You are on page 1of 8

Topic 3: Educational Research Procedure

Choosing a research problem


Determining the research objective
Determining the research questions
Determining the research hypotheses
Reviewing the literature
Planning the research design
Determining the sampling procedure
Constructing the research instrument
Constructing the validity and reliability of the instrument
Determining the data collection method
Collecting data
Analyzing and interpreting the data
Reporting the results and finding

Choosing a research problem

It is important to remember that the goal of any action research


project is a desire to make things better, improve some specific
practice, or correct something that is not working as well as it
should (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2003)
Possible topics for investigation might be anything about which you
are curious, that piques your interest, or that intrigues you in any
way
Identify some topic that you would genuinely like to examine in
depth (Johnson, 2008)
In order to investigate a topic for action research, it must be
manageable (Fraenkel &Wallen, 2003).
Be realistic - Consider things such as the time requirements (or
restrictions), the data collection and analysis skill levels of the
individual(s) conducting the research, and any budgetary
limitations.

Determining research questions and research objectives

Derived from the research focus


Should reflect to conduct an action as solution to a problem to which
you do not yet have the answer.
When drafting the research objectives and questions, bear in mind
its clarity, scope, practicality, comprehensiveness, ease of
answering, framing, focus, kinds of data required and
comprehensibility (Cohen, Manion & Marrison, 2011)
Make sure that your research questions are aligned with the
research objectives

Qualitative study - research questions begin with the word why


and how
Research Objectives
Research Questions
This research aims to:
The research questions are:
Explore ways in which I
How
can
I
teach
can
teach
communicative
writing
communicative writing
skills effectively?
How is the use of
skills effectively
Explore message cards
message cards effective
as
a
technique
in
in
encouraging
encouraging learners to
participants to write?
write.

Determining the research hypotheses

The hypothesis is a statement that says about the predictions on the


relationship that may exist between the variables studied.
Hypothesis should be parallel to the research question about the
relationship and differences between variables

Reviewing the literature

Literature review critical and analytical evaluation and discussion


of research and academic works relevant to the field of study.
Aim provide a critical analysis of the existing body of knowledge
that is related to the research area.
The information form the literature will help you to plan your own
research

Purposes of literature review


Provide historical background of the research
Give overview of the current context
Discuss relevant theories and concepts underpinning the
research
Introduce and clarify relevant terminology and definitions in the
context of your research
Describe related research and show how your work extends or
challenges, or address a gap in the work in the knowledge base.
Provide supporting evidence for a practical problem or issue
which your research is addressing, thereby underlining its
significance.
Planning the research design

Research design is a plan or framework which is the backbone for a


comprehensive description of the procedure and how the study was
conducted
Good design make it easier for the researchers to carry out research
Planning research design includes ;
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

research purposes
the approach used to collect data
setting
type of population study
the selection of respondent/sample
the type of sampling to be used
techniques to analyze data
limitations and cost of the study

Determining the sampling procedure

Sampling is the process whereby a researcher chooses her sample


First step identify the target of the population to be represented in
the study.
Two type probability sampling and non-probability sampling
o Probability Sampling sample selection in which the
elements are drawn by chance procedures.
o Non-probability sampling methods of selection in which
elements are not chosen by chances procedures. Success
depends on the knowledge of the researcher
Type

Probability Sampling

Example
Sample Random Sampling
All
members
of
the
population have an equal
and independent chance of
being
included
in
the
random sample.
Steps
- Define the population
- List all the members of
population
- Members on the list are
drawn for the sample.
Stratified Sampling

For population that consists


of subgroups, or strata, that
may
differ
in
the
characteristics
being
studied.
Firstly identify the strata of
interest and then randomly
draw a specified number of
subjects from each stratum.

Cluster Sampling
Sample chosen is not an
individual but group of
individuals
who
are
naturally together.
Systematic Sampling
Involves drawing a sample
by taking every Kth case
from the list of population.
Convenience Sampling
Regarded as the weakest of
all sampling procedures.
Use people in surrounding
as sample
Difficult to interpret the
finding.
Non-probability Sampling

Purposive Sampling
also known as
sampling

judgment

Quota Sampling
Selecting typical cases from
diverse
strata
of
a
population.
The quota is based on
known characteristics of the
population to which the
researcher
wish
to

generalize.

Constructing the research instrument

Instrument is the generic term that researchers use for a


measurement device (survey, test, questionnaire, etc.)
Three ways to get the instrument
o build their own instruments
o the instruments were built by others
o modifying existing instruments
Example of instrument : field notes, checklist, video recording, audio
recording

Field notes
To support
observation
Jotting that
show
intention,
action and
consequences
and this
constitutes
evidence
(Laidlaw,
1996)
Written in
detailed
include date,
time, place,
event/occasio
n.

Checklist
To support
observation
Prepare
checklist of
criteria that
need to be
observed
during the
observation
Make
observation
more
objective.

Video recording
Good way of
collecting
and showing
evidence.
It captures
non-verbal
messages.
More
effective and
valid

Audio recording
Good example
of audio
recording is
interview
recording
Beneficial
Used to record
data
Useful as
talking diary
Used as a way
of catching
informal
conversation
and discussion
about the
research.

Constructing the validity and reliability of the instrument

Validity is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is


supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform.

Two type of validity external validity and content validity


o External validity - extent to which the results of a study can
be generalized from a sample to a population. An instrument
that is externally valid helps obtain population generalizability,
or the degree to which a sample represents the population.

o Content validity - the appropriateness of the content of an


instrument. In other words, do the measures (questions,
observation logs, etc.) accurately assess what you want to
know?

Reliability can be thought of as consistency. Does the instrument


consistently measure what it is intended to measure?
o Inter-Rater/Observer Reliability: The degree to which
different raters/observers give consistent answers or
estimates.
o Test-Retest Reliability: The consistency of a measure
evaluated over time.
o Parallel-Forms Reliability: The reliability of two tests
constructed the same way, from the same content
o Internal Consistency Reliability: The consistency of results
across items.

https://researchrundowns.wordpress.com/quantitativemethods/instrument-validity-reliability/
Determining the data collection method

Refer to the detailed description on how the data collected by


researchers
Questionnaire, Interview, Observation
Refer additional notes
o Document analysis important source of information.
Document that can be analyzed is teacher lesson plans,
students work, curriculum guidelines, reports, minute of
meeting and etc.

For qualitative research, researchers need to determine how to form


the triangulations.

There are 4 types of triangulations


o Data triangulation - which entails gathering data through
several sampling strategies, so that slices of data at different
times and social situations, as well as on a variety of people,
are gathered.
o

Investigator triangulation - which refers to the use of more


than one researcher in the field to gather and interpret data

o Theoretical triangulation - which refers to the use of more


than one theoretical position in interpreting data.
o

Methodological triangulation - which refers to the use of


more than one method for gathering data.

Collecting data

There are two types of data that can be collected in a study


o Primary data - original data / raw data collected specifically
to answer the research questions.
o Secondary data - data collected by other researchers but
used by researchers for the purpose of supporting the primary
data or to make comparisons with primary data

Analyzing and interpreting the data


Quantitative Data

Frequency
Percentage
Mean, mode, median
Standard deviation
Correlation coefficient

Reporting the results and finding

Qualitative Data
Familiarization
and
organization
Coding and recoding
Summarizing and interpreting

study reports is made according to specified format


Title, name of researcher
Appreciation
Abstract
Contents
Research background
Problem statement
Research reviews
Research methodology
Research findings
Reflection
Closure
Reference
Appendix