa OE oepalQE£ rtou ~OQE( oiivtouo. va ~l(j)OEL t1']V aJtoAutY] EAEu8EQLa. (o(vnm E~epaOf])."

y nUQXEL ~la MsY] oro y(vtl<; nou OEV ~OQE( va ~ETaepQaOTE( Yla oAa aUta: nebbich! Kutri tf] OluQXELa tf]£ OEXaEt(a£ tOU '60, f] affinity group nov Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers* OXOQmOE naQO~Ola oUYXUOy], ovoovovoxn«, xm «nOArnmlXtl TQOfloXQat(a» ~OVO xm ~OVO Yla va ESaepaVlO1:E( cero to nOAlnxo OXf]VLXO A(yo aQyOtEQa. ~ty]V nQay~anxOtY]ta, xunOLa ano ta ILEAl'] ty]<; ~ntlxav orov £flnoQlxo, EnaYYEA~atLXO xoouo Tll<; [IF(Ja(m; TUSy]<; rou onOLOU [.tOAl<; mo nQlV EnaYYEAOVtav TY]V unaSLa. OUtE auttl Y] O'UIlJ'tEQLepOQU ELvm a[.tlYW£ a~EQlxaVlxll. 'OnUl<; Xl £va<; «~EtEQUVO<;» rou MaY] tou '68 TO £8WE XUVLXU: «Kavaue tnv nAdxa uai; to '68 xai rw(}cx 7](}8E r; OTlYj.11j va uevaAWaovj.1E». H (Ola ESa08EvY][.t£VY] nOQELa, flE r« aAepUOla OE XUXAO, fnaVaAtlep8f]XE xatu tl'] OLUQXELa [.tla<; aXQa(a utouon- 01:1XtlC; VEaVlXtl<; ES£YEQOY]<; 01:f] ZUQLXYJ to 1984, uovo xru uovo Yla va O1:aflmtlOEL 01:l'] OY]flLOUQY(a TOU Needle Park, EVOC; nEQl-

'(L.t.M.): O~al\u IlLXQO-JtOAltlXOU UXtl~WIlOU xuta tnv EIl'PavLOlle; ttle; NEue; AQLOtEQae; oue; HnA. To ovou« t'le; JtQo1jA8E uno rnv aVt(otOlX'l 'PQaO''1 nov unritoorv xcrrri ue; <saXQl~WOELe; 1j u; EQ£UVEe;. LUYXE){QLIlEVU, 0'lIlLOUQy1j8'1XE TO 1968 orn NEa Y 6Qx'l uno rraQaxAal\l TTl<; I2EtpO!!IlLlJtLx1j; xrn EJtElta otaALvLx~e; 'POlt'lTlx1je; oQyavwOllS tOU 5DS (Students for a Democratic Society). nQOExQLvav ttll\QriO'l ~Eoa «no Affinity groups, OAlYOIlEA1j XUl ~(Ula, WotE va OXOQJtODV to ... 'P6~o OTOU; allEQLxavoue; uotaue; XCLL vc I-''lv urco(JODV va EwxwQ1jaouv OL f'JtatC10l Evt6e; toix.

37

MUOtlx6; xat AvoQ9o/..0YlXO; AVUQXlO!lO;

H T.A.Z. 'tOU MJtI~ll OEV ELVaL II I-l0Vll nou aQEOXE1:aL atl] l-laYELa, aXOl-lll XaL to I-lUotlXLOI-l0. LlE00I-lEVOU tOU «nQo-n:to:JtlXOU» 'ljJUXl0I-l0U roue, nOAAoL lifestyle avaQXlIwL tlOll tQa~ouv

nQOe; tLe; mo ma~lotlxEe; 1-l0gqJEe; tOU avtl-og80AOYl0I-l0U. ~XEqJtELtE to «The Appeal of Anarchy» nou anaoxoAEL OAOXAllgo 'to OJtl080qJUAAO EVOe; ngooqJmou tEUXOUe; tlle; Fifth Estate (KaAoxaLQl 1989). «H Avaoyia», ola~USOUI-lE, avayvwgC!;El etnv aueootnta r1J~ OAOXA1JQWTlXtj~ a1U;Aev()iQwa1J~ [tinota Aly6rEQo!] xai ox; iva a1JwiOI r1J~ EAw()EQ{a~ oac; Oa ltQEltEI sa eoeu; va eiote vuuvot xaui tu; TEAETE~ oac». Katumcvounore I-lE «TO XOQo, TO tQayouOl, to YEAlo, tll YlOQttl, to naLXVLOl» XaL to anoAal-l~UVOUI-lE - nwe; 8a unooouoe xunOlo ELOOe; uouuconot- 11I-lEVOU 118lxoMyou vn EJtlXElQ11l-lmOAoYtlO!':l evdvnc OE autEe; ne; Pal-lnEAEaVEe; anOAaUOEle;;

AAM OUOtUxoJe;, unuQXEl uio avanoolu. To A~aELO t11C; Thelerne (Abbey of Theleme) rou Pal-lnEAE, to ozoto 11 Fifth Estate 1-l00USEL va ngoona8E( vc SEnEQuoEl tltaV XOQEOI-lEVO I-lE l!Jt11QEtEe;, I-lUYElQEe;, Xal-laQlEQEe; XaL I-laotogoue;, OLXWe; 'tl] OXA11- (l~ OOUAElU tWV onouov ot rnrto-txuvonotouusvo; aQlotoXQUtEe; t11e; ~EXWQlottle; outon(ae; tOU Yla t11V aVoJtEg11 't(i~l1 8a nE8aLvav t11e; nE(vae; XaL 8a ouvwOtC!;ovtav YUI-lvo( oro, olaqJogEtlXU, xQua XWA tOU A~aE(ou. H «Appeal of Anarchy» 'tl]e; Fifth Estate I-lnogEL E~(OOU xaM vu qJgOvtC!;EL va EXEl OtO l-luaM 'tl]e; I-lla uAlxu anAOUotEQ11 EXOOXtl tOU Abbey t11e; Theleme XaL 11 «YlOgttl» t11e; I-lnoQE( vu avaqJEgEtal mo nOAu oro XlVESlXO tUQL ceeo oOYla (tofu) XaL oro gUSL naQu otLC; YEl-ll0I-lEVEC; nEQoLxEC; XaL tLC; VOOtLI-lEC; tQOUqJEC;. AAM aX0I-l11 XL auto - XWgLC; I-lEYuAEC; tEXVOAOYLxEC; nQoooouC; yta va anEAEu8EQoJoouI-lE tOue; aV8QoJnouc; ano to l-loX80, aX0I-l11 XaL Yla vn ~QEl tofu XaL QUSL oro tQanESL, nwe; 8a I-lnoQouoE I-lLa xorvcovto, ~aOLOI-lEV11 OE auttl t11V EXOOXtl t11e; avaQXLae;, va EAnC!;El on «ea xaraQytjaEl OAE~ tu; El;ova{E~», «ou ()a f.10lQa~EI alto XOIVOV oAa ra ltQaYf.1ara», 'tl] YLOQttl, to XOQo XaL to tQayouoL XaL OtL 8a tQEXEl YUI-lVtl;

Auto to Stl'tl]l-la, OUYXExQlI-lEVa, EXEL I-lEYUA11 Olwao(a YLa rnv 0l-luoa tl]C; Fifth Estate. Auto nou ouvagnaSEl OtO nEQLoolXO

~OlltOU XoJQou OOOOAl]'ljJLoJv xmca'Lvl]C; XaL xQax nou LOQu8l]XE ano tLe; agXEe; t11C; nOA11C; Yla vc EJtltgE'ljJEl otOUC; ESL0I-lEVOUe; VEOUe; aVSQoJnoue; vc uuto-xctuorporpouv vouui«,

H aOtLXtl taSl] OEV EXEL vt: qJo~ll8EL tLnOtE ano tEtOLEe; lifestyle 0lll-ll]YOQ(EC;. ME 'tl]v anOOtQoqJtl tOU YLa rcu; 8EOI-l0Ue;, ne; oQyavoJone; 'tl]e; l-laSLXtle; ~UOl]e;, tOY XUQ(we; nQooavmOAlol-lO tOU nQoe; 'tl]v unoxOUAtOUQa, t11V l1SLxl'j t11e; naQa?-tl-ltle;, tOY UI-lVO tOU Yla to EqJtll-lEQO XaL t11V anOQQL'ljJ11 tWV nQoygal-ll-latWV, auto to ELOOe; vaQXLOOLonxou avaQXLol-lOU ELVaL XOlvwvlxa aXlvouyo, ouxva, OE, anotEAEl I-lLa ~aA~Loa ExtoVWOl]e; t11C; XOLVWVLxl'je; OUOqJoQLae; anEVaVtL ornv xUQLaQX11 taSl]. ME 'tOY MnE11, 0 lifestyle avaQXl0I-l0e; anol-laxQuvE1:aL cno evov, I-lEOtO voriuotoc; XOLVWVLXO aXtL~LOI-lO XaL I-lLa nQoOl]AWI-lEVl] orpoOLWOl] OE oLaQXtl XaL 0l1I-lLOUQYLxu nQotaYl-lma I-lE to vu «uroXataQYEttaL I-lEoa otLe; anOAaUOELe;, Eva ustnuovreovo I-l110EVLouo XaL I-lLa EV OUYXUOEl VltOE'lXtl ato8l]ol] EALtlotlXtle; aVWtEQo'tl]tae;.

To tLI-l11l-la nou 8a XA118E( vn nAl]QoJoEL to avaQXLxo x(v1Wa rrv EnLtQE'ljJEL OE aUtO tOY nOAtO vu EXtOntOEl ta EAEu8EQLaxa LoavLxa I-lLac; nQo11yoUI-lEvl]e; nEQLoooU Sa I-lnoQouoE va EtVaL n:QaotLo. 0 EYWXEvtQLXOe; avaQXLOI-l0e; rou Mnen, I-lE t11I-lEtauovreovo, avaOLnAWOl] omv m0I-lLXLOtLXl'j «mrrovoulu», OL qJOUXOLXEe; «oQlaxEe; E!-lJtELQLEe;» XaL II veo-xomotornoxri «sxotnon» anELAouv vc xmaottloouy tl]v LOLa tll AESll «avaQXl0I-l0C;» nOALnxa XaL XOLVWVLXU ax(voUVll - Eva anA6 xanQLtOLO nou 8a oxavoaAC!;n oLaoxEOaotLXU tOue; I-llxQoaotoue; OAWV tCOY EnoxoJv.

E(vm l] J'tQOYtoYOVt01:tXl1, l] J'tQo-oQ80A.0Ytxl1, l] avtt-tEXVOA.OytXl1 xru l] avtt-J'toA.ttWfUXl1 fAo()a nou XE(tm ornv xaQ()ta uutorv tWV aQ8Qwv. H «'ExXAl]ol]», A.omov, tl]e; Fifth Estate J'tQooxaA.EL rou; avaQXtX01Je; va «aXrJl1aT{aovv TO l1ayo(,6 XVXAO, va uxovv otnv unvoior; TrJC; ExmaarJC;, va £ccpavTwaovv I1Eaa oin uaveta :reov OWAVEl 6AEC; TiC; E£ova{EC;» - aXQt~We; oi fAaytXEe; tEXVtXEe; J'tou oi oafAavOt (roix onotou; touA.aXtOtov Evae; aJ'to rou; ouYYQacpE(e; UfAVE() EXOUV XQl]OtfA0J'tOLl10Et yta XQovta 0tll CPUA.EtLXl1 xorvorvto, yta va fAll fAtA.1100UfAE YLa rou; J'taJ'ta()Ee; Otte; mo avEJ'twYfAEVEe; XOLVWV(Ee;, YLa va J'tQoayouv to xVQoe; rou; we; tEQaQXEe; xm svovuov tWV OJ'tOLWV 0 Aoyoe; EJ'tQEJ'tE va J'taA.EljJEt aQxEta yta va aJ'tEA.EU8EQWOEL to av8Qwmvo fAuaM aJ'to tLe; fAuOtLXOJ't0L110He; rtou to (()to ()l]fAtOvQYl]OE. «zl WAVEl 6AEC; TiC; E£ova{EC;»; Krn JtaA.L uJtaQXH, E()W, Eva ayytYfAa tOU <l>ouxo rtou oJtwe; Jtavta aQvE(tm tl]V avayxl] yta tl]V (()QUOl] ()LaxQttWv autO-()LaXEtQt~OfAEVWV 8EOfAWV fAE fAta E~ouo(a Evavna omv L()La tl]V J'tQaYfAanxl1 E~ouo(a tWV xamtaA.wnxwv xm tEQaQXLxwv 8EOfAWV - yta rnv JtQaYfAatoJ'to(l]Ol] fAtae; xOLvwv(ae; omv oxoto, J'tQaYfAatt, l] Em8ufA(a xm l] ExOtaOl] fAJtoQovv va ~Qouv fAta au8Evnxl1 JtQaYfAatwol], 010 svov JtQaYfAattxa EA.EU8EQLaxo XOfAfAOUVWfAo.

o oaYl]VEunXa «sxotaxtxoc;» Jtmavae; «otnv avaQx{a» aJto tllv Fifth Estate Jtou tOGO EXEt O1:EQl]8E( XOLvwVtXOV JtEQLEXOfAEVOU - XWQLa OA.Ee; ne; Ql]toQtXEe; tOU cptOQttOVQEe; - 8a unoQOVOE EVXOA.a va EfAcpavLOtE( OtOUe; to(xoue; fALa mx fAJ'tOutLX 11 01:0 moco fAEQOe; fAtae; EUXEtl1Qtae; xaQtae;. <l>(A.OL nou JtQoocpata EmoxEcptl]xav tl] NEa YOQxl] fAE EVl]fAEQWVOUV, ovrox, ott Eva aoturrooto fAE aQxEta aXQt~a fAEVOV, A.LVa tQaJtE~OfAavtLA.a xm ytamxl] J'tEA.atE(a, OtO St. Mark's Place omv Lower East SideEva J'tE()lO fAaXl]e; tl]e; ()EXaEt(ae; tOU '60 - OVOfAa~Etm AvaQx{a. Auto to EXtQOCPElO YLa rou; fALxQoaOtOVe; tlle; JtOA.l]e; ()tatllQEl Eva avtLYQacpo tl]e; ()taol]fAl]e; ltaA.LXl1e; tOtxoYQacp(ae; The Fourth

Estate, rtou ()ELXVEt rou; E~EYEQfAEVOUe; EQyatEe; tOU tEA.OUe; tOU 190u mwva va ~l]fAat~ouv EVaVtLOV EVOe;, fAll aJ'tHxovLOfAEVOU OtO EQYO, acpEVtLXOV 11 m8avov EVOe; notuvoutxori tfAl1flatOe;. 0 lifestyle avaQXLOfAOe; fAJtOQEL EVXOA.a va Y(VH fALa EmA.0Yl1 YLa rqv xamvaA.OYttxl1 a~Qotllta. To EOtLat6QLo, uou EXOUV J'tEt, EXEt EJ't(- 0l]e; OEXtOuQtta()Ee;, fAaA.A.ov YLa va xQataVE aJt' E~W tOY vtomo 6XA.0 zrou aJtEtxov~Et l] tOtxoYQacpLa.

AocpaA.l1e;, t()LWttXOe;, l]()OVt01:tXOe; xcu, ax6fAl], EVXOA.Oe; 0 lifestyle avaQXLofA6e; fAJtOQE( EVXOA.a va JtaQEXEt fAta ~OA.txl1 cpA.uaQ(a yta va VOOttfAE'\jJEt roo; avtaQove; aonxove; tQoJ'toue; ~Wl1e; tWV tWV OUvEOtaAfAEVWV vOOtaAYwv tOU PafAJ'tEA.£. 'OJtwe; xm l] «xataOtaOtaxl1 tEXVl]», rtou to MIT E~E8EOE JtQoe; tEQljJLV tl]e; acpQoxQEfAae; tWV fAtxQoaOtwv E()W xm A.Lya XQ6vta, J'tQoOCPEQEt xan JtEQWOOtEQO ceto Eva «fAoX8l]Qo» avagxtx6 JtQoCPCA. - Eva ouououo, 8a toA.fAovoa va Jtw - oov XL auta rtou J'tA.l]fAfAUg~ouv tl] ()unxl1 axtl1 rorv HflA xm xatEu8vVEtm aVatOAtXa. H ~lOfAl]xav(a tlle; 'ExOtaOl]e;, xa8Eaut1l, tn J'taEt J'taga J'tOAV xaM oto mJYXQovo xamtaAwfA6 xm 8a fAJ'tOgOVOE EVXOA.a va unopgOCP1l0Et tte; tEXvLXEe; trov lifestyle avagXLxwv YLa va aU~l1oEt tllv a~la fALae; EfAJ'toQEVOtfAa oxaV()aA.LOtLXl1e; Etx6vae;. H uvn-xous» roiiou nou xaJ'totE 06xaQE roix; fALxgoaOtoVe; fAE t« fAaxgLu ~laA.ALa, tn uoiiotc, to vnioiuo, Tl] oE~OUaALX1l EA.EU8EgLa xm mv tEXVl] EXH J'tgo J'tOA.A.OV aVa~a8fALOtEl aJ'to TOUe; aOtoVe; EmXEL- 0l] fAat(Ee; TWV OJ'tOLWV ot fAJ'tOUTlX, Ta xacpE xm tn xA.afAJ't, ax6fAl] xm Ta OtgatoJ'tE()a YUfAVLOtwv XUVOUV av8l]QEe; «fAJ't~VEe;, 6J'twe; flagTuQovV OL J'tOAA.Ee; OfALXA.W()ELe; ()Lacpl]fA(OELe; YLa ne; VEEe; «EXOtaOELe;» oro Village Voice xm J'tag6fAOLa J'tEQtO()Lxa.

~Tl]V J'tgaYfAatLx6Tl]ta, oi oxav()aA.w()We; avn-og80A.OYLXEe; UVnA.l1ljJHe; tl]e; Fifth Estate EXOUV J'toM J'tQO~A.l]fAatLXEe; OUVEJ'tELEe;. 0 EvOtLXTW()l]e; VfAvoe; Tl]e; cpavtao(ae;, Tl]e; ExOtaOl]e; xm TOU «agXEYovOU» J'tgocpaVE01:ata afAcpw~l]TEL 6XL fA6vO fALa og80- AOYLOtLXl1 EJ'tugxELa aA.A.a xm tll AOYLX1l we; TEToLa. To E~WCPUMo

40

41

EVUV'tlOV 'tfJ~ T£XVOAO'YlU~ )tat roe IIOAl'tUJI.lOU

Ax6f,ly) mo n{)O~Ay)f,laTtx6. ELVaL tu YQaJtt6. tOU n,OQt~ MnQ6.vtrpoovt (0 onOLOe; ELVaL 0 NtEL~Lv-r I'oudtoov), Ev6e; an6 rou; f,lEY6.Aoue; 8EWQY)TtXO'IJe; tY)e; Fifth Estate, mivro aty) CPQLXY) 'tY)e; tEXVoAoYLae; - nQocpavwe; tY)e; tEXVoAoYLae; xa8Eautije;. H tEXVOAOYLa f,lOL6.~EL va xa80Q~EL Tte; XOLVWVLXEe; 0XEOELe; naQ6. 'to av-rL8E'to, f,lLa av-rLAY)1j!Y) nou nQooEYY~EL mo atEV6. to XUDaLo f,laQsLOf,l6 an' 6Tt, ae; nOVf,lE, ty)v XOLVWVLXij OLxoAoyLa. «H TEXVOAoyia Oev eivai Eva anouovcouevo aXEoLO 'lj axoun uux avaawQEVOYj TExvlx'lje; vvoion;» f,lae; MEL 0 MnQ6.v-rcpoQv-r oro «Stopping the Industrial Hydra» (SIH), noo xa80Q~E'taL cero f,lLa x6.nwe; DLaxwQLOf,lEVY) xm mo 8Ef,lEALaxij ocpaLQa'twv «XOIVWVIXWV ay.,£-

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tOU tEuxOUe; roo <l>8LVonWQOu/ Xeuuovu 1:OU 1993 CPLAOSEVEL 1:0 EUQEWe; naQavoY)f,lEVO Capriccio no. 43 1:OU fx6YLa, ue 'tL'tAO «II sueno de la razon produce monstros» «<0 urtVoe; tY)e; AOYLxije; yEVv6.EL tEQaTa»). H XOLf,lWf,lEVY) cpLyouQa rou fx6YLa, anELXOV~E'tal oWQLaOf,lEvY) n6.vw ceto 'to YQacpELo tY)e; f,lrt:Qoat6. OE evov unoAOYLO'tij Apple. H aYYALxij f,lE't6.cpQaOY) 'tY)e; ErtLYQacpije; rou FxriYLa uno rnv Fifth Estate AEEL «To 6vELQo 'tllC; AOYLxije; YEVV6.EL tEQata» unovowv-rac; OTL to. tEQato. anotEAOuV nQo'i6v rou LDwu rou A6you. flo. rnv aXQL~ELa, 0 fx6YLa ELVaL yvwat6 6'tL EVVOOUOE, 6nwe; DE(XVOUV OL LDLEe; rou OL oy)f,lElWOELe;, on tn 'tEQaTa orqv YXQa~ovQa YEVVWVtaL an6 'tOY urtVO, 6XL to OvELQo tY)e; AOYLxije;. 'Onwc; EYQa1j!E oro 0y)f,lELwf,laT6.QL6 tou: «H qxrvmotn, EQY)f,lWf,lEVY) cero 'ty) AOYLXij, 't(x'tEL avun6cpoQa tE(laTa. Evwf,lEvY) ue 'tY) AOYLXij, E(VaL Y) f,lY)'tEQa 6AWV rcov 'tEXVWV XaL II nY)yij rorv 8auf,l6.twv 'ty)C;».1O ME 'to va anODOXLf,l6.~EL 't1] AOYLXij, aUT6 'to (nOAuOUAAEXTtx6 OE ~a8f,l6 aouvaQ'ty)o(ae;) avaQXLx6 nEQLODLx6 EVEQYEL OE OUf,lnaLYVLa f,lE x6.nOLEC; cero TtC; ruo 8AL~EQEe; nAEUQEe; 'ty)C; oy)f,lEQLVijC; VEo-xaLVtEYXEQLavijc; av-rLDQaOY)e;.

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UV8QW1WUS; ns; ~OUAfLES; ,,[ous; 11 EVLmlXOnOLOUV ,,[lJV EXIlE"[aAAEuo11 tou; - xm "[u 6'130 uno ru onoto £Cvm u~lUIlCPlO~*lJ"[U YEYOVO"[U UMa E(vm Ql~Wf.lEVU UXQl~WS; O"ClS; XOLVWVlXE£ OXfOfLS; "[lJ£ xum"[uAlO"Clx11£ EX[tE"[aAAEUOlJS;, 0Xl O"ClJV "[ExvoAoYlx11 uvrin"[usl] xu8' £uu"[l1. A£ "[0 8EOOWE Wf.la: l] OlJIlEQLV11 uCP£Ol] ~EV ucp(O"Cu"[m Myw rorv f.ll]Xuvwv UMa Myw riov uxoQLuywv uO"Cwv nou XQl]Olf.lOnOLOUV US; f.llJXUVE£ YlU vn UV"ClXU"[UO"C1100UV ,,[lJV EQYUO(U 11 vc ,,[lJV EXf.lE"[UMEULOUV mo evtrmxd, ITQaYllun, OL L6lE£ OL f.llJXUVE£ rtou 0 umos; unUOXOAE( YlU VU f.lfLWOfL "[0 «xootoc nUQuywY11£» 8u unoootiorrv, OE f.llU oQ80AoYLx11 XOLVWV(U, vu XQlJOlf.lOnOll]80uv YlU vc EAEU8EQWOOUV "[u uv8Qwmvu OVLU uno "[0 [toX80 nou 6EV unm,,[EL VOl]LlXE£ lXUVO"[l],,[E£ ue mo ~l][tlOUQYlXfS; xm nQOOWJtlxa uv"[unO()O,,[lXE£ 6Quml]QlO"[l],,[E£.

AEV unaQXEl fV~fLSl] on 0 MnQaVLcpOQV,,[ E(vm ESOlXfLWf.lEVO£ [tE "[OV XalVLEYXEQ OULE f.lE "[OV ftOUVYXEQ. MaMOV UVLAEL "[l]V EllnVEUoll rou uno rou; Langdon Winner xm Zacques Ellul, rov "[EAEULULO EX "[WV onOLWV 0 MnQUVLcpOQV"[ nUQu8E,,[fL sm~OXlf.la~ov"[u£: «Eivcu YJ U:XVOAOYO{'/j avvoxlj :n:OV aljflEQa OIEV- 8ETd iYJV XOlVWV1Xlj OVVoxlj·· .. H iEXVOAoy[a etvai asp' eautti; 6Xl uovo Eva fliao, aMa iva oousiov ueoow - tu: iYJV av8EVux'Ij iVVOLa iOV Universum: xat axoxssuruscn xcu OAOXAYJQwuxlj» (SIH, OEA. 10).

~"[l]v «TExvoAOYlX11 KOlVWVLU» (The Technological Society), "[0 mo yvwmo LOU BlBALO, 0 Ellulm08E"[l]oE "[l]v uUO"Cl]Q11 8EOl] on 0 XOOf.lOS; Xat ot roono, OXE'!Jl]£ f.lUS; YUQw uno UULOV f.llf.lOUvrci tn EQYUAELU xm ,,[L£ [tl]XUVE£ (tnv "[EXVLX1). ALXWS; xanOlU xOlvwvlx11 EQf.ll]VE(U rou nw£ uUL11 lJ «"[ExvoAoYLx11 XOlVWVLU» nQofxu'!JE, 'to ~lBALO rou Ellul xmuA11Y£L [tE "[0 VU [tl]v nQoOCPEQEl XUf.lLU EA:rt(~U, uxo[tl] AlYOLEQO [tta nQooeYYlOl] YlU 'to mll£ l] uv8Qwno"[l]"[u AULQwvE"[m uno tnv unoAu'tl] uCP0f.l0LW011 "[l]£ uno rnv 'tExvlx11· ~"[lJV nQuYf.lunxo'tl]'tu, UXO[tl] Xl EVU£ OUIlUVlOf.lo£ nou YUQEUfL "[l] OUvaVLlJOl] "[l]£ "[l8uOEUIlEVl]S; "[EXVOAOY(US;

f.lE ,,[l£ uV8QWJtLVE£ UVUYXE£ uvuYE"[m, xma rnv uno'!J11 rou, OE EVUV «waEf3lj :n:68o :n:ov OEV iXEI xauia iVXYJ va ElrYJQEaaEI iYJV iEXVOAOYIXlj E~iAI~YJ OViWe:; 1j aMwc:;».12 Km OVLW£ E'tOL ELvm, o» f.llU "[000 v'tE,,[EQIlLVLO"CLX11 8EWQl]0lJ uxoAou811ofL "[lJ AOYLx11 "[T]S; XmuAlJST].

EULuxw£, o[tw£, 0 Mrtodvtrpoovr [tu£ nUQfXfL f.lCu AUOT]: «va aQx[aovpE aueoo»; va ~YJAWVOVPE iYJ PYJxav1j OVMrjf30YJV» (SIR, OEA. 10). Ken ~EV uVEX£Lm onOlOV()l1nO"CE OUf.lBlBu0f.l0 us rov nOAl,,[lo[tO UMU OUOlUO"ClXU EnuvcxAallBuvEl OAa"[(l uuouxoqxrvrj, avn-noAl"[l0f.lLXa xm uvn-"[ExvoAOYlXU XAlOf rtou Ef.lcpavctovtru OE OUYXEXQlllfVE£ New Age nEQL~cxAAOVLOAOYlXE£ [to()E£. o oUYXQovo£ nOAlLlOf.lO£, f.lCX£ MEl, cxnO"CEAEL <<f.1La fl'ljiQa (matrix) OVVClflEWV» nEQlAaf.l~aVOVLas; «tu; Ep:n:oQEvpauxie:; axial' u; tu; Wl~mie:; E:ITlXOIVWV[Ee:;, iYJV aatixonoinon xai iYJ Jta~IXrj iEXVIXrj, pcx~[ tu: ta ... aMYJAO-Ep:n:AEx6pEva, Ex8Qlxa :n:VQYJVlxa-xvf3EQvnttxti xQaiYJ» XL OAa aULU OUYXA(VOUV OE f.lla «navxootua pEya-flYJxav1j» (SIR, OEA. 20). «O! Efl:n:oQEvpailxie:; axiaEle:;» Ol][tELWVEl oro ()OXLf.lLO "[OU «0 ALOYXWf.lEVO£ IIOALLLO[tO£» (Civilization in Bulk - CIB), ELvm cxnAci [tEQO£ am1)£ 'tlJ£ <<f.1rjiQae:; OvvaflEwv» omv onoto 0 nOAlLlOf.lOS; E(vm «uu: PYJxaV1j» nou EXfL YLVEl «atoatoxeoo eovaouu; aito tu; a:n:aQxie:; TOV», [tLU «axap:n:iYJ lrvQap[oa QI~Wflivwv IEQaQXlwv», «pia Olxrvaxrj enextaon iYJe:; :n:EQLOX1je:; TOV avoQyavov» XaL «uta YQCXPPIX1j ava:n:rv~YJ aito iYJV :n:QOPYJ8Ei"X1j XAO:n:1j iYJe:; tponuu; PiXQI TO L1IE8vie:; Notuauaiixo Taueio»," AVLLO"COlxa, 0 MnQaVLcpoQVL EmxQ(vEL 'to ~ACXXW()ES; ~LBALO rorv Monica Sjoo xm Barbara Mor, «H MEyUAlJ Koouixr] MT],,[EQcx: AvaxaAunTOv"[cx£ suvu "[lJ E>QT]oXELa "[lJS; f11£» (The Great Cosmic Mother: Rediscovering the Religion of the Earth) - 0Xl YLCX "COv ma~LO"CLxo 8E'LO[t0 rou 1) YLa 'to OLl CXVcxcpEQE'tm OE IlLa EJ'tlO"CQOcp1) OE [tLa nQoYEVeaTEQl] aVEnL9UIl11'tlJ xmuO"CaOlJ, cxMa En£l()1) ot OUYYQCXCPEL£ ~a~o1JV LlJ MST] nOAmollo£ [tEOCX OE fLoaywYLxu - [tlCX nQcxxnx1) nou «avrava-

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UAa otnv Ta01] aVTOV TOV avva(2naartXOV [!I {3t{3Afov va n(20Vn08iTEt neotaooteoo uta EVaMaXTtx1j 1j avteotoauuevn xooonTtX1j arov nOAtTtO/-l6 na(2a va TOV awptO{31]u{ av8i/-lEAa» (ClB, O'll[!E(WO'll 23). IlQocpavw£, E(vm 0 IlQo[!'llElEae; nou Ela JtQEJtEl va EmxQlElE(, 0Xl aUtE£ ot Mo Earth Mothers, tWV oaouov to CPUA.A<i()lO Yla tl£ XElOVlE£ ElEOt'lltE£, JtaQ<i tou£ OJtOLOU£ OU[!~l~ao[!ou£ tOU !lE tOY JtOAltlO[!O, ELvm «ouvaQJtaotlxo».

Ka!ll<i avacpoQ<i OtT) [!Eya-!l'llxavij ()E 8a litav OAOXA'llQW!lEVY) av JtaQEAElJtE rnv JtaQ<iElw'll oro !lOlQOAO'( rou Lewis Mumford yw tl£ XOlVWVlXE£ t'lle:; OUVEJtElE£. LtY)V JtQaY!Aatlxot'llta, a~u;,El vc OY)!lHw8EL o'n rsroic 0XOAW EXOUV xnvovtxri JtaQEQ!l'llvEUOEl tou£ OXOJtOU£ tOU Mumford. 0 Mumford ()EV litav Evae:; ovutEXVOAOYlotije:;, oJtwe:; 0 MJtQ<ivtcpoQvt xm <iAAOl Ela [!ae:; Exavav vo. motE1jJoU!lE' oirre litav [!E oJtOla()ijJtOtE EWOla tY)e:; M~'lle:; Evae:; aJtoxQucplotije:; 0 oJto(oe:; Ela E~QlOXE tOY cvn-aosrnoutxo JtQWtOYOVlO!lO rou Mnorivtrpoovt tOU voiiotoo rou, Esmt(ae:; autou, [!JtoQw va !llAijow urro EuElELa JtQoowmxij yvwOY) ttov aJt0'4'EWV tOU Mumford, xaElwe:; XOU~Evtl<ioa!lE Yla aQxEto xmQo we:; ouu!lEtEXOvtEe:; OE Eva OUVE()QlO oro Iluvecuonuuo tY)e; Pennsylvania YUQw ore 1972.

/V)...<i XMOlO£ Ela EJtQEJtE va YUQLOEl !lov<iXa ow YQaJtt<i tOU, oJtwe:; to Technics and Civilization (TAC), «no to onoto 0 ()LOe:; o MJtQ<ivtcpoQvt avtlYQ<icpEl, Yla va ()El on 0 Mumford JtaoXL~El va JtEQlYQ<i'4'El EUVO'LX<i tn «!l'llxavlx<i oQyava» we:; «Eva oX'll[!a ()uv'lltlx<i OQEloAOYlXWV, avElQwmvwv oxOJtWV»14. EnrrVElA'll!l!lEVa UJtEvElU!lu;,ovtae:; otov avayvwot'll tOU Otl oi !l'llxaVEe; JtQOEQxovtm cno av8Qwmva ovto, 0 Mumford ()(VEl E!lcpaon OtO Otl 'll !lYlxavij ELvm «1] n(2o{3oA1j uuu; ovyxEx(2t/-liv1]e; nAEv(2ar; T1]e; av8(2wntv1]r; noooonuxomtac» (TAC, OEA. 317). 'Ovtwe:;, !lw aJto tle:; mo oy)[!avtlxEe:; AEltoUQY(Ee:; tY)e:; EXEl Y(VH to va ()laAUEl tOY avtLXtuJtO t'lle:; JtQoxm<iA'll'4''lle:; oro avElQwmvo !luaM. 'Etm:

LTO na(2EA86v, Ot aV0(280Aoytxie; XaL ooiuovixe; nAEV(2ir; T1]e; ~w1je; dXav EIO{3aAEt otu; ocpa{(2Ee; onou OEv avnxa». 'Htav iva {31j/-la uxoooui va avaxaAvcp8d 6Tt ta {3axT1j(2ta, sa 6Xt Ot xaUr; vE(2aiooVAEe;, 1jrav vnEv8vva via TO n1j~t/-lo TOV yaAaTOe; xai 6Tt uta aE(261jJvxT1] /-l1]xav1j 1jrav sao anoTdw/-laTlx1j an' 6T1 TO (2a{3oaxl T1Jr; uavurocu; via tu; Y(21jyO(2Er; uetrupooe; /-lEyaAwv axootaaeow .... H EntOT1j/-l1] xai 1] TEXVIX1j TOvwoav TO 1J8IX6/-lar;: tu: T1]V {ala TOVe; T1]V aVOT1](26T1]ra xat TIe; anOX1](2V~Ele; TWV ooy/-laTWV ... i8wav EV a/-lcpl{36Aw TOVr; natotXOve; cp6{3ove;, TIe; natolxie; /-laVTE1jJlie; xa8we; xcu TOVe; natotXOve; IOXV(2W/-lOve;. (TAC, od.324)

Auto to !lEY<iAO ElE!la ore YQam<i tOU Mumford EXEl ayvo'llElEL OXaV()aAW()W£ uvdusoo orouc JtQWtOYOVlotE£ - xUQ(we;, 'll Jt(ot'll tou ou y) [!'llxavij EXEl OU[!~<iAAH ornv «U'4'lot'll OUVElocpoQ<i» tY)e:; JtQowEl'llo'lle:; «rrp; JtQaxtlxije:; t'lle:; ouvEQyatlxije:; OXE'4'Y)e; xm ()Q<io'lle:;». OUtE ()lot<i~El, coto t'llv <iAA'll, 0 Mumford va U[!vijOEl «cnv aw81]Tlx1j vnE(2ox1j T1]r; /-l1]xavIX1je; /-lO(2cp1je; ... navw an' 6Aa, toox; T1]V mo aVTIXEI/-lEVIX1j n(200wntx6T1]Ta TOV aT6- /-lOV nov iXEI Vna(2~EI note /-liow uuu; nio EVa{o81]T1]e; xai Aoytxa aVTlA1]nT1je; OXio1]e; tu: «nnii ta via XOIVWVtXa 6(2yava xat ueota T1]e; eoxeuuevn; nOAtTlO/-ltX1je; oxpouoioxmc TOVe;» (TAC, OEA. 324). "Ovnoc, «1] TEXVtX1j T1]e; 01]/-ltov(2y{ae; evo; OVOfTE(2OV xoauou YEyov6TwV we; olaX(2ITOv ano T1] OEL(2a TWV OEoo/-livwv T1]e; tuie- 01]e; E/-lnEI(2{ae; 1jrav 1] wyaA1] YEVtX1j ooveuxpooa T1]e; atlYX(20v1]r; aVaAVTlx1je; Entar1j/-l1]e;» (TAC, OEA. 361).

MaxQl<i cero to va aJto6EXEtm to Q'lltO JtQWtOYOVlO[!O tOU Mnpdvnpoovt;n Mumford <iOX'llOE 0SE(a xQltlxij OE amoue:; rtou aJtoQQLmouv OAOXA'llQWtlx<i t'll [!'llxavij xm ElEWQ'llOE rqv «extar(2ocp1j oto an6AvTO nocotovovo» we:; [!la «VEV(2WTIX1j xoooao/-loy1j» ornv ()la t'll [!qa-[!'llxavij (TAC, OEA. 302), orqv JtQay-

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*(L.T.M.): Living Theater: ltOAmxlj-xanLTE)(VLxlj ollcii'la 8WTQLXoiv XciltEVLVYX rrou O'lIlLOl!QyljflYJXE IlETci TO B' Ilayx6ollLO Il6AEIl0. IlLO ltOAV ltMov 1)ltciQXEL we; XOlVOTlJTa 8£UTQLX.oiv Oll,iOwv rtou ltaU;(1)V IlE 11'" (ruYXEX(lLIl£V'l "tEXVOtQOlt(a ltaQci we; Il(U ollcii'la. To Living Theater ava~(waE xorri to '60 XaL TO '70 IlE to xLvljllata avtL-X01)ATQvQae; aTle; HIlA aUci XaL ot'lv E1)Qoilt'l. 0 "'0 yvwot6e; 8Laaoit'l<; TOtJ ljwv 0 Tl;ovALav Mrrex.

ta f-la()ifiWm T1]~ f-l1]xavo'if~ otpaioai; Oev ustooovue va naue naQanEQa xoo; T1JV avanTV~1j uai; xoo; TO nAovma ooyavixo, TO rao noopavox; av(JQwmvo» (T AC, OI::A_ 363, ()(Vf1:aL El-lcpaOl])-

H anoxllQvsl] tl]~ tEXVoAoy(a~ xm tou nOALttOl-lOU W~ EYYEVW~ xatamwtLxwv m( tl]~ av8Qwn6tl]ta~, ornv ouoto, vnl]QEtEL tl] ouoxonon tWV OVYXEXQL!J.EVWV XOLVWVLXWV OXEO!,WV nov ceroveuouv nQov6!J.La oroix EX!J.EtaAAEvtE~ EVaVtLa orouc EX!J.EtanEv6!J.EVOV~ xcn OlOV~ LEQaQXLxa aVWtEQOV~ EVaVtLa Olov~. LEQaQXLxa XatWtEQOV~_ IILO noAU an6 onOLa()llnOtE xorccueOlLxll xorvcovto OlO naQEA86v, 0 XamtaAL01-l6~ anOXQu(3EL tl]V EX!J.EtUAAEVOl] En( tl]~ av8Qu.)Jt6tl]ta~ vn6 tl] !J.Eta!J.cp(Wl] trov «CPEt(X», YLa va XQl]OLl-lonOLllOOV!J.E ta A6YLa tOV MaQS OtO KEcpaAmo, rtrivoi an' 6Aa, to «cpEtLxtO!J.6 tWV E!J.nOQEVl-latWv» 0 OJIOLO~ EXEL !J.E ()LacpOQOV~ tQ6nov~ - xm vnEQcpvOLXU - ()LaV- 8lOlEL an6 tOV~ Kcruoruotcxoiic !J.E to «8Ea!J.U» XL cero tOY Baudrillard !J.E tl]V «JIQOOO!J.oLWOl]». 'OJIW~ l] avtAl]Ol] vnEQaSLae; an6 mv aOlLxli tUSl] xQu~Etm JI(OW coro !J.La OV!J.~atLXll avtaAAaYll !J.L08wv [,IE EQyatLxll C\Uval-ll] nov E(vm !J.ovuxa qxnvousVLXU (Ol], EtOL XL 0 CPEtLXLO!J.6~ rou E!-lJl:OQEUl-latO~ xaL OL XLVllOELe; rou mtoxQu(3ovv Tl]V XVQWQXLa nov OLXOV0I-lLXWV xm XOLVWVLXWV 0XEOEWV rou XamtaALO!J.OU.

YnaQXEL Eva onuovnxo, omv JIQaY!J.atLx6tl]ta xa(QLO, Ol]!J.ELO E()W. TEtOLE~ aOJI(()E~ [.lVOlLXOJIOLl]Ol]~ anoxQu~ovv an6 to Aa6 tOY aLtLw()l] Q6AO tOV XamtaALOlLxoU avtaywvLo!J.OU otnv naQaywYll tWV XQLOEWV tl]~ EJIOXll~ I-la~. 1:E avtE~ tLe; [,IVOlLXOJIOLllOEL~, avtL-tEXVOAOYLXE~ xm avtl-JIOALttO!J.LXE~ nQO- 08EOlE tOV~ !J.u80v~ tl]~ tEXVoAoYLa~ xrn rou nOALtLo!J.oU we; EYYEVW~ XatamEOlLXWv, xm EtOL 80AWVOvtm OL EL()OnOLEL~ XOLVWVLXE~ OXEOEL~ tOV xamtaALo!J.ou - n:Qocpavw~ l] XQllOl] trov n:QaY!J.utwv (fi.,lJtoQEU[.lata, avtaAAaXtLXE~ aSLE~, avtLXEL[.lEVan:UQtE 6nOLov~ 6Qov~ oa~ aQEoovv) YLa va ()LaI-lWOAa~l]80uv OL XOLVWVLXE~ OXEOEL~ xm va naQax8EL to tExvO-aOlLX6 romo

!J.atLx6tl]ta, !J.La xataOlQoCPll. «IIIO ~ammQocpl~1j axo O:TWtao1jnoTE aM1J anA1j cpvm~1j xaxaaioooni TWV f-l1Jxavwv aito TOV {3aQ{3aQo eivai 1] annA1j rov va tu; (JEan E~T6~ AElrovQy{a~ 1j va E~TQE1/JEl T1JV aV()Qwmv1] ~lV1JT1jQla ovvaf-l1J», naQatllQl]oE OE OSE(~ t6vov~, «wmE va anotlaoovvu eto: tu; avvEQyaTt~Et; oiaoocaoi»; T1Jt; a~E1/J1Jt; xai T1Jt; aVloloTEAovt; EQEvVat; nov eivcu vnEv(JvvEt; via Ta onouoaia TEXVoAoYl~a f-lat; EmTEvYWlTa» (TAC, OEA. 302). Krn an:a(tl]oE EmtaXtLxa: «nQEnEl va eyxamAd1/Jovf-1E rrz udtaui xai f-1Ef-l1/J{f-lOlQa ~6hm T1J~ avr{ma01Jt; om f-l1Jxav1j ueoo: uuu; anoxavvwf-lEV1Jt; exurtoopn; otnv aYQl6T1Jm» (TAC, OEA. 319)_

0'UtE ro uOlEQa EQya tOV acpllvovv xun:ma EV()ELSl] 6tL EVE()WOE OE avtll tnv un:01.pl]. Kcnri Evav ELQwvLx6 tQ6n:0, xaQaxtliQLOE !J.E nEQLcpQ6vl]0l] TL~ naQaOlUOEL~ tOV Living Theater" xrn ta oQul-lata tOV «Outlaw Territory», tWV OV!J.!J.OQLWV [.lE tL~ !J.l]xaVE~, W~ «BaQ~ag6tl]ta» xm ano()ox(!J.aoE to I'oiivtotox W~ tl] «Ma~l~1j Ktv1JTono{1J01J T1J~ Neosaioi» cero tl]v oaoto l] «a15yXQOV1J f-la~l~O:TWl1Jf-ltV1J, vnEQnA1]81jt; xai anonQoaWnO:TCOl1]f-lEV1] ~ovATOvQa Ocv EXEl ttnota va cpo{31J()d».

o Mumford, OE OXEOl] us OtL toy acpogu, ()EV agEoxEtm oUtE orn [.lEYa-[.ll]xavll OUtE OlOV ngwtoyovtO!J.6 (to «ogyavlx6») ana !J.UAAOV orn ESEALSl] !J.La~ tEXVoAoYLa~ ()l]!J.oxgatLxwv xm av8gwmvwv avaAoYLwv. «H ocavomui f-lat; va nruu: nEQa aito T1J f-l1Jxav1j [oe uta vea a15v()w1JI {3amL,Eml navo: m1J ovvaf-l1j f-lat; va atpououboouue T1J f-l1]xav1j», nagatllgl]OE OlO Technics and Civilization. «MtXQl va tXOVf-lE tupououboei rzz f-la()1jf-lam T1Jt; avuxeuuvixotntai; T1]t; a-xoooomoxomonc, T1J~ oVOcTEQ6T1JTat;,

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tt]£ E:rt0Xtl£ !1U£. "Etot O:rtW£ t] UvtL"lWtUO'tUOt] rou XU:rtLtUALO[t01J a:rto tt] CPQUGt] «~LO[tt]xaVLXtl XOLVWV(a» 80AWVEL to avYXEXQL[tEVO xm :rtQwtaQXLXO QOAO rou XEcpaAa(O'll xru tWV surroQE'll[tatLXWV 0XEOEWV 0't0 OXt][tatLO[tO tt]£ crUYXQOVt]£ XOLVWv(a£, EtOl xm t] UVtLxatuataGt] [tLa£ tEXVO-aatLXtl£ XO'llAtOUQU£ a:rtO tL£ XOLVWVLXE£ G)(EOEL£, ot«; O:rtOLE£ 0 M:rtQuvtcpoQvt DW[tEUstm aVOLXtU, a:rtoxQu~EL toy :rtQwtaQXLXO QOAO tt]£ ayoQu£ xm rou aVtaYWVLO[tOU oro G)(t][tatLO[tO tt]£ crUYXQOVt]£ XO'llAtOUQU£.

o lifestyle avaQXLo[to£, X'llQ(w£ E:rtELDtl aG)(oAECtm ue to atLA :rtaQu ue rnv xowrovtc, :rtQaY[tatEuEtm [tE :rtQOXELQott]ta tt]v Xa:rtLtUALO'tLXtl avOOWQE'llGt], [tE tL£ Q~E£ tt]£ orqv avtaywvLO'tLxtl ayoQu rtou U:rtOtEAOUV tL£ mt(E£ tt]£ OLXOAOYLXtl£ xataatQoCPtl£, xrn atEV~EL oro u:rtELQo xa8t]Aw[tEVO£ AE£ xm 8a EQ8EL t] 'll:rtOtL8E[tEVt] Qtl~t] tt]£ «LEQtl£» tl «ExO'tatLxtl£» EVOtt]ta£ tt]£ av8Qw:rtott]tU£ [tE tt] «<l>uGt]» xm t] «U:rtO[tUYE'llGt] rou xoouou» a:rto rnv E:rtLO'ttl[tt], tOY 'llAL0!10 xm to «AOYOXEvtQLO[tO».

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~aOlXE£ mtLE£ tWV XOLVWVLXWV xm OLXOAOYLXWV XQ(OEWV - nou E(vm OL E[t:rtOQE'll[tatLXE£ G)(EOEL£ :rt0'll YEvvt]oav roue EtmQLxou£ [tW(tE£ tt]£ E~O'llo(a£, tt]£ ~LO[tt]xav(a£ xm roo :rtAOUtO'll.

Auto DE Gt][ta(vEL OtL :rtQE:rtEL va aQVt]8oo[tE OtL :rtOME£ tEXvOAOY(E£ E(vm xa8amE£ xUQLaQXLxE£ xrn OLxoAoYLxu E:rtLX(VD'UVE£, tlOtL :rtQE:rtEL va E:rtL~E~mWOO'll[tE OtL 0 :rtoAmo[to£ titav [tLa 01..0- xAt]QWtLxtl E'llAoy(a. OL :rt'llQt]VLXO( avtLDQaO'ttlQE£, ta tEQuOtLa cpQuY[tata, tu 'll:rtEQ-avYXEVtQO:rtoLt][tEva ~Lo[tt]xavLxu avyxQottl urrm, to EQYOatamaxo crUatt][ta xrn t] atQatLUltLXtl ~Lo[tt]xavLa - o:rtw£ xm t] YQacpELoxQat(a, t] aO'tLxtl [tuO'tLya xm tn crUYXQova MME - EX0'UV Y(VEL oAE8QLa G)(EMv ceto tL£ a:rtaQXE£ to'll£. AAAu 0 180£ xm 0 190£ mwva£ DEV a:rta(tt]oav tt]v at[to[tt]xavr], tt] !1a~Lxtl :rtaQaywYtl, tl, aVE~mQEtW£, tL£ YLyavtLaLE£ :rtoAEL£ xm tL£ atEAE(WtE£ YQacpELoxQattE£, uovo xrn uovo YLa va ceroDaowoo'UV tEQUatLE£ :rtEQLOXE£ tt]£ BOQELa£ A[tEQLxtl£ xm va E~OA08QEuoovv Xat' ouotov tOV£ L8aYEVEl£, tl YLa va a:rtooa8Qwoouv to EDacpo£ cere oA6xAt]QE£ :rtEQLOXE£. Avt(8Eta, axo[tt] xm :rtQLV OL OlDt]QODQO[tOL cptUOO'llV OE oAa tn [tEQt] tt]£ :rtEQLOXtl£, [tEYU- 1..0 xO[t[tUtL amtl£ tt]£ xataO'tQocptl£ ELXE tiOt] DLa[toQcpw8EL us tt] XQtlot] a:rtAwv taEXO'llQLWV, uouoxetcov ue [tJ'taQoUtL, u[taSwv xm oQyw[tUtwv [tE tt] AE:rtLDa rou aAEtQLOu.

"Hrov amE£ OL a:rtAE£ tExvoAoY(E£ us tL£ O:rtOLE£ OL aO'tLxE£ E:rtLXELQtl0EL£ - t] ~uQ~aQt] DLUataGt] rou :rtoALtLo[tou rou tEAE'lltarO'll mwva - avvtl8L~av va XWQ~o'UV [tquAo [tEQO£ tt]£ XOLAUDa£ rou :rtma[tou Ohio OE aXLvt]tE£ :rtEQLO'llOLE£ YLa ceroxouiot] XEQDo'll£. ~tO Noro, OL LDLOXttltE£ cpmELwv XQELu~OVtav «XEQLa» DOUAWV X'llQLW£ xa8w£ DEV 'll:rttlQxav OL [tt]xavE£ YLa vn cpmE'ljJo'UV xm va [ta~E'ljJo'UV to ~a[t~uxL· orqv :rtQaY[tatLxott]ta, t] a[tEQLxuVLXt] :rtaQaDomaXtl YEwQy(a EXEL ESacpaVLatEL XatU tL£ tEAE'UtULE£ DUo YEVLE£ X'llQLW£ E:rtELDtl xmvouQLE£ [tt]xavE£ ELatlX8t]ouv YLa vc uvnxrrtuotrioouv rnv EQyaoLa tWV «a:rtEAE'lJ8EQW[tEVWV» [tauQwv xoALywv. To 190 mwva OL XWQLXOL tt]£ t][tL-

50

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cp£OUDaALxtj<; EUQwJ't1']<;, aXOAOUOo',vtW; ltl; DmDQ0I-1E<; J'total-1WV XaL XaVaALWV, ~£xu81']xav ornv ({~U'!_lIXUVLX1'] ay~)L6l1']la XaL 1-1£ J'tQocpav£(<; aVn-OLXOAOYLXE<; I-1£H(\()Oll<;, UQXLoav va J'taQuyo1JV lOU<; 0J't6Qou<; nou l£ALXU J'tQow81']o(tv lOV al-1£QLXUVLXO xamlaAWI-16 Ol11v J'tayx60l-1La OLXOV0I-1LKrj 1']Y£I-10v(a.

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naQu l1']V lQExouoa laAUVlW01'] lOU £XXQ£I-10U<;, aJ't6 [lLa £~U[lV1']01'] lOU £UQWJ'ta'LXOU J'tOALllO[lOU Ot1'] l-1aSLXl1 OJ't(AWo1l tou, oiorooo, 8a XUva[l£ xaAU va 8U[l6I-1cxot£ l1'] 01'][lao(a l1']<; CXVUDU01']<; l1']<; oUYXQOV1']<; £XX00l-1lX£U01']<;, l1']<; £:rtLot1'][lOVLXl1<; YVW- 01']<;, lOU OLXOU[l£VLO[lOU, tou A6you XaL lWV l£XVOAOYLWV J'tOU D1JV1']lLXU J'tQOOCPEQ01JV l1']V £AJ't(Da I-1LCX<; OQ80AOYLXl1<; XaL XELQacp£tLxl1<; DL£u8El1']01']<; lWV XOLVWVLXWV 0XEO£WV, omv J'tQay[latLX6l1']lCX, YLCX l1']V J'tAtjQ1'] J'tQCXY[lUlW01'] l1']<; £:J'tL8UI-1La<; XaL t1']<; Exota01']<; XWQ(<; lOU<; J'tOAAOU<; DOUAOU<; XaL l£XV(l£<; OL OJ'tO(OL LXCXVOJ'tOLOUOCXV lL<; OQE~EL<; lWV aQLOtOXQatLXWV lOU<; «XUQ(WV» oro Abbey of Theleme lOU Pa[lJ't£A£. ELQWVLXU, OL uvu-noxrn- 0I-1LXO( aVCXQXLXO( J'tOU aJ'tOX1']QUOOOUV lOV J'tOALlL0I-16 011[l£QCX CXVl1X01JV CXvuf1£oa O£ auwu<; J'tOU aJ'tOAaf1~UV01JV lOU<; XCXQJ'tOU<; lOU XaL DLawJ'tWV01JV £XD1']AwnXE<;, XUQ(W<; al0I-1LxLotLXE<; 0f10- AOY(£<; J'tLot1']<; It£Q( l1']<; £A£u8£Q(a<;, f1£ xall(a aJ'tOAUlW<; a(081']-

01'] lWV £J't(I-1OX8WV £~£A~£WV ltOU XQELUOl11xav Ol11V £UQWJ'taLXl1 LOtOQ(a YLa VCX y(V01JV CXUlE<; £CPLXlE<;. 0 KQoJ't6lXLV, £V J'tQWtote, £VDELXlLXU EDwo£ Ef1cpa01'] «Oi1]V xooooo r1]e; aVYXQOV1]e; iEXVl)oje;, 1] oxoia anAonotcf IlE Oauuaou) toono tnv naQaywy1j OAWV rwv anaQa{r1]rwv yta r1] ~w1j»15. 'OOOL XUV01JV rn LOtOQLXU OUflcpQas6f1EVCX, aJ'tOXlOUV cp81']vU l1']V aACXSOVLXtj lOU<; Ef1JtELQ(CX.

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To CPUOLXO £J'tcxXOAou80 lOU aVlL-l£XVOAOYLO[lOU XaL lOU CXVlL-ltOALlL0f10U £(VaL 0 J'tQOYtoYOVLOfl6<;, flLCX J'taQaDE(ma £~U~lV1']01'] l1']<; J'tQOLotOQ(a<; XaL l1']<; £:J'tL8ufl(a<; YLCX f1La lQ6J'tov tLVU ~mOtQocptj otn CP£QOf1EV1'] a8WOl1']lU l1']<;. OL lifestyle avaQXLxo(, oJ'tw<; 0 MJ'tQuvtcpoQVt, avtAouv l1']V Ef1:J'tVE'Uo1l lOU<; an6 lO'U<; L8aY£VE(<; av8QwJ't0'U<; XaL roue f1u80'Ue; f1LCXe; J'taQcxDELOEVLae; J'tQOLot0Q(a<;. OL J'tQWlOL UV8QWltOL, AEEL, «aQv1181']xav l1']V lEXVOAOyea»~ - «EAaXLGWno{1]aav TO aXEuxo j3aQoe; rwv nQaxuxwv iEXVLXWV 1j rwv aoaxtixoiv r1]e; avanrv/;1]e; EQyaAE{wv xai exeXiEtvav r1] onuaoia ... rwv Exarauxwv iEXVtxwv». Am6 O1JVE~1'] EJ'tELDtj OL L8aYEvE (<;, f1E lL<; CXVLf1LOtLxEe; lOU<; J'tLotELe;, tjlav E f1J't0- tLOf1EVOL f1E f1LCX «cxyuJ't1']» YLa l1'] SWl1 lWV SWWV XaL l1']V cxYQL6- l1']la - yL CXUlOU<; «ta ~wa, ta ipota «ai ta tpuooai avtixeiueva» 1jrav «nQoawna, axoll1] xat aVYYEVtXa» (eIB, OEA. 11).

AV't(OlOLXCX, 0 MJ'tQuV'tCPOQVl Ev(ola'tUL ornv «EJ't(01']f11']» uJ'to1jJ1'] J'tou avaDELxvuEL lOU<; lQ6J'toue; SWl1<; lWV J'tQOLOtOQLXWV Xl1']VOlQOCPLXWV J'tOALlLOflWV we; «aitaiauov, j3avavawv xai vouaOtxwv, ivav auiaxnoo aywva yta rnv Emj3{wa1]». M6.AAov, ceto- 8EWVEL «rov CXQXEYOVO xoouo. W<; «uto rtou 0 Marshall Sahlins ovouoos; «l1]V aV()Evuxrj xotvcovta r1]e; acp()ov{ae;», acp80v(a E:rt£LDtj OL av6.yxE<; t1']<; E(vm A(YEe; xm OAEe; OL E:rtLf:hJf1(E<; t1']<; J'tQayuorcrvovtct EUxoAa. To oUVOAO lWV EQYCXAE(WV l1']<; E(vm xOf11jJo

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x6n]ta, om ZEQ~aVLa JtaAmQ-av8QwJtQAoyCa, ot aVatQ~UXE<; CLaCPQQE<; f,lEtasU tQU HQmQ sapiens, cero tYJ f,lLa f,lEQUl, xm tQU HQmQ habilis, tQU HQmQ erectus xm rorv «aQxEtU f,lQX8YJQwv» N EUvtEgtaA, an6 rnv uMYJ, ECvm af,lcpC~QAE<;' 6Aa tn JtQwLf,la EWYJ HQmQ, xatu rqv aJtO'ljJ'r] tQU, XatECxav u<; 1jJUXLXE<; xm cpumxE<; Lxav6tYJtE<; rou HQmQ sapiens xm EmJtAEQV ~Quoav 010 f,lLa aQXEYQVYJ f,laxaQL6tYJta YLa Jtuvw aJt6 MQ ExatQf,lf,luQLa XQ6vLa.

Av aUtU rn av8QwJtQELCtl titav t60Q EsuJtva 600' OL oVYXQQvm UV8QWJtOL, acpEAw<; 8a f.l1taCVaf,lE OtQV JtELQaof,l6 va QoottlOQUf,lE, YLatC CEV EcpYJuQav tEXVQAQYLXE<; aAAaYE<;; «Moo tpaiverat JtOA:V fVAOYO», ELXU~EL 0' Zerzan, «ott 1/ eixpota, Ota1COnaI1EV17 a1C6 tnv f1Ctrvx{a xai r1/v txavoxoinon uuu; xvv1/Yfnx1j~-rQocpoavMfxnx1j~ v1CaQ;1/~, a1COTfAd rov tOto TO A6yO r1/~ EX01/A1/~ anouaiai; "1CQ060ov". 0 xataueoiouo; r1/~ eovaaias; 1/ f;1/I1EQ(JJa1/, 1/ avl1f30AtX1j XovATOvQa - 6Aa avra xootpavox; [II ra dxav aQV17f1d I1EXQt1COAv nooaipoxa», Ta ECCYJ HQmQ «OtaAf;aV via aoxeto xWQ6 r1/ cpva1/ avti rov 1COAtrtaI10v» xat I1f r1/v EVVOta 1COAtrta116 fOOl 0 Zerzan fVVOf{ <<7:1/ XftQayOlY17~ TWV f3amxow aVI1f30AtXOlV 110QCPOlV» (cCVEtm Ef,lcpaOYJ) - Eva aAAQtQLWUxo uX8Q<;. LtYJV JtQaYf,laux6tYJta, OUVEX~EL, «0 xaral1frQ1/I1EVO~ XQ6vo~, 1/ YAOlaaa (1/ YQanr1j, f3Ef3wa, xai l1aMOV 1/ XaflOl1tAOVI1EV1/ YAOlaaa via TO llfyaAVTfQo X0l111an avr1j~ T1/~ 1CfQt600v), 1/ aQtfll11/Ttx1j xcu 1/ rExv1/ Oev cfxav A6yo v1CaQ;1/~, 1CaQa tnv eixpula rov~ T1/V a1C6Avra txav1j via avui» (FP, OEA. 23, 24).

Ev ouvrouto, ta av8QwJtQELCtl titav Lxavu YLa OUf,l~QAa, Qf,lLALa xm YQacptl aMu EOXEf,lf,lEVa rn aJtEQQL1jJav, acpQu urtoQQUOE to' Eva va xataAU~EL EvOtLXtWCW<; to' UAAQ xa8w<; xm to' JtEQL~UMOV tQu<;, XWQ(<; va xatacptJYQuv 010 rnrtd, 'EtOL 0' Zerzan JtQ68uf,la OUf,lCPWVEL f,lE Evav av8QwJtQwYQ JtQU oXEcptEtm OtL «H uumon TWV Sanlbouauavoiv I1f r1/ cpva1/» EcptaoE 010 «Eva f1C{- 1CfOO euaeiotac» JtQU «fla uxoooeoe oyeoov va ovouaatei a1C6- xoouo. FLa 1CaQaOetYl1a, euoiacav va ;EQOVV 1COl~ 1CQaYl1anxa

fla Evtwflf~ av 1jaovv fUcpaVTa~, AtoVTaQt, avnA61C1/», ax6f,lt] xm av tl0QUV Eva MvtQQ baobab (FP, OEA. 33-34).

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H avacuOYJ tYJ<; OUf,l~QALXtl<; XQUAtQuQa<;, f,lE tYJv EYYEVlj tYJ<; ~QUAt]OYJ va XELQaywYtloEL xm va EAEYSEL, otivrouo; UVOLSE tL<; nVAE<; YLa tYJV ESYJf,lEQWOYJ tYJ<; cptJOYJ<;. MEtU cero CUQ EXatQf,lf,luQLa XQ6vLa av8Qwmvt]<; ~Wtl<; evro; trov CEOf,lWV tYJ<; cpuOYJ<;, 010 LOQQQQJt(a f,lE ta uAAa uYQLa E(CYJ, YJ YEwQYLa uAAaSE tQV tQ6JtQ ~Wtl<; f,la<;, tQV tQ6JtQ tQU va JtQQoaQf,lQ~6f,laOtE, us f,lLa UVEU JtQQYJYQUf,lEVQU CLaOLxao(a. IIotE JtQLV 010 OUVE~YJ f,lLa t60Q QL~Lxtl aAAaYtl 010 Eva 10 (cQ<; t60Q QAQXAYJQwtLXU xm t60Q YQtlYQQa [ ... ] H autQ-ESYJf,lEQWOYJ f,lEOa aJt6 tTl YAwooa, tYJ 8QYJoxE(a xm mv tEXVYJ EVEJtVEUOE tYJv ESYJf,lEQWOYJ nov cputwv xm tWV ~wwv

58

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JtEQt~UAAOV JtaQu 'to [tE'ta'tQEJtEt yta vo XUVEl auro 'to JtEQL~UAAOV va au[t~t~aatEL ue 'tt<_; ~OUArjOEl<_; 'tl]<_;. AmpaAw<_;, oi JtQWt[tOt uv8QwJtOt ELxav [ua 8au[tuma xa'tavol]O'll 'tou JtEQt~UAAOv'to<_; 'tOU<_; [tEoa oro OJtOLO ~ouoav· rj'tav, EV 'tEAEl, JtOAU ESUJtva xm bl][ttouQytXU ovrc. Qatooo, '11 «EXata'ttXrj» 'tOU<_; XOUA'tOUQa rj'tav avaJt0cpEUX'ta YE[tU'tl] OXt [tOVO aJto 'tl] xaQu xcu «to rooyoubt ... 'tl] ytoQ'trj ... 'to OVElQo» aAAU xm aJto rnv JtQOXa'tUAl]ljJl] xci tou; EUXOAa «XElQaywyrjOt[tOU<_;» cpO~OU<_;.

OU'tE oi [taXQtVOL JtQOYOVOL [ta<_;, OU'tE oi UJtUQXOV'tE<_; t8aYEVEL<_; 8a [tJtoQouoav va Em~tWOOuv av xQa'touoav n<; «[wyw'ttXE<_;» tbEE<; 'tl]<; Disneyland Jtou 'tOU<; xa'taAoYLO'tljXav ceto 'tOU<; oUYXQovou<; JtQW1:0yoVtatE<;. BE~ma, ot EUQwJtaLOl bEY JtQoocpEQav croix t8aYEvEL<; xuJtOla EXJtAl]X'ttxrj XOlVWVtXrj ~orj- 8Ela. AXQt~w<_; 'to aV'tC8E'to: ot t[tJtEQtaAtatE<_; uJtE'taSav rou; V't6mou<_; av8QwJtou; O1:lj OXAljQrj EX[tE'tUUEUO'll, rnv OAOXAljQwttxrj YEVox'tovLa, 'tl] bLXW<; OvEtbo<; AEl]AaOLa xm u; aQQwortE; evovnov rurv OJtOLWV bEY ELxav ovooto, Kovsvc avt[ttattXO SOQXt bEY [tJt6QWE xm OU'tE [tJtOQOUOE vu E[tJtob(OEt auro 'to [taxEAEl6, oJtw; rnv 'tQaywb(a 'tOU Wounded Knee 'to 1890, orov 0 [tuBo; yta 'ta Jtouxu[ttoa rcov qxrvrooudtrov nou ELvm uTQw'ta O1:t; ocpa(QE; rooo EJtwbuva btaljJEUbE'tm.

Auro nou E(vm xaLQta<; O'll[tao(a<; E(vm on TJ avubQo[tTJ JtoQE(a JtQo<; 'tOY JtQw'tOYOVto[to ovdueou otou; lifestyle cvcoXtxou<; aQvEC'tm u<; JtLO ESEXOUOE<; auVEtOCPOQE<; Tl]<; av8QwJto'tl]'ta<_; W<; ELbo'll<; xm u<; buvl]'tLXU XELQacpE'tLXE<; JtAEUQE<; 'tOU EUQw-a[tEQLxUVtXOU JtOAtTLO[tOU. OL uv8QwJtOt E(vm ESmQE'tLxu bLacpoQE1:tXO( ano 'ta uMa ~wa 01:0 OU xuvouv JtEQLooo'tEQa aJto 'to va JtQooaQ[to~oV'tm aJtAa oro YUQw xoouo 'tou;· xcuvotouotiv xm blj[tLOUQYouv Eva VEO x60[t0, 0XL uovo yta v« avaxaMipouv u<_; bLXE<; 'tOU<_; buvu[tEl<; w; av8Qwmva ovro aAAU xm YLa va xuvouv 'toy xoouo YUQw 'tOU<; JtLO ~OALXO YLa 'tTJv avumusrj 'tOU<;, xm w; u'to[ta xm W<; E(bo<_;. Amrj '11 bEstO'tl]'ta atQE~AWvE'tm

aJto'tl] oUYXQOVTJ avoQ80AOYLxrj xOlvwv(a·'I1 LXavo'tl]'ta'tou va anU~EL<; 'tOY xoouo aJto'tEAEl Eva CPUOLXO XUQLo[ta, 'to JtQo"Lov 'tl]<_; av8Qwmvlj<; ~LOAOYLXrj<; ESEALSl]<; - 0XL aJtAU Eva JtQo"Lov 'tEXvoAoYla;, 0Q80AOYLx0'tl]'ta<; xm JtOAL'tLO[tOU. To on oi uv8QwJtOL noo aJtoxaAouv roo; Eau'tou<; rou; avaQXLxou<_; 8a EJtQEJtE va UL08E'trjOOUV Evav JtQW'tOYOVLO[tO nou JtQOOEYY~El TO aVL[taAL01:LX6, [tE 'to aVEJtaQxw<_; auYXExaAU[t[tEvO [trjvu[ta 'tl]<; JtQOoaQ[tOO1:LXO'tlj'tU; rou xm 'tl]<; Jta8l]'tLxO'tl]'tu<_; 'tOU, OJtLAWVEl aJto [tOVO'tOU mwvE<; EJtavaata'tLxrj; OXEljJl]<;, LbavLXWV xm JtQaXTLxrj<_; xrn, omv JtQaY[tauxo'tl]'ta, bUOCPlj[tEl 'tL; aSLO[tVl][tOVEU'tE; JtQOOJtU8ELE<_; 'tl]<_; av8QwJtO'tl]'ta<; va EAEU8EQw8E( cero 'tt<_; atEVE<; aV'tLArjljJEL<;, 'to [tUatLXLO[tO xm'tL<_; JtQOXa'taArjljJEl<_; xm va aAAU~EL 'toy x60[t0.

Tur 'tOu<; lifestyle avaQXLXOu<;, auYXExQL[tEva rou aV'tL-JtoALnO[tLxov xm JtQWTOYOVL01:LXOV ELbou;, '11 LatoQLal] LbLa ceroreAEl [tLa [tOVOALBLXrj 'llJto~u8[ttol] zrou xa'ta~Qox8~El 6AE<; n<; OtacpoQE<_;, n<; JtaQE[t~UOEt<;, U<; CPUOEt<; 'tl]<_; avamu~lj<; xm'tL<; XOlVWVLXE<; tOtaLtEQo'tl]'tE<;. 0 XaJtL'taALo[to<_; xm OL aV'tLcpuOEl<_; rou JtEQLOQ~ov'tm oro EJtLcpmvo[tEva EVO<; JtOAL'tLO[tOU rtou xa'taJtLVEL ro JtuV'ta xm 'tt<; 'tE)(VOAOYLXE<; rou «avayxmo'tlj'tE<;» JtO'll 'tOU<; AElJtEl lj AEm6'tl]'ta xm lj bLacpoQE'tLx6'tl]'ta. H LatoQ(a, [tEXQt 'twQa xa8w<; 'tl]V auAAa[t~uvou[tE W<; 'to sEb(JtAw[ta rou OQ80AoytXOU ouotrmxoe 'tl]<_; av8QwJto'tl]'ta<_; - uvcorniooe, 'tl] OUVl]'tLxo'tlj'ta yta rnv EAEu8EQ(a, rnv auro-auvE(bl]ol] xm 'tl] auvEQyao(a - anO'tEAEL [tta oUV8E'tl] JtEQtYQacprj 'tl]<; xOQucpwOlj<_; TWV av8QwJttvwV m08aV'ttxO'trjTwV, 8w[twv, btavol]Olj<; xm yvwOlj<;, rj uuro JtOU XUJtO'tE ovcuooc «'11 EXJtalOEUOl] 'tl]<_; av8QwJto'tl]'ta<_;». Fur vo aV'tt[tE'tWJtLOOU[tE 'tljV tatoQ(a W<; [tta ata8EQ1] «111:wOl]» aJto [tta aVt[taAtO'ttxrj «au8EV'ttXo'tl]'ta», oJtW<; ot Zerzan, MJtQuV'tcpoQV't xm ot oUV'tQOCPO( 'tOU<; XUVOUV OE bLUCPOQOU<; ~a8[tou<; EV'tO<; [tta<_; [toba<_; JtoM JtaQo[tOla<; [tE au'trj TOU Martin Heidegger, Olj[taLVEt vu ayvorjooU[tE rn btaatEAAO-

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uevo LOaVLXa T1]e:; EAEuSq~(ae:;, T1]e:; ato~Lx6r:rrr:ae:; xm T1]e:; amoO'UVE(Oy]OY]e:; nou EXOUV OY]~aM\(JEL ne:; mOXEe:; tY]e:; avSQwJtLvY]e:; avamusY]e:; - YLa va ~Y] f.LLA1)OOUIlE YLa tY] oLEUQUVOIlEVy] xALllaxa tWV EnavaO'tanxwv aywvwv nou EYLvav YLa va nEtUxOUv autoue:; rou; oxonoik.

o avn-noALtL0IlLXOe:; lifestyle avaQXLO~oe:; E(vm anAa ~La nAEuQa tY]e:; XOLVWVLX1)e:; OJtLOSOOQOIly]OY]e:; ztou OY]llaOEUEL tLe:; oEXaEt(Ee:; rtou XAELVOUV tOY 200 mwva. KaSwe:; 0 xaJtLtaALolloe:; anELAE( va I;EIlJtEQOE\(JEL IlE T1] cpumx1) LO'toQ(a IlE to va T1] CPEQEL moto OE IlLa anAouO'tEQl], ALYOtEQO oLacpoQonOLl]IlEvy] ~WOAOYLXtl xm YEWAOYLXtl mOXtl, srcn xm 0 avtL-nOALtLOIlLXOe:; lifestyle avaQXLolloe:; E(vm oull~atoe:; ~E tOY XaJtLtaALo~o nQoonaSwvtae:; va CPEQEL 'to avSQwJtLVO nVEulla xca mv LO'toQ(a roo nLow OE svov ALYOtEQO aVEmuY~EVO, ALYOtEQO xaSoQLo~EVO, ALYOtEQO «nQo-ntW'tLxo» XOOIlO - rnv unonSEIlEvy] «aSwa» nQo-'tEXVOAOYLXtl xm nQo-nOALtL0IlLXtl xOLvwv(a rtou nQo-UntlQI;E ano rcrs nou l] avSQwnOtl]'ta «ESEnWE T1]e:; xaQLtoe:;». 'Onwe:; xm OL AnnocpayOL OT1]v Ooooaeia rot: 0lltlQou, OL avSQwnOL E(vm «auSEvtLXO(» orov ~ouv OE Eva mwvLo naQov, XWQ(e:; naQEASov 1) IlEAAoV - XWQ(e:; va roix anaoxoAE( l] 1lv1)~Y] 1) Y] VOEgtl aUMl]\(Jl], EAEUSEQOL ano naQaooOY] xru xwg(e:; to IlEAl]~a 'tOU «OEOvtOe:;».

ELQwvLxa, 0 XOOIlOe:; rtou ESLoaVLXEUE'tm coro rou; nQW'toYOVLO'tEe:; OT1]V nQaYllatLXOT1]'ta Sa anEXAELE to SEIlEALaxo «toIlLXLOIlO nou ullvE(tm ano rou; at0IlLXLO'tEe:; XAl]QOVOIlOUe:; tOU Mas ~'t(QVEQ. KaSwe:; OL aUYXQOVEe:; «nQw'toyoVEe:;» XOLVOT1]tEe:; EXOUY naQaYEL atOlla aQxEta EyxaQaYIlEva (OT1]v xouA'tOuQa T1]e:; XOLvOtT]me:;), Y] OVValll] nov ES(~WV xm 0 u\(Jl]A6e:; ~aS~oe:; T1]e:; ouoOLXtle:; aMl]AEYYUY]e:; rtou EJtL~anE'tm ano ne:; anm'tl]nxEe:; oovStlXEe:; EJtL'tQEnouv ~La ~LXQ1) anoXALOl] YLa mv nAana atO~LxLO'tLX1) ou~nEQLcpoQa, rou £looue:; nou anmtE(tm ceto rou; O'tLQVEQLXOUe:; avaQXLxoue:; nou ouvoov T1]V avWtEQOtl]'ta tOU EYw. ~1)~EQa, to va \(JEu'to-aVaXatEUEom orov nQw'tOyovLO~O E(vm

aXQLj3we:; to nQovo~LO nov nAouOLwv xa'tO(xwv rou aO'tEwe:; nou ~noQouv va sOO€\(Jouv 'to XQovo rou; YLa va na~ouv ~E qxrvmO(Ee:; rtou aQvouvtm 0Xl uovo 'tl]v nE(va xm tl] cp'twXEla, toue:; «voudoe;» OL onotor ano avayxl] xcroixoov crouc oQo~oue:; rou aO'tEwe:;, aAAa xm 'tOue:; SESEW~EVOUe:; EQya~Of!EVoUe:;. OL aUYXQOVEe:; EQya~o~EvEe:; yuva(xEe:; ~E nmoLa OVoxoAa Sa Exavav XWQ(e:; tl]v avaxoucpLoy], av xm EAaXLO'tl], rtou 'toue:; nQoOCPEQEL 'to nAUV'ttlQLO or«; XaSl]~EQlVEe:; toue:; OLxLaxEe:; EQyao(Ee:; - nQLv va naVE va OOUAE\(JOUV YLa va XEQO(OOUV amo rtou O'Uxva E(VaL to ~EYaAU'tEQo ~EQOe:; rou ELoo(1)~atoe:; nov VOLXOXUQLWV roue. ELQwvLxa, axo~a xm l] OUAAoYLxOtl]ta ztou j3ya~EL to Fifth Estate E(OE on OEV ~noQouoE va tn xatacpEQEL XWQ(e:; unoAoYL- 0't1) xm *av «cvcvxoousvn» va ayoQaoEL Evav - SE'tOvtae:; ~La unoxQL<Lxtl anox1)Qusy], «Tov ~LOOU~E!»36 H anoxtlQuSl] IlLae:; ngol]Y~EVl]e:; tEXVoAoy(ae:; EVW tl] XQY]OL~onOLE(e:; YLa va naQaYELe:; avtL-'tEXVOAOYLX1) cpLAoAoy(a OEV E(vm uovo unoxQL'tLX1), o~we:;, aMa EXEL xm cpaQLoa"LxEe:; oLaO'taOELe:;: TE'tOLo «uioo;» YLa rou; unoAoYLO'tEe:; ~OLa~EL JtLO nOAu oav 'to QE\(JL~O torv nQoVO~LOUXWV, OL onotoi, acpoti EXOUV xogtaoEL OL (OLOL ~E ne:; ALXOUOLEe:; roue, ESU~vouv ne:; aQE'tEe:; 'tl]e:; cp'twXELae:; xata T1] OLaQXELa nov xUQLaxanxwv rou; nQooEuxWV.

A:rtO'tl'.UOV't(l~ rov Lifestyle AV(lQxuJ,...6

Auto nou cpavta~EL nLO ouvaQnaotLxo 0't0 onusowo litesryle avaQXLo~o E(vm l] taoY] ron YLa allWotl]ta naQa YLa uvuotoxao~o, YLa ~La acpEAtl EVOe:;-~E-Evav OXEOY] ~E'tasu ~uaAou xm nQay~a'tLxo'tl1'tae:;. LlE O'to~WVEL uovo autrj l] a~EOOtl]ta tl]V EAEUSEQLaXtl OXE\(Jl] coro 'tl]V anaC'tl]or] 'tY]e:; YLa 'tY] ~EOOA<iI3l]OY] EVOe:; AEmou avaO'toxao~ou· tau't0XQova, anOXAE(EL xm 'ty]v OQSOAOYLXtl avaAuoy] xcn, YLa auto xrn, 'tl]V OQSOAOYLxo'tl]ta xaSaml). I1aQao(oovtae:; T1]V avSQwnOtT]ta 0't0 ESW-XOO~lX6, to

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f!l]-xwQLx6 xoa to aVL01:0QLX6 -- f!La «aQXEYOVl]» LMa 'tl]e; XOOf!Lx6'tl]'tae; ~amOf!EVl] 01:0Ue; «aW)VLOUC;» xvxAOUC; 'tl]C; «<l>vOl]e;» - 'to f!uaM anaAAuoo£'tm an6 'tYJ OYJf!LOUQYLXtl 'tOU [tovaoLx6'tl]'ta xm rnv £A£u8£Q(a rou va naQ£f!~a(v£L 01:0 Cjlumx6 xoouo.

An6 'tl]V nA£uQu rou nQw't0yoVL01:LXOV lifestyle avaQXLOf!OV, 'ta av8QwnLva cvco ~Q(oxoV'tm O1:YJV xaAV't£Qtl 'tOuC; orov nQooaQ[t6~0V'tm O1:YJ f!YJ av8QwJtLvYJ cpVOl] naQu may naQ£[t~a(vouv O£ amtlv, tl6'tav, anaAAaYf!Eva coro 'tYJ AOYLXtl, 'tl]v 't£XvoAoy(a, 'tOU nOAmof!ov ax6f!l] xm 'tl]e; of!LA(ac;, ~ouv O£ f!La aOLmuQax'tl] «aQf!ov(a» us 'tYJv unuQxouoa nQaYf!anx6'tl]'ta, (owe; nQOLXLaf!Eva f!£ tn «rpuoixd OLxmW[ta'tU» O£ f!la £V01:LX'tWOYJ xm OUma01:LXU ao't6xaO'tYJ «£X01:mLXtl» ouv8tlxl]. Oi T.A.Z., l] Fifth Estate, 'to Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed xm 'ta AOVf!n£v «zines» onwc; to O1:LQV£QLXO «Aywvac; Kata01:QoCjltlC;» (Demolition Derby) rou Michael William - 6Aa emxevrooivouv O£ Eva Uf!£OO, a-L01:oQlXO xm aV'tL-noAmof!Lx6 «aQXEYovox an6 'to onoto EXOUf!£ «£xnEo£L», f!La xmu01:aoYJ t£A£L6'tYJ'tac; xm «au8£v'tlxo'tYJ'tac;» O'tYJV onoio xa800l]yov[ta01:av us nOLxLA(a coto rou; «OWf!OVC; 'tYJ <l>vOl]e;», 'to «qnxnxo O(xmo» tl ro naf!Cjluya £Yw f!ae;. H I01:oQ(a xm 0 IIoAl'tlof!6C; O£V n£QLExouv'tLnOW uAAo naQu Evav xa"ttiCjloQo f!EOa O1:l]V «ov-uufiev'tLx6'tl]'ta» 'tl]e; ~LOf!l]xaVLXtlC; xOLvwv(ac;.

'Onwe; EXW tlOl] O£~£L, am6c; 0 f!v80e; «'tl]e; mwol]C; urto mv au8£vnx6'tl]'tU» EX£L nc; OLXEe; rou Q~£C; 01:0V avnoQa01:Lx6 Qo[tav'twf!6, nLO nQ60Cjlata o'tYJ CjlLAoooCjl(a 'tau Martin Heidegger, rou ortotou 0 volkisch* «nv£uf!ano[t6c;» Aav8uvwv 01:0 Eivat xai XQ6vo~, En£L'ta avaC\V8l]x£ O1:a ~£xu8aQa qxrot-

O1:LXU tOU EQya. Amtl YJ un01jJYJ 'twQa auV£X~£L va 'tQECjl£L 'tOY avaxwQl]nxo uoouxiouo nou ~Q(8£L O1:a avn-ol]f!oxQanxu YQamu rot: Rudolf Bahro, ue 'tl]v av£naQxw£ f!£'ta[tCjlLw[tEVl] EXXAl]Ol] YLa «AV'tQWOl]» coro Evav «Ilodoivo AOOACjlo», xm 01:0 anoAL't(x XUVtlYL YLa OLxoAoYLx6 avsuprrnouo xm «au'tO-nQayf!u'twoYJ» nou uvcorniooetrn an6 roue 8Laow't£e; 'tl]C; Ba8Lu£ OLxoAoy(a£. *

1:'tO 'tEAo£, 'to a'tOf!LXO £Yw y(v£tm 0 avw'tmo£ vaoc; 'tl]C; nQaYf!anx6tYJ'tac;, anoxA£(oV'ta£ rnv L01:oQ(a xm 'to «nQootlXOV», 'tl] ol]f!oxQm(a xm rnv £u8vvYJ. I:'tl]V nQaYf!anx6'tYJ'ta, l] ~LWf!EVl] £nacpti ue 'tl]v xOLvwv(a wc; tEtOLa xa8(01:mm LOXvtl ano Eva vaQxLomo[to ztou ayxaALu~£L 01..0 xm n£Qlooo't£Qa nQuyucrc, zou uCjl(01:atm f!aQaof!6 O1:YJ auvava01:QoCjltl tOU f!£ Eva vrpnoxo £yw, nou Ol]f!a(v£L uovo XU'tL naQanuvw ano Eva f!u'tOo LOXUQlOf!WV, anm'ttlo£wv xm ~£CjlwvYJtWV Yla tYJ OlXtl rou Lxavonomon. 0 nOAmof!6c; anAu £f!nOO~£L tYJV £xotanxtl «uronQaYf!u'twoYJ tWV £m8Uf!LWV tOU £yw, nQaYf!mOnolYJf!EvYJ£ W£ f!la£ an6Aml]C; nQaYf!u'twOl]C; 'tYJC; X£LQaCjlE'tYJOl]C;, xm auto Ylm( l] ExotaOl] xm YJ £nL8uf!(a O£V rirov nQo'(6V'ta xOQvCjlwOl]C; xm lotOQLXtlC; avun'tU~l]£, aAAu anAu Ef!CjlU'ta EvotLx'ta rtou euqxrv~oV'tm cero 'to l-ll]bEv oe svov uno-xorvcovtxortomusvo xoouo.

'Onw£ 'to f!LxQoaotLX6 otLQV£QLXO Eyw, 0 lifestyle avaQXLOf!O£ rou nQw'tOyovlOf!OV O£ XWQu rou; XOLVWVLXOV£ 8wf!ov£,

*(:l:.t.M.): Volkisch: rEQliaVL)(1] MST] nou 8a tT]v anEou5a (m; to «Aa"L)(O». 'OIiW£, rnv aqnjvw allETacpQWJ'tTl ~UU(; !taL auto TO «A,uYx6» Y(VETUL JtLO 1toAthtf..oxO xrn auVOEE'talcX!lEOa IAE !.u.a WutOtT]W CPUAI]" aLl-lutO, )(aL EOUqJOtJ£, "QoqJavw, OtJVOEOEI-lEVO liE rnv E8voOOOLaAu:rn)(1] QT]tOQELa. I'tu tL£ volkish )(OLVOtT]tE£ "OtJ nQo'lYI]8T])(av rou va~LOIiOU ~MnE )(aL Otxoipaoiauoc: Ma!hjl'am ano 11'} Tt(!l'av,,,'i Euneioia nov Janet Biehl Peter xci Staudenmaier (unp BaoLA'l£ KanEtavyu'ivvT], - BaYYEAT]£ KOUtaA1']£, E)(liOoEL£ Iovdqx, 2003)

*(:l:.t.M.): Ba8LU OL)(OAoYLa (Deep Ecology): OL)(OAOYL)(6 QEulia om onoio 0 Bookchin OE riMa EQya tOO aqJLEQWvEL IiEYriAo IiEQO, tT], )(QltL)(I]£ too. KUQLOL OE)(tE£ tT], )(QLU)(I], 0 David Foreman )(aL T] oQYuvw01'] «Earth First!» nou nvurrniooet uto ~LO-)(EvtQL)(tj, avtL-av8Qwmotixr] nOAm)(!] ~aOLOflEVl] oro aUv81']f'U T'1£ «I1Low ornv I1AELm6)(aLvo I1EQ(oOo!». 0 Foreman, an6 rnv UAAT], Ef'qJav~ETaL W£ vEo-liaA80tJOLav6£ ztou OE ~Q(O)(EL )(ali(a 01']f!QoLa oro va ~0'18ljoOtJIiE atjliEQa tL£ aqJQL)(UVL)(E£ XWQE£. :l:E )(<inOLa OtJVEvtEUSI] TOtJ MEL: « ... otuv AEW orov )(601i0 en TO XtLQ6TEQO "Quy!'a rtou 8a !",oQouoaflE va XUVOtJliE YLa rnv AL8LOnLa ELVaL va tT]£ nQoOqJEQOtJliE j3olj8ELa - TO )(aAUtEQO 8a ljrav va aqJljoOUI-lE anAW£ tT] cpU01'] va ~QEL T'1V LOOQQon(a TT]£, va aqJtjOOtJliE TOU£ av8QwnotJ£ E)(EL va nf8rivotJV uno rnv "ELva - VOI-l~OtJv OtL mrro E(VaL TEQutWOE, ... » (OEA. 49, 0 Moeo; TOV Ynee-nA.1'}Oval'oV, Murray Bookchin, E)(O. EAEu8EQo, Tuno£).

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'tL£ JtOALtLXE£ OQyavWOEL£ Xat rc gL~OOJta(ytLXU Jtgoygu!tf.w'ta, ax6!tT] ALy6'tEQO !tLa ()T]!t6ma ocpa(ga, 'tT]V onotc 6AOL OL auyygacpE(£, JtOU E~E'tUOa!tE, 'tau'tCl;ouv !tE 'to Kgu'tO£. To onooc()Lx6, 'to u-ouomucenxo, 'to !tT] auvEX'tLX6, 'to a-auvEXE£ Xat T] ()LaLo8T]'tLx~ Jtaga!tEgCl;ouv 'to auVEJtE£, 'to EXOV oxozo, 'to ogyavw!tEVO Xat Og80AOYLX6, Jtguy!tmL XU8E !togcp~ ()gaCYtT]gL6'tT]'ta£ zrou W'tLU~EL Xat E!t!tEVEL 010 Eva oxono, Ex't6£ ~E~ata an6 'to va ~yu~EL£ Eva JtEQWClLX6 ~ !tLa cpuAAuCla -11 va xat£ Eva oxoum()O'tEVEXE. H cpav-rao(a av-rLJtagmC8E'tat !tE 'tT] AOYLX~ XaL T] Em- 8w(a !tE 'tT] 8EWgT]'tLX~ auvox~, AE£ Xat au'tu rc ()Uo ~g(oxov-rat 010 gL~LX~ av-r(cpaOT] !tE'ta~v 'tou£. H JtgOEL()OJtO(T]OT] rou fx6YLa OTL T] cpav-rao(a XWQ(£ 'tT] AOYLX~ YEVVUEL 'tEga'ta ClLamgE~AWvE'taL YLa va acp~oEL mv EvWJtWOT] 6'tL T] cpav-rao(a 8UAAEL 010 !tLa !tT] ClLa!twoAa~T]!tEvT] E!tJtELg(a !tE !tLa xwg(£ AEJt't6'tT]'ta «!tovaClLxomro». 'Etot T] XOLVWVLX~ cpvOT] CYtT]V ouoto XUVE'tat !tEoa CYtT] ~LOAOYLX~ CPVOT]' T] xowotouor; av8gwJt6'tT]'ta !tEoa orqv Jtgooag!tomLx~ ~wLx6'tT]'ta' 'to QX60!tLO !tEoa orqv JtgO-JtOAL'tLO!tLx~ atwvL6'tT]'ta' T] Lmog(a !tEoa 010 !tLa agxaLx~ XUXALx6'tT]'ta.

MLa amLx~ JtgaY!tanx6'tTj'ta, 'tT]£ oJto(a£ T] OLXOVO!tLX~ OXAT]g6'tT]'ta Y(VE'tat 6AO mo 'tgaXLu Xat Ev-rOVT] XU8E !tEga nou JtEgVUEL, !tE'taMuooE'tat EmM~La cero 'tOY lifestyle avagXLo!t6 orou; amEgLo!toV£ 'tT]£ au'to-LxavoJto(T]OT]£, rou a()La!t6gcpW'tOu, 'tT]£ aJtEL8agx(a£ XaL 'tT]£ !tT] auvoX~£. TT] ()EXan(a rou 1960, OL Kmamamaxo(, oro ovouc !tLa£ «8Ewg(a£ 'to'll 8Eu!tmo£», CYtT]v ouoto Jtag~yayav Eva JtgaY!tmLx6 8Ea!ta 'tT]£ 8Ewg(a£, aAA.a 'toUAaXLmOV Jtg60cpEgav ogyaVW'tLXE£ Clwg8w'tLXE£ AVOEL£, 6nw£ 'ta Egyauxu au!t~ovALa, nou EOwoav orov at08T]nXLo!t6 rou; xuJtOLa LooggoJt(a. 0 lifestyle avagXLo!t6£, ue 'to va ocpugoxoJtu rnv ogyuvwOT], 'tT]v Jtgoyga!t!tanx~ OEO!tEUOT] Xat 'tT] oopug~ XOLVWVLX~ avuA'UOT], m8T]xCl;EL Jtgo£ 'tL£ XELg6'tEgE£ JtAEUgE£ roi: xmamamaxov at08T]nxLo!tov xwg(£ va E!t!tEVEL oro Jtg6- 'tay!ta 'tT]£ OLxoo6!tT]0T]£ Ev6£ xLv~!ta'tO£. 'OJtw£ rn aJto!tELVugLa

tou '60, JtEgLJtAavLE'tat uoxoJta !tEoa orotx vouoix rou qw (nou uerovoucorrpecv aJt6 'tOY Zerzan 010 «cpumxov£ vououc») XaL xa'tav-ru !tLa agE't~ 'tT]£ !tJtOE!tLXT]£ EAAEL'ljJT]£ auvoX~£.

Auto ztou 10 (Vat 'to JtLO Jtgo~AT]!tmLx6 us n£ mrro-txcvozotT]'tLXE£ at08T]'tLXE£ LClW'tgOJt(E£ roo lifestyle avagXLo!toV ELVat OTL oLa~Qwvouv OT]!tav-rLxu 'tT] oomaALmLx~ xagoLu !tLa£ agLmEg* EAEU8EgLax~£ L()WAoy(a£ zrou XUJtO'tE !tJtOgOVOE va aJtat't~oEL !tLa xOLvwvLx11 auvucpELa Xat Eva ~a8!to xOLvwvLx11£ ~agv'tT]'ta£, axgL~w£ Myw 'tT]£ aau!t~(~amT]£ mgu'tEu~£ 'tT]£ orn XELgacpE'tT]0T] - 6XL Ex't6£ 'tT]£ Lmog(a£, orn ocpa(ga roo UJtOXEL!tEVLXOV, aAAu !tEoa ornv rorooto, OTT] ocpa(ga tou av-rLXEL!tEVLXOV. To Jtgw'tO JtoALtLx6 aVv8T]!ta YLa 'tT]v IIgw'tT] LlLE8v~ - mv onotc 0 avagxo-ouvDLxaALo!t6£ XaL 0 avagxo-xo!t!t0'Uvw!t6£ EJtavaJtgooEYYLoav acpov 0 Mag~ XaL OL uJtomT]gLx'tE£ rou rnv evxo'tEAEL'ljJav - *av 'to a('tT]!ta: «'OXL ()LXatw!tma XWgL£ xa8~xOV'ta, 6XL xa8~xoV'ta xwgL£ ()LXaLw!tma». fLa YEVLE£, a'U't6 'to aVv81]!ta X60!tl]OE tL£ JtgO!tE'tWJtLDE£ a'U'twv ztou JtgEJtEL 'twga avaClQO!tLXU va ovoudooous XOLVWVLXU avaQXLxu JtEgLO()LXU. ~~!tEQa, mEXEL gL~LXU av-rC8E'tO !tE 'to ~amxu EYWXEv-rgLX6 a('tT]!ta YLa «OJtALO!tEVl] Em8u!t(a» xa8w£ Xat ue 'tOY 'tao'tmLx6 ()LaAoYLo!t6 XaL'tL£ 130uoLmLxE£ VLgI3UVE£. 'Ozou 0 XOLVWVLX6£ avaQXLa!to£ xaAEL'tO Aa6 YLa EJtavumaOT] XaL yugEVEL 'tl]v avaxmaoxEU~ 'tT]£ xOLvwv(a£, OL E~OgYLO!tEVOL !tLxgoamo( nou mEAEXwvOUV'tOY xoouo 'tyt£ UJtOXouA'tOvga£ rou lifestyle avagXLo!toV xaAovv YLa JtEgLmamaxE£ E~EYEgOEL£ Xat 'tT]V LxavoJto(ytOT] rorv «Em8u!tl]'tLXWV roo; !tl]xavwv», YLa va xgytm!toJtOL~oOU!tE 'tyt cpgaoEoAoYLa torv N'tEM~ Xat fxoumagL.

H ma8Eg~ uJtoxwgl]OT] cero 'tytv XOLVWVLX~ mgu'tEuOT] 'to'll xAamxov avagXLo!toV orov XOLVWVLX6 aywva (xwg(£ 'tOY OJtOLO 1] am6-JtQay!tu'twOT] Xat 1] EXJtA~gWOT] 'tT]£ EJtL8WLa£ 010 6AE£ 'tT]£ 'tL£ ()Lao'tuOEL£, 6XL aJtAu 'tL£ EvmLx'tW()EL£, OEV !tJtogovv va JtQaY!tmw80vv) OUVO()EVnaL avaJt6cpEux'ta ceto !tLa xcrc-

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O1:QOCPL)(l1 f!U01:L)(OnOCl]Ol] 'tl]£ £f!nELQCa£ )(m 'tl]£ nQaYf!a'tL)(Otl]La£. To qw, rtou avayvwQLSE'tm 0X£oov CPE'tLXL01:L)(U 00£ 0 'tono£ 'tl]£ XELQacpE'tl]Ol]£, )(a'taV'tu trnrtonxo us 'to «l]Y£f!OVL)(O drouo» rou laissez-faire a'tOf!L)(LOf!OU. Axouoxooouevo coro 'tL£ XOLVWVLXE£ 'tOU xa'ta~oA.E£, n£LUxaCVEL 0XL 'tl]v mrtovoufn a'Mu tnv £1:£QOVOf!l] «eourornru» 'tl]£ f!LxQoa01:Lxl1£ £JtLXECQl]Ol]£.

IIQuYf!aLL, f!axQLu coro 'to va ECvm £A£1)8£Qo, 'to £yw O'tl]v l]YEf!OVLXl1 LOU £amo'tl]'ta £Cvm O£f!EVO X£LQonooaQa OLOU£ cpmVOf!EVLXU avwvuf!OU£ VOf!OU£ 'tl]£ OLXOVOf!Ca£ 'tl]£ ayoQu£ - 'tOU£ VOf!OU£ LOU av'taywvLOf!OV xm 'tl]£ £Xf!£'tUAA£UOl]£ - OL onotoi anooCOouv 'to f!u80 'tl]£ aLOf!Lxl1£ £AEU8£QCa£ O£ Eva axof!l] CPE'tCX anoxQu~oV'ta£ roo; u'tqx'tou£ vouou; 'tl]£ xnm'taAL01:Lxl1£ OUOOWQEUOl]£.

o lifestyle avaQXLOf!O£, omv oooto, anOO£L)(VU£1:m f!La EJtLnQo08£'tl] f!U01:LXOnOLl]LLxl1 a01:LXl1 anu'tl]. OL axoAou80C LOU £CVaL mo «amOVOf!OL» coto LL£ XLV110£L£ 'tl]£ ayoQu£, ano LL£ OLaXUf!UVOEL£ rcov 'tLf!WV XaL La uxaQa yqovOta 'tOU a01:LXOU Ef!JtOQeOU. 'OA££ OL anaL't110EL£ YLa 'tl]V mrtovouto aVESaLQf'tW£ - amo£ 0 «EnaVa01:U'tl]£» 'tl]£ f!£OaCa£ 'tUSl]£, f!E 11 XWQC£ svo roo~AO 01:0 XEQL - naQaf!EvOUV OAOXAl]QW'tLXU cpuAaXLOf!EV££ O1:L£ unoYEL££ OUVUf!£L£ 'tl]£ ayoQu£ rtou xa'taAaf!~uv£L oAa 'ta uno'tL8Ef!EVa «EAEu8£Qa» n£OCa 'tl]£ oVYXQOVl]£ XOLVWVLXl1£ ~Wl1£, ano LL£ xoonEQa'tC~E£ YLa 'to cpaYl]'to f!EXQL LL£ aYQOLLXE£ XOf!f!OUVE£.

o XaJtL'taALOf!O£ nQoxaA£C YUQW f!a£ Eva O1:QO~LAO - 0XL f!OVO UALXU aAAu XaL nOAmOf!Lxu. 'Onw£ 0 John Zerzan rooo aSLOf!Vl]f!OV£ma'to E8£OE OE Eva OUYXUOf!EVO OUVEV'tEuSLa01:l1 'tOU, nou QW'tl]O£ YLa 'to OE't 'tl]£ 'tl]A£OQaOl]£ 01:0 omn rnrtoti 'tOU £X8Qou 'tl]£ 't£XvoAoyCa£: «'Onw£ OAOL OL UAAOL uv8QwnOL nQEnEL XL EYW va vaQxwVOf!aL».37

Auro; 0 lifestyle avaQXLOf!O£ ztou £CVaL ano f!OVO£ 'tOU f!La vaQXWf!EVl] amanu'tl] f!JtOQ£C xaAVL£Qa va LOw8£C OLO «OuovcOLXO£ XaL 'to ~L)(O LOU» (The Ego and His Own) rou Mas L'tCQ-

V£Q, onou 'to aC'tl]f!a 'tOU qw YLa «f!OVaOLXOtl]'ta» 01:0 voo 'tOU navCEQOU «smnor» Xa'ta'tUOO£'taL noAV '\jJl]AO't£Qa coro 'tL£ CPLA£A£u8£Q££ EUOE~ELE£ 'tOU nov LLLouaQ't MLA. L'tl]V nQaYf!a'tLxornro, f!£ 'tOY L'tCQV£Q, 0 qWLOf!O£ yCVE'taL ~*l]f!a 'tl]£ EJtLOLl]f!OAoyCa£. II£QvwV'ta£ f!EOa uno 'to Aa~uQLv80 rcrv uvnqxioeorv XaL'twv aSL08Ql1vl]'ta avoAoxAl1QW'tWV Ol]AWO£WV nou Y£f!LSOUV 'to ~L~ACO, xunOLo£ 8a ~Q£L LO «f!OVaOLxo» £yw LOU L'tCQVEQ va anO't£AEC Eva f!V80 xa8w£ OL QLS££ rou; XECV'taL OLOV CPaLv0f!£VLXU «UAAO» - tnv COLa 'tl]V )(OLVWvCa. «H aA118ELa O£V f!JtOQ£C va nQoxwQ110EL nQo£ 'ta Ef!nQO£ onw£ XUV£L£ £oV» anEU8vv£'taL 0 L'tCQV£Q OLOV qWLmll, «O£V f!JtOQEC va f!£LaXLVl]8£C, va aAAUSEL, va ava:7tLUx8EC' H aA118ELa n£QLf!EVEL xm OUAA.EYEL La nuV'ta ano oevc, XaL l] COLa unuQXEL f!OVO f!EOa uno OEva' YLa amo unuQXEL f!OVO - OLO X£CPUAL 00U».38 0 OLLQVEQLXO£ qWLOLl1£, ornv OVOta, an£u8VvEL Evav anOXaLQELLOf!O orqv aV'tLXELf!£VLXl1 nQayucnxorrrco, OLl]V nQaYf!a'tL01:LXl1 aV'tLAl]'\jJl] 'tOU XOLVWVLXOV XaL E'tOL 01:l] 8Ef!£ALWOl] XOLVWVLXl1 aAAaYl1 xm OAa rn LOaVLXU XaL La l]8LXU XQL'tl1QLa, EX'tO£ ano 'tl]V nQoownLXl1 LxaVOnOCl]Ol] nvdueou OLOU£ XQUf!f!EVOU£ oatf!OV££ 'tl]£ a01:LXl1£ OLXOVOf!Ca£ 'tl]£ ayoQu£. Aurr] l] cotoooto OLaf!£OOAa~110£Wv unOVOf!£UEL rnv COLa 'tl]V unaQSl] 'tOU OUf!nayou£, YLa va f!l] f!LA1100Uf!£ YLa 'tl]V COLa 'tl]V £souoCa zrou EXEL xa8£au't0 'to OLLQVEQLXO qw - Eva£ LOXUQLOf!O£ nou ayxaALU~EL rooo nOAu tn nuV'ta WOL£ va oaoXA£CEL LL£ XOLVWVLXE£ QLS££ 'tOU eutrroti xm'tl] OUYXQO'tl]a1l 'tOU £V'tO£ 'tl]£ LOLOQCa£.

o NCw£, xunw£ av£suQ'tl]'ta ano 'tOY L'tCQV£Q, ECP£Q£ amli 'tl]v O:7t'tLXl1 'tl]£ aA118ELa£ 01:0 AOYLXO 'tl]£ OUf!nEQaOf!a f!E 'to va £saA£C'\jJEL rnv nQaYf!a'tL01:LXl1 aV'tCAl]'\jJl] XaL nQaYf!a'tLxo'tl]'ta 'tl]£ aA118ELa£ 00£ 'tE'tOLa£: «TL £CVaL 'to't£ l] aA118ELa;» QW'tl]O£. <<'Eva£ XLVl]'tO£ O1:Qa'to£ f!£LacpoQwv, f!£'tWVUf!LWV XaL av8QwnOf!oQ<pLOf!WV - ev ouvrouto, f!La oVvo'\jJl] rcov av8QwnLvwv OXEo£WV, OL onoC££ EXOUV yCVEL avamux8EC, OLaoxEuaOL£C XaL ESW-

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84

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ruu-xoouo rcov ouicpoQcov John Zerzan XUL George Bradford. Ba ~IlOUV 0 n:A£u'ta(o<; nou 8a LOXuQL~6'tav 6'tL OL avaQXLxo( O£ 8a EnQ£n£ va ~ouv 'tOY avaQxwll6 'tOU<; 600 'to ouvctov nEQLo06- 't£QO O£ IlLa XCt811Il£QLv~ ~UOll- nQoocoJtLXU xa8w<; XUL XOLVCOVLXU, UL0811'tLXU xa8w<; XUL nQCtYIlCt1:LXU. MAU O£ 8a EnQ£n£ va ~ouv Evav avaQXLoll6 nou unO'tLllu, orqv nQuSll £saA£(cpfL tn mo 011IlaV'tLXU xaQaX'tllQL01:LXU rtou S£xwQwav 'tOY avaQxwll6, CO<; x(vlllla, nQax'tLX~ XUL nQ6YQCtIlIlCt, an6 'tOY xQa'tLx6 00maAL01l6. o CtvCtQXLOIl6<; ~1l£Qa nQEnfL anocpam01:LXU va £JtavCtX't~O£L 'to XCtQCtx't~Qa tou CO<; XOLVCOVLXOU XLV~flCt1:0<; - CO<; nQoYQallflCt'tLXOU xa8w<; XUL aX'tL~L01:LXOU - evo; XLv~llmo<; nou OUV8E'tfL't0 £'tOLllonOA£IlO OQallU 'tOU YLa IlLa £A£u8£QLax~ XOIlIlOUVL01:lX~ XOLVCOV(Ct Il£ rqv £u8£(a xQmx~ 'tOU XaJtL'taALOIlOU, 0XL nAEOV 80AOU Il£ ovcuorc onco<; «~LOllllxaVLx~ XOLVCOV(Ct».

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- 111 Iouvtou, 1995

Oa '8fAa va fvxaQtaT1jaw T1'/ oovxooipiooa xat avvaodcpo JiOV, Janet Biehl, vta T1'/V aVfXTlJi1'/T1'/ aQwyrj T1'/r; navw otnv EQfVva nov exave yta aVTo TO oox{Jito xa8wr; xai via T1'/V EXOOa1j TOV.

88

89

1: fJ 11£ U!1(Jf: l~

1. The Political Philosophy of Bakunin, G. P. Maximoff editor (Glencoe, Ill.:

Free Press, 1953), od .. 144.

2. Political Philosophy of Bakunin, OEA. 158.

3. Peter Kropotkin, 'to uQ8Qo YLa 'tOY «AvagXLof,Lo» YLa rnv EyxuxAona(l'>na Britannica, ow Kropotkin's Revolutionary Pamphlets, EXI'>. Roger N. Baldwin (Nso YogX!]: ExMow; Dover, 1970), OEA. 285-87.

4. Katinka Matson, «Preface» The Psychology Today Omnibook of Personal Development (NEa YogX!]: William Morrow & Co., 1977), n.p.

5. Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, 'tOf,LO~ 1, [A'tcpg Robert Hurley (Nt:a YogX!]: Vintage Books, 1990), OEA. 95-96. Ilagal'>ELOEVLa 8a E(VaL!] [AEQa nou xunoLo~ 8a [AnogE( va ~YUAEl xmEu8ECav OU[AnEguO[Ama ano 'tOY <I>ooxo, OL fgf,L!]VE(E~ 'tON =OljlEON rou ozotou E(vm ouxvu aVTLcpmLXEt;. (~·ta EAA!]VlXU H IOTOQla T1Jr; LE;oval",6T1Jrar;, ExMoELt; Punna)

6. Paul Goodman, "Politics within Limits," ow Crazy Hope and Finite Experience:

Final Essays of Paul Goodman, Exb. Taylor Stoehr (~av <I>guvo(oxo: JosseyBass, 1994), OfA. 56.

7. L. Susan Brown, The Politics of Individualism (MOVTgEUA: Black Rose Books, 1993). H I'>lOTmmxtj uqxxnoxrn 't!]t; Brown OTOV uvagxo-xo[Af,LOUVLOW) f,LOLU~EL va aVTAf( nEgLooo'tEgo coto [Ala EVOTlXTUil'>!] ngo't([A!]O!] nUQu uno 't1]V UVUAUotj 't!]t;.

8. Hakim Bey, T.A.Z.: The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological Anarchism, Poetic Terrorism (MngouxAlv, NY: Autonomedia, 1985, 1991). o mO[ALxLO[AOt; rou MnE!] [Al'tOgE( fuxoAa va [AOLU~El [AE mrtov tou Fredy Perlman XaL rcov aVTl-nOALTLO[AlXWV rou axoAou8wv xu8wt; XaL rorv ngOlWY()VlOTWV 't!]C; Fifth Estate TOU ~lXUYO, 'to T.A.Z., 0[A01C;, blUcpEgEl OTO OTL, [AuUOV ev OUYXUOfl, ngO'tuooEl svov «ljIUXlXO naAaLOAL8w[A6 ~aow[A€vo OTO High-Tech» (OEA. 44).

9. "T.A.Z.," The Whole Earth Review (AvOlS!] 1994), OEA. 61.

10. Avacpogu =0 'tOY Jose Lopez-Roy, Goya's Capriccios: Beauty, Reason and Caricature, rouo; 1, (N.n.: Princeton University Press 1953), OEA. 80-81.

11. George Bradford, "Stopping the Industrial Hydra: Revolution Against the Megamachine," The Fifth Estate, TEuX0t; 24, YO. 3 (XH[AwVat; 1990), OEA. 10.

12. Jacques Ellul, The Technological Society (NEU YogX!]: Vintage Books, 1964), OEA. 430.

13. Bradford, «Civilization in Bulk», Fifth Estate (AvOLs!] 1991), OEA. 12.

14. Lewis Mumford, Technics and Civilization (NEU YOQX!] XaL Burlingame:

Harcourt Brace & World, 1963), OEA. 301. 'OAOL OL ugL8[Ao( nov OEA(l'>wv Ebw

UVUcpEgOVTaL OE umtj 't!]V ExboO!].

15. Kropotkin, "Anarchism", Revolutionary Pamphlets, OEA. 285.

16. To; XUg'tLU 'too ouvEl'>g(OU b!]!AOou:u8!jxav ot«; ExMoELc; Richard B. Lee and Irven DeVore, Man the Hunter (~lXUYO: Aldine Publishing Co., 1968).

17. 'What Hunters Do for a Living, or, How to Make Out in Scarce Resources,' ow Lee and Devore, Man the Hunter, OEA. 43.

18. t.EC; auYXExgll-lEVa 'to The World of Primitive Man rou Paul Radin (N€u YogX!]: Grove Press, 1953), OEA. 139-150.

19. John Zerzan, Future Primitive and Other Essays (MngouxAlv, NY:

Autonomedia, 1994), OEA. 16. 0 uvayvwOTI]t; rtot: E[Al'tLOTEUE'taL mv EgCUvo roo Zerzan I-ll'tOgEC vu ngoonu8tjoEL vn ljIeiSEl YlU O!][AUVTlXEC; n!]YEt; onmc; "Cohen (1974)" XaL "Clark (1979)" (not: avucpEgoV'taL O'tlt; OEA(I'>Et; 24 XaL 29, aVT(O'tOLXu) OTI] ~L~ALOygUcp(u rou - mrrof omJlt; XaL UAAOL unoumu~ouv EVTEAWt;.

20. H CPLAoAoyCu YLU UmEt; nc; ltAEUgEt; 't!]C; ngo-LO'togLXtjt; ~OltjC; ECvm ltoM [AEydA!]. To 'Gazelle Killing in Stone Age Syria' torv Anthony Legge XaL Peter A. Rowly's, Scientific American, 'tEUXOt;. 257 (Auy. 1987), OEA. 88-95, I'>E(XVEL on ru [AE'tUVUOTEmLxu ~wu 8u unoootiouv vu EXOUV O<PUYE( f,LE tnv xntnOTQOCPlXtj mCbQaO!] uno 't1] XQtjOll torv XOQUAAL!llV. H xAumxtj [AEM't!] yLU n~ nguwunXEt; nAEugEt; tou UVl[ALO[AOU ElVaL to Myth, Science and Religion rou Bronislaw Malinowski (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1954). H UV8QOlnO[AogcponoCllo!] f,LE oxono rqv EX[AE'taAAEUO!] E(vm nQocpuvtjt; OE nOMEt; ucpT]ytjow; [AE'tEVougxwOEOlV, aU[Acpwvu [AE roue lOXUglO[AOUt; turv Oa[AUVOlV, ano rnv uv8gwmv!] OT!] f,Lll uv8gwmVT] ocpaCga, OnOlt; XaL OTOUt; f,Lu80ut; 'tON Makuna nou UVUcpEgOV'taL =6 'tOY Kajarhem, 'Dance of the Water People,' Natural History (Iov. 1992).

21. rta rou; IluY[Au(oUt;, ~MnE Colin M. Turnbull, The Forest People: A Study of the Pygmies of the Congo (NEa YogX!]: Clarion/Simon and Schuster, 1961), OEA. 101-102. I'tn roue EOXLf,LwoUt;, ~MnE Gontran de Montaigne, Poncins's Kabloona: A White Man in the Arctic Among the Eskimos (Neu Y oQX!]: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1941), OfA. 208-9, xa8w£ xm OE nOAACi UMa €gya YLa rnv XOuA'touga rcov EOXL[AwOlv.

22. 'On nOAAu ~ooxo'tomu OE OAO 'tOY xoouo EXOUV D!][AlOUQY118E( uno t!] CPOl'tu:l, nQaxTLxtj nou avacpEQE'tUl =6 't1]V El'tOXtj ron Homo erectus, E(VUl [Ala un08EO!] nou EXEl I'>LaoxoQmOTE( [AEOa OE OA6XAllQ!] rnv av8gwnoAoYlxtj <pIAoAoyCa. Min 8au[Aumu [AEM't1] ElVUl 'to Fire in America 'too Stephen 1. Pyne (Tlorvorov, N.n.: Princeton University Press, 1982). t.Et; En(O!]t; tOY William M. Denevan, oto Annals of the American Association of Geographers (~EJt't€I!~gLO£ 1992), nou avacpEQE'taL OTO William K. Stevens, "An Eden in Ancient America? Not Really," The New York Times (MuQTLot; 30,1993), oEA. Cl.

90

91

23. Ttn to xam6 8f[-la avtlJtaQa8fO'l]<; YLa n; «unfQ~OA.LXfe; 8avm:olOfLe;» &f<; Pleistocene Extinctions: The Search for a Cause, €1~&. P. S. Martin xm H. E. Wright, Jr. Ta fmXfLQlj[-lata yUQw ono to av OL XA.L[-Im:LXO( naQaYOvtfS xaL/lj 11 «unfQ~OA.Lxlj 8avatOlO'l]» uno toU; av8QolnoUe; fXOUV o611yljofL om [-Ia~Lxl] E~a<pavLO'I] 35 nfQCnou YEVfolV 811A.aOtLXolv t1']e; ITA.fLat6xaLVOU E(VaL ouv- 8EtU uQxEta YLU va UOXOA.1l80u[-If E&ol [-Ia~( roue. 8EC; 1:0 "Prehistoric Overkill" tOU Paul S. Martin _ 6i Pleistocene Extinctions: The Search for a Cause, EX&. P. S. Martin xru H. E. Wright, Jr. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967). 'Exw f~EtaofL xanOLa fJtLXfLQlj[-lata omv fLoaywylj uou to 1991 Ot1']v uvu8EWQll[-lEVll fx&oOll tOU The Ecology of Freedom (M6vtQtaA: Black Rose Books). Ta atOLXE(a f(VaL ax6[-111 un6 OU~l]tllOll. Tn [-Iaat6&ovta, rrou xanOtE 8EOlQoUvtaV onv nEQl~aAAOVtlxa JtEQLOQLO[-l£Va ~ola, ElvaL o1j[-lEQU yvwat6 6n ljtUV mo EUfA.LXtU OLXOA.0YLxa XaL 6tL ~moQE( vu oxotw811xav an6 tou; aQXu(ouC; Iv6Lavouc; XUVllYOU;, m8av6v IlE noA.u A.Ly6- tEQOUe; 118lxoue; fV&OLUO[-lOUC; un' 6tL Oc lj8EA.aV OL pouovnxot nfQL~UA.A.OVtlatfe; va moreuouv. 8EV loxuQ~ollm on to XUVljYl un6 uovo tOU w8110E ama ta tEQaona 811A.aatlxa otov uqJavloll6 - Eva u~l6A.oyo nooooro 8uvatolOEWV O« rirov aQxEt6. Min oUV01jJll rcov 6lu&QOllolV tOU Broov« move; ~EQon6tulloue; Illt0QE( va ~QE8f( oro "Bison Hunters of the Northern Plains," tOU Brian Fagan,Archaeology (Mruoc-Iouvrj; 1994), Of A.. 38.

24. Karl W. Butzer, "No Eden in the New World," Nature, TEuxoe; 82 (MaQnoe; 4,1993), OfA. 15-17.

25. T. Patrick Cuthbert, "The Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization," oro The Col/apse of Ancient States and Civilizations, fX&. Norman Yoffee and George L. Cowgill (Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press, 1988)' XCtl Joseph A. Tainter, The Col/apse of Complex Societies (KE[.lnQlt~: Cambridge University Press, 1988), L&LUCtEQU to 50 xEqJaAaLo.

26. Clifford Geertz, "Life on the Edge", The New York Review of Books, 7 MQtACOU, 1994, OEA. 3.

27. 'Onwc; nUQm:llQE( 0 William Powers, to ~L~A(O Black Elk Speaks fxM811Xf 1:0 1932. 8EV unaQXEL (XVOC; tile; XQLonavlxljc; ~wlj; tOU Black Elk fXE( [.lEoa». flu [.lLU nAljQll ano[.lu80no(1l0'l] TOU tQfX0vtOC; evfloixnnouou [.If t1']V lmoQ(U tOU Black Elk, &Ee; tOY William Powers, "When Black Elk Speaks, Everybody Listens", Social Text, TEUxOe; 8, tou. 2 (1991), Of A.. 43-56.

28. Edwin N. Wilmsen, Land Filled With Flies (~lxayo: University of Chicago Press, 1989), OEA. 127.

29. Wilmsen, Land Filled with Flies, OEA.. 3.

30. Allyn Maclean Stearman, Yuqu': Forest Nomads in a Changing World (Fort Worth XaL ~Lxayo: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1989), OEA. 23.

31. Stearman, Yuqu', OEA. 80-81.

32. Wilmsen, Land Filled with Flies, OEA. 235-39 Xat 303-15.

33. 8Ee;, nx, tOY Robert J. Blumenschine Xat tOY John A. Cavallo OtO "Scavenging and Human EVOlution", Scientific American (OXtW~QLoc; 1992), OEA. 90-96.

34. Paul A. Janssens, Paleo pathology: Diseases and Injuries of Prehistoric Man (Aovotvo: John Baker, 1970).

35. Wood, Human Sickness, OfA. 20.

36. E. B. Maple, "The Fifth Estate Enters the 20th Century. We Get a Computer and Hate It!" The Fifth Estate, tfUXOe; I. 28, YO. 2 (KaAoxaCQL 1993), OEA. 6- 7.

37. ITaQm:(OEtat moue; New York Times atLC; 7 Moton rou 1995. Aly6'tEQO qJaQLoa'Lxo( av8QwnOL an' tOY Zerzan EXouv nQoonu8ljoEl va &QanEtEUOOW an6 'tllV O[.lllQ(u 'tllC; 'tllAf6QaollC; XaL va anoAuuooUV xanOLu a~LonQfnlj [-I0UOLxlj, Qa&L6qJwvo, ~L~A(a XaL aAAa 'tf'tOLa. MAli &fV ayoQa~ouv t1']AEOQaofLe;!

38. Max Stimer, The Ego and His Own, fX&. James J. Martin, [.l'tqJ. Steven T.

Byington (Neo Y6QXll: Libertarian Book Club, 1963), [.lfQO; 2, xQqJ. 4, 1:O[.l. C, 'My Self-Engagement,' OfA. 352, 6(VETal E[.lqJaoll.

39. Friedrich Nietzsche, "On Truth and Lie in an Extra-Moral Sense" (1873; an6- oncoun), oro The Portable Nietzsche, EX&. Xat [.l'tqJ an6 rov Walter Kaufmann (Ne« Y6QXll: Viking Portable Library, 1959), OEA. 46-47.

40. Friedrich Nietzsche, an60nuo[.la 481 (1883-1888), The Will to Power, 66.

Walter Kaufmann XaL R. J. Hollingdale (NEa Y6QXll: Random House, 19(7), OEA. 267.

41. lames J. Martin, €LoayOly~ 'tOU Exb6-tll oro Ego and His Own rou Stirner, OfA. xviii.

42. Max Horkheimer, The Eclipse of Reason (NEa Y6QXll: Oxford University Press, 1947), OEA. 135. (~'ta EMllvLxa, H £xAm!JrJ TaV A6yov, £Xb60ELC; KQI_ 'tLxlj, 1987, !!'tqJQ BE!!LC; Mwovsou)

43. Kropotkin, "Anarchism", Revolutionary Pamphlets, OEA. 287, 293.

44. Kropotkin, "Anarchism", Revolutionary Pamphlets, OfA. 292-93.

45. Kenneth Rexroth, Communalism (NEu Y6Qxll: Seabury Press, 1974), OEA. 89.

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93

AVTa TO xsiuevo JWQaXW(pj&rjXE ora Anarchy Archives

ana mv Janet Biehl

EX flEQOV~ TOV Murray Bookchin.

VOV~ f~6QLorO'lle; aTY) N Ea Y 6QxT) nou titav avtLqJQovOvvtf~ ~aQ~LOTEe; xm OL onOLOL xLv~8Y)xav nQo~ ~La 61.0 xm nfQLaaOTfQo fl.f'lJ8EQLax~ nQoom;Lx~ (International Kommunisten Deutschlands). IloMa. an6 'tu a.Q8Qa rou VWQLe; 'tY) OEXaE't(a rou 1950 Ex668Y)xav OTO DINGE DER ZEIT xa8we; xcu om O(O'll~T) ayyl.6qJwvY) EXOOO~ rou, 'to CONTEMPORARY ISSUES, ~E ro 'ljJE'llOWV'lJ~a M. S. Shiloh, Lewis Herber, Robert Keller xm Harry Ludd. To nQWTo tou ~L~I.LO, rtou ~aoCOTY)xE OE Eva noAV ~EYcil.o cig8Qo «To Ilg6~1.Y)~a turv XY)~lXWV O'llOlWV OTa TQ6qJL~a» ("The Problem of Chemicals in Food" - CONTEMPORARY ISSUES, 1952), Ex668Y)XE orn rEQ~aVLa Of (J'lJVEgyaoLa ~E 'toy Gotz Ohly [Herber and Ohly, LEBENS-GEFAHRLlCHE LEBENSMITTEL (Krailling bei Munchen: Harms Georg Muller Verlag, 1955)]. 'Hrov an6 rou; nQw'tO'll~ nou EygUll'av YLa 'to OlXOI.0YlX6 ~~'tY)~a OTl~ HIlA xm 'tY) ~U'tlX~ rEQ~avCa xrn, miuqxov« ~E avaqJoQEe; uno rEQ~avOVe; qJLI.OUe;, 'tU YQan'tci tou (J'lJVEloEqJEQav OTle; ~E'taggu8~LOEle; 'tl]~ OLU'tgOqJLX~e; xm qJag~aXfU'tLX~e; Vo~08wLae; OTY) rEg~avLa.

TY) OEXaE'tLa tou '60 ava~Cx8Y)xE EVEgyci ue 'tl]v AvtL-xoul.'tOvga xm 'tU xlv~~a'ta 'tY)e; NEal; AQLCJ'tEgcie; xm ~'tav ano roue nQw'tOu~ nou aVEm'll~aV LOEEe; nEQL ~Lae; XOLVWVLX~e; Olxol.oy(ae; OTLe; HIlA. To nQ<ll'to rou ~L~I.LO OTY)V A~EQLx~, «To (J'lJV8E'tlx6 ~ae; nEQL~cil.l.ov» (OUR SYNTHETIC ENVIRONMENT ~E 'to 1jJEUOWVU~o Lewis Herber) ExM8Y)XE ano 'toy Alfred A. Knopf ro 1962, ~l06 XQ6vo nQlv 'tY) «LLwnY)l.~ AVOl~Y)) (SILENT SPRING) 'tY)e; Rachel Carson. 'El.a~E aQxE'tci 8E'tlXEe; XQL'tLXEe; coro E~Exovta ~EI.Y) 'tY)e; EmCJ'tY)~ovLX~e; XOlv6'tY)'ta~ 6nwe; OL Rene Dubos xm William Vogt. 'EnEl'ta EYQa1jJE 'to «H xQ(Ol] OTLe; Il6I.Ele; ~ae;» (CRISIS IN OUR CITIES, Prentice Hall, 1965). H (J'lJl.l.oy~ nou 'tl'tl.oqJoQ~8Y)XE we; «AvaQxw~6~ 'tY)e; MsruLnciVf)e;» (POST-SCARCITY ANARCHISM, Ramparts Books, 1971'H Black Rose Books, 1977) ano'tEI.OVWV cero nQw'tOnoQLaxci OOXL~LU onwe; 'to «Olxol.oy(a xm Enavao'ta'tlx~ LXE1jJY)>> (Ecology and Revolutionary Thought, 1964) xcu ro «Ilpoc ~la AJ'tEI.E'll8EgW'tlX~ TEXvol.0yLa» (Towards a Liberatory Technology, 1965) zrou nQow8T)ouv ~La QL~oonaanx~ oxomd rou 8E~a'tOe; 'tT)~ OLxol.oy(a~ xm nov EVal.l.ax'tLxwv 'tEXV0I.0YLWV YLa tc, xci8E ELOO'lle;, nQoooEU'tLXci XL~~a'ta. L'tl~ HIlA xm CJ'tT) MEya.l.T) BgE'tavCa xuxl.oqJ6QY)aav 'tOUMXLOTOV 100,000 avtLTUna'tO'll «Axou MaQ~LOT~!» (Listen, Marxist!", 1969), 'tl]~ XQL'tL-

BW'YQu(J)iu TOU Murray Bookchin

o Murray Bookchin yEVV~8f)XE CJ'tT) NEa Y6Qxy) OTle; 14 Irrvouootou rou 1921, ano yOVEL~ ~E'tava.CJ'tEe; nou ELXUV ogaOTY)QLonOLy)8EC OTO QWCJLXO enrrvuotrmxo xLvY)~a 'ta waglxci xgovLa. Ilol.v vwg(e;, CJ'tT) oExaE'tLa'tOu '30 El~X8Y) CJ'tY)V KOIlOUVLCJ'tLx~ vEOl.a(a al.M OTa 'tEAT) 'ty)~ OEXaE'tLa~ anoyoT)'tfV'tY)XE ~E 'tOY auwgXlxo 'tl]~ xagax~Qa. Ava~(X8Y)XE EVEgyU 0'tL~ ogyaVW'tlXE~ oQao'ty)gL6'tT)'tEC; ron IonavLxov E~qJUl.(ou IloM~ou (~'tav noM ~LXgO~ YLa va (J'lJ~~E'tEXEl <i~wa, uv xm ovo ano rou; ~EYal.V'tEgou~ qJCI.OUC; 'tOU oX01:w8y)xav OTO ~Ihwno 'tT)~ MaogL'ty)~). L'tOU~ Ko~~ouvLOTE~ nagE~ElVE ~EXgL xm 'to otiuqxovo ~EW~V Stalin-Hitler 'to LEm;E~~gY) 'tOU 1939, orov xru oLayg<iqJT)XE «avagXO-1:QOWXLOTLXWV nagExxI.LOEWV». ~OVI.E1jJE OTa xu~gLa tou New Jersey YLa 'tEooEQa xg6vLa, ~n~xE CJ'tO Egya'tlX6 xCvT)~a xm oguCJ'tT)glonOl~8T)XE OE (J'lJVOLXaI.LCJ'tLxE~ ogyavwoEL~ 'tOU ~6gELOU New Jersey (juu agxE't<i ~LO~Y)xavOnOLT)~EvT) nEgLox~ EXE(VO 'tOY xm(6) 6nwe; OTO Congress ofIndustrial Organizations (CIO). 'EVlWOE (J'lJ~na.- 8Ela xm ogaOTT)gLonOL~8T)XE ~E 'tou~ a~EgLx<ivou~ 'tgO'tOXLOTE~ tOY XaLgo nou 0 Trotsky titav ax6~T) ~wvtav6~, aMu ~Et<i urto ~£gLxU Xg6- VLa anoyOT)tEVtT)XE uno 'toy nagaOoCJLax6 roue ~nOI.OE~(XlXO amagXLO~O, LOLaLtEga ~Eta. to 8<iva'tO rou Tg6wxL.

AqJov UnT)gE'tl]aE orov a~EQLx<ivlxo OTgU1:6 orn OEXaEtLa tau '40, OOVI.E1jJE W~ Egy<itY)<; oe aU'tOxLvY)ta-~LO~Y)xav(a xm ava!1Lx8T)XE EVEgy<i OTO United Auto Workers (UA W), Eva XUgLWC; EI.E'll8Eglax6 (J'lJVOLX<i'tO nglv ava~Lx8EC ~E aut6 0 Walter Reuther. AqJov El.a~E ~EgO~ CJ'tT) ~Ey<il.T) anEgyCa 'tl]~ General Motors 'to 1948, <igXWE va a~qJw~T)tEC 61.Ee; 'tlC; naQaOOCJLaXE~ aVtll.~1jJEL~ rou OE OXEOy) ftE 'tOY «T)yE~OVlX6» ~ «ngW'tonoQLaxo» Q61.0 'tl]~ ~Lo~Y)xavLx~~ EgyU1:LX~C; t<i~T)~, yg<iqJovta~ EXtE'ta~Eva YLa aut6 'to ~titY)fta oQLOftEVa xg6vLa aQy6tEga. ME 'toy XaLgo, EYLVE EI.Eu8EgLax6~ OOmaI.LCJ't~<; xm OOVI.E1jJE ~a1;L ue rEg~u-

X~e; tOU O'tOV 1taQa(\omax6 [taQSLoIl6, 1tQO<p<lVWe; E1tY]QEutOvtae; Tl]V a[tEQLXUVLX1'] NEa AQLO'tEQU or« to,,1'] t1']e; (\EXaEt(ae; tou '60.

T1']v ((\La E1tOX~, 0 Bookchin (\((\aSE O'tO Alternative University orn New York, Eva an6 ta [tEyaAUtEQa «EAEu8EQa 1taVE1tL~[tLa» O'tLe; HIlA xt E1tELta oto City University t1']e; New York O'tO Staten Island. To 1974, auV-l(\QUGE xm UQXLGE va (\LEU8uVEL to Ivoutooro KOlVWVLX~e; OLxoAoy(ae; oro Plainfield, O'tO Vermont, to 01tOlO a1tEXt1']OE (\LEl3v~ qJ~[t1'] Yla rou; 1tQOW81'][tEVOUe; xuxAoue; [ta81'][tutwv tot: OE OXEG1'] [tE Tl]V orxo-rptkoooqnu, rnv XOlVWVLX~ OlxoAoy(a xm ne; EvaAAaxtLXEe; tEXVOAOY(Ee; 1tOU avtavaxAouoav t1'] OXE1jJ1'] tou, To 1974, UQXLOE E1tLG1']e; va (\L(\UOXEL oro Ramapo College tou New Jersey, we; xa81']y1']t~<; XOlVWVLX~e; OlxoAoy(ae; xm auvtasw(\~81']XE to 1983, ue tL[t1']nX~ (\La~Q1']G1'] tOU t(tAOU roo.

Ta EQya tou 1tOU axoAoU81']oav - «Tu 6QLa t1']<; TI6A1']<;» (THE LIMITS OF THE CITY, Harper and Row, 1974), «Oi Ioxovof AvuoXLXO(» (THE SPANISH ANARCHISTS, Harper & Row, 1977), xm to «TIQoe; [tLa OLxoAoYLx~ Korvorvfn» (TOWARD AN ECOLOGICAL SOCIETY, Black Rose Books, 1981) - EYLvav EUQEWC; U1tO(\EXtU xm 8EWQ~81']xUV wc; 1tQEAou(\Lu tou «OLxoAoYlu t1']C; EAEU8EQlUC;» (THE ECOLOGY OF FREEDOM, Cheshire Books, 1982'H ExM81']XE SUVU u1t6 to Black Rose Books, 1991). Auto to [tEyUAO EQYO rou EAaBE 8EtLXEC; XQLtLXEC; 6XL uovo ceto to THE VILLAGE VOICE (Eva cero rc [tEYUAUtEQU 1tEQW(\LXU BL~ALoxQmx~c; GTI] NEu Y 6Qx1']) UAAU ux6[t1'] XaL OE 1tOAAU E1tWt1'][tOVLXU 1tEQlO(\LXU 61tCl.lC; to AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST. Tu uQ8Qu tou E[tqJUV(O't1']xuV OE 1tOAAa 1tEQW(\LXU U1tO t1'] (\EXUEtlU rou 50' XL E1tELta, 1tEQW(\LXU 61twe; to WIN, to LIBERATION, to RAMPARTS, to CO-EVOLUTION QUARTERLY, to RAIN, to TELOS, to NEW POLITICS, to OUR GENERATION xrn to ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, [tEtUSU uAAwv. To ~L~Alo rou «H ovcooc t1']C; Aouxonomon; xrn 1']1tuQax[t~ T1']C; TIoALtElae;» [(THE RISE OF URBANIZATION AND THE DECLINE OF CITIZENSHIP, Sierra Club Books, 1986'H ExM81'jXE SUVU orov KovoM Ill' tltAO «Aonxoxotnon XWQ(C; TIoAELC;» (URBANIZATION WITHOUT CITIES, Black Rose Books, 1992)] E(vm [tLU LatOQLX~ ESEQEUV1']01'] t1']e; UUtO-(\LEU8uvo1']<; nov 1tOALtWV xm tou ouvouoonov(\LO[tOU. Tu mo 1tQ6a<patu BL~Alu tou ElVaL to «EuvuqJnuxvovtae; t1']V

KOlVWVLa» (REMAKING SOCIETY, Black Rose Books, 1989) xcu to «H <l>LAoooqJla Tl]C; KOLVWVlX~C; OLxoAoYluc;" (THE PHILOSOPHY OF SOCIAL ECOLOGY, Black Rose Books, 1990, uva8EwQ~81']XE TO 1994).

l:tLC; aQXEC; Tl]C; (\EXaEtlac; rou '70, 0 Bookchin tEL oro Burlington tou Vermont. [LU A6youe; UYELUC; OL (\Qaat1']QL6t1']tEC; rou EXOUV 1tEQWQLatEl. TIaQE(\L(\E, 6[twc;, ux6[t1'] [ta8~[tatu XU8E xUAoxu(QL oro IvO'tLroriro KOlVWVLX~C; OlxoAOy(u xm 1tEQLatumuxu E(\LVE (\LaAESELC; 0't1'] B6QELa A[tEQLX~ xm tT)v EUQW1tT). AV~XE GTI] au[tBOUAEUtLX~ EmTQo- 1t~ rou ANARCHIST STUDIES xm tou «Korvcovic XaL <l>UOT)>> (SOCIETY AND NATURE). ME t1'] aUvtQocp6 1:0'0, Janet Biehl xm XU1tOlOUC; ax6[tT), ESE(\WOE 1:QLUvta tEUXT) Tl]C; 8EWQT)1:LX~C; Em8EwQT)G1']C; GREEN PERSPECTIVES. To 1994 uoxoA~81'jxE SUVU Ill' Tl]V uvci1ttuS'I) [tLUC; (\LaAEx1:Lx~C; qJLAoooqJLuc; 1:T)C; <l>UG1']C; E1t' aqJoQ[t~ tou (\OXL[t(OU tau «H 1tOALtLX~ Tl]C; xoo[toAoYLUC;» (THE POLITICS OF COSMOLOGY) xm rou (\EU1:EQOU rouou, 1:1]C; 1tAEOV 1:EtgUto[tT)C;, LatoQlac; 1:WV Aa'Cxwv enovuotcmxorv XLVT)[tU1:WV, 1:T)v «TQl1:T) Encvdoroon» (THE THIRD REVOLUTION, Volume 1, 1996 Cassell, London). To VE01:0U BLBAlo, «EuVU-[tuYEUOvtac; 1:T)v Av8Qw1t61:T)1:u» (REENCHANTING HUMANITY) ExM81'jXE oro Aov(\(vo u1t61:ov Cassell 1:0 1996.

o Bookchin ESEAlX8T)xE a1t6 EVUV 1tuQa(\omax6 [taQSLat~ GTI] (\ExaE1:lU tou 30' OE EVUV aQLatEQ6 EAEu8EQLax61:1]e; avuQXLx~C; 1tuQu(\0G1']C; 1:0'0 KQ01totXLV. '01tWC; xm [tLa 1tQooqJa1:1] LatOQlU 1:1]C; avaQXlx~s OXE1jJT)C; E1tW~[tUVE (Peter Marshall, DEMANDING THE IMPOSSIBLE [London: HarperCollins, 1992]), T) [tEYlatT) ouveuxpoo« 1:0'0 otnv uvaQXLxij 1tuQu(\OG1'] ~1:UV T) WwtEQlXEUG1'] 1:WV 1tuQa(\omuxWv unoXEvtQwtLXWV, [tT)-lEQUQXLXWV xm AU'Lxwv LO'tOQLXWV 1:UOEWV ornv oixoAOYla, ceto [tla oxomd EAEU8EQLUX~, 1:600 qJLAoooqJLx~ 600 xm T)8LX~. AmEC; oi an61jJElC;, 1tOU u~Qsav aU8EvtLXEC; O'tU 1950 xm VWQlC; om 1960, EXOUV an61:OtE ElOUX8El GTI] YEVLX~ auvEC(\T)G1'] Tl]C; E1tOX~C; [tac; xm nvtuvaxAwvtm O'tU YQamu 1:0'0 Fritz Schumacher xm 1tOAAWV OlXO-qJE[tLVLatQLWV. 0 QLtOO1tuatlO[t6C; 1:T)C; 1tQOOEYYl~e; rou EYXEL1:m omv ESEQEUV'I)G1'] 1:1]C; latOQLX~C; avu(\uG1']C; 1:1]C; uvtLAT)1jJ~C; [tae; YlU rnv XUQluQx(a Tl]C; cpuG1']c; XUQlWC; ornv xUQLaQXlu uv8Qw1tou cero uv8Qw1t0, auYXEXQL[tEVU atLC; YEQOvtOXQat(Ee;, nc; 1tatQlUQXLEC; xm OE UMEC; XatamEatlXEC; (\O[tEC;. Tn YQamu 1:0'0 YUQEUOUV va (\lELo6Uoouv 1tEQa a1t6 1:1]v

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tUSll xm tL~ EXftEtaAAEutLxE~ <J?(EOEL~ atL~ LEQaQXLXE~ xru XUQLaQXLXE~ OXEOEL~ 1tOU ~Q(OXOUV tL~ Q~E~ rou; oro ftaxQLv61taQEA86v.

Ta 8EftEALa tll~ 8EOlQ(a~ tOU a1tOtEA015V !-LLa mavaOW1tQaYftUtEUoll tll~ OLaAEXtLX~~, xatu mv onoto II OLxoAoYLx~ OXEtjJll t(8Etm ornv U1tllQw(a tOU tyEALavo15 OWAEXtLX015 auat~!-IatO~ tll~ AOYlx~~, ftE at6xo va 008E( !-ILa VatoUQaALatLX~1tQOOEYYlOYi Otll OLaAEXtLX~ 1taQuoooll· 0 «OLaAEXtLx6~» rou «vatoUQaALO!-l6~» EQXEtm 010 avt(8EOYi !-IE rov LOEaALO!-l6 tOU XEYXEA xm tOV MaQSLatLx6 UALO!-l6 ~ 1tL0 auYXEXQL!-IEVa tll cpumxaA(atLxll (physicalistic) 1tQOOEYYLOYi tOU cI>Q~VtQLX 'EvyxEA~ 1tOU ~Q(oXEtm 010 CPaLVO!-lEVLX~ ouuqxovto !-IE tOV MaQs. H avtCAlltjJ~ tOU yw Eva OLaAEXtLx6 vatouQaAw!-I6 ft1t0QE( va oLauyaat£( !-IE aQXEt~ oacp~VELa oro ~L~A(O rou «H CPLAooocp(a tll~ KOLVOlVLXl1~ OLxoAoy(a~» (THE PHILOSOPHY OF SOCIAL ECOLOGY).

An6 ta TEAll tll~ OEXaEt(a~ tou 70' EXEL a1tOtEAEOEL Eva onprrvnx6 EQE8LO!-la omv av<imuSll rcov 1tayx60!-lLOlV IlQumvOlv XLVll!-lUtOlV xm EXEL YQutjJEL aQxEtU 010 <J?(EOYi !-IE tll cpVOYi XaL to !-IEAAOV !-ILa~ fIQumVll~ 1tOALtLX~~. 'Eva uno ta mo OYi!-lavtLXu mt~!-Iatu rou atL<; 1tQ6- OcpatE~ OEXaEt(E<; *av va auYXQotll8E( Eva E(OO~ «vEa<; 1tOAltLX~~» 11 mrto 1tOU OVO!-lU~EL «EAEU8EQtax6<; xowonouo;», !-ILa 1tOALtLX~ ~amO!-lEVll ornv ava~(OlOYi ttov a!-lwooll!-lOXQatLXWV, Aa'lxwv auvEAE150EOlV 010 E1t(1tEOO 1t6All<;, xorvorntn; xm YELtoVlU~. Fin va a1tocp15YEL tov x(v- 6uvo !-Ita~ 1taQOlXllftEVll~ avtCAlltJ!ll~ 1tEQ( 1tOALtWv aVE1ttUSE tllv LOEa 1tEQl Ev6~ auvO!-lOO1tOVOLO!-1015 torv 1tOALtWV, !-IE tOV 01t0(0 !-ILa OOtoXEvtQOl!-lEVll XOLVOlv(a auv-O!-lOO1tOVOO1tOLELtaL, 010 avt(8EOYi !-IE to auYXEvtQOJtLX6 E8vo~-xQUtO~. YL08Etll0E m(OYi~ to altll!-la YLa !-ILa XOLVOtLX~ OLXOVO!-ILa, 010 avt(8EOYi !-IE to aVYXQOVO E1tLXELQll!-latlx6, XamtaALatLX6 aVOtll!-Ia LOLOXtllOLa~ xru OLaXE(QLOYi~, rnv E8vLX01tOLll!-lEVll OLxOVO!-l(a 1tOU Otax~Qusav OL !-IaQSLatE~ oomaAwtE£ xm tllv EQYatLX~ LOLOXtll0(a, xa8w~ xrn mv aUt6-0LE158uvOYi rou EQyoatao(ou, 1tOU uL08Etlloav OL auVOLxaALatE~. AUtE~ OL l6EE~ au~llt~8llxav EUQEOl~ ore Ilodow« XLV~ftatu tll~ B6QEla~ A!-IEQLX~~ xm tll~ EUQW1tll£.

H ~Ol~ xm to EQYO rou Murray Bookchin OLatQEXEL 000 1tEQL600u~ tll~ LatoQ(a~: tllv E1tOX~ tou 1taQaoomaxo15 1tQoAEtaQLaxo15 oomaALO!-l015 xm avaQXL0ft015, !-IE tL~ ESEYEQOEL£ tll~ EQYatLX~~ tUSll~ xm rou; aYWvE~ EVUvtLa orov xAamx6 cpamo!-l6 xm tll !-IEta-1tOAE!-ILXl1 £1t0Xl1 rou

ava1ttU006!-1EVOU xOQ1toQatLatLxo15 xamtaALo!-lo15, tll~ 1tEQL~aAAovtLx~~ xataatQocp~~, tll£ XQatLX~£ 1tOALtLX~~ xm tll~ tEXVOXQatLX~~ vootQ01tLa~. 0 (OLO~ EXEL 1tQoo1ta8~oEL va a1tOxQUataAAwoEL aUtE~ tL~ oaQOltLXE~ aAAaYE~ orqv xorvcoviu xru tll auvE(OllOll !-IEOa 010 !-ILa auft1tay~ 8EWQllOYi 1tOU ~ao~EL aXU8EXtll a1t6 Eva ~LOl!-lEVO 1taQEA86v 1tQo~ Eva U1tEAEU8EQOl!-lEVO !-IEMOV.

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