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Name: Shannon Kelso

Access ID: smk5736__________


Exploration Homework Cell Signaling - Week 6
Part 1 Use the Wikipedia article Cell Signaling to answer the following questions.
1. Cell to cell communication can take various forms. Describe what is meant by juxtacrine,
paracrine, and endocrine signals in regards to cell proximity (i.e., distance from each other).
Juxtacrine signals occur whenever cells are touching, and paracrine signals occur with
cells that are nearby to change their behavior. Endocrine signals occur when cells are far
away by producing hormones in the blood;
Part 2 - Use the Wikipedia article Signal Transduction to answer the following
questions. Focus on the Receptors section.
2. In your own words, what is signal transduction?
Signal transduction occurs when a molecule (like a hormone) attaches to a receptor in a
cell membrane and activates it. This sets off a series of chemical reactions inside the
cell.
3. What is a ligand in the context of protein-ligand binding?
A ligand is a molecule that binds to a receptor and externally activates a protein to send
a signal.
4. What type of membrane proteins (from Week 5 lecture) are extracellular receptors?
Channel-linked, Enzyme-linked, & G-protein-coupled receptors.
5. How many G-proteins associate with a G protein-coupled receptor? Which one binds to
GTP after receptor activation?
There are 3 G-proteins: G, G, & G. The G protein binds to GTP.
6. A _____is an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a phosphate group to a substrate and a
____ is an enzyme that can remove the phosphate group. (Please click the Kinase link for
answer)
Phosphorylases; Phosphatases
7. What protein is first phosphorylated during receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation?
Tyrosines
8. Integrin lacks kinase activity, but it can set off a signaling cascade that involves an increase in
kinase activity. How does this work?
It uses intracellular protein kinases & adaptor molecules (specifically integrin-linked
kinase).

9. Where would you expect to find a receptor that binds a non-polar ligand?
Inside the cytoplasm, (intracellular receptors)
Part 3 - Use the Wikipedia article Second Messengers to answer the following
questions. Note the article gives an example using a GPCR, however other receptors
also use second messengers. We will look at some more examples in class.
10. What is the major role of second messengers? How are they related to extracellular
signals?
Second messengers relay messages from a receptor on the cell membrane which
activates physiological changes. The primary messengers are extracellular signals and
generate the second message.
11. Why are second messengers important for signal transduction in light of limitations of first
messenger?
Second messengers can travel downstream to multi-cyclic kinase cascades which can
then spread the extracellular message intracellularly.
12. Where are second messengers located in the cell?
Second messengers are found in the cytosol and cellular membrane.
13. From the Examples chart, what enzyme (primary effector) is involved with releasing the
second messenger calcium?
Phospholipase C
14. From the Examples chart, what enzyme is involved with releasing the second messenger
cAMP?
Adenylyl cyclase