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ADVERBS

It is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, other


adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
Adverbs typically express manner, place, time, frequency, degree,
level of certainty, etc., answering questions such as how?, in what
way?, when?, where?, and to what extent?.
Types of Adverbs
Adverbs are categorized on the basis of it information it gives, into the
following categories.
1. Adverbs of manner
2. Adverb of place
3. Adverb of time
4. Adverb of frequency

ADVERBS OF MANNER
These adverbs tell us that in which manner the action occurs or how
the action occurs or occurred or will occur.
Examples.
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She speaks loudly.


He was driving slowly.
You replied correctly.
He runs fast.
They solved the problem easily.
Listen to me carefully.

LIST OF ADVERBS OF MANNER


accidentally
angrily
anxiously

busily
calmly
carefully

cruelly
daringly
deliberately

eventually
exactly
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awkwardly
badly
beautifully
blindly
boldly
bravely
brightly
frantically
generously
gently
gladly
gracefully
greedily
happily
hard
hastily
healthily
honestly
hungrily
hurriedly
inadequately
ingeniously
sleepily
slowly
smoothly
tensely
thoughtfully
tightly
truthfully

carelessly
cautiously
cheerfully
clearly
closely
correctly
courageously
innocently
inquisitively
irritably
joyously
justly
kindly
lazily
loosely
loudly
madly
mortally
mysteriously
neatly
nervously
noisily
softly
solemnly
speedily
stealthily
unexpectedly
victoriously
violently

doubtfully
eagerly
easily
elegantly
enormously
enthusiastically
equally
obediently
openly
painfully
patiently
perfectly
politely
poorly
powerfully
promptly
punctually
quickly
quietly
rapidly
rarely
really
sternly
straight
stupidly
successfully
warmly
weakly
wearily

faithfully
fast
fatally
fiercely
fondly
foolishly
fortunately
frankly
recklessly
regularly
reluctantly
repeatedly
rightfully
roughly
rudely
sadly
safely
selfishly
sensibly
seriously
sharply
shyly
silently
suddenly
suspiciously
swiftly
tenderly
wildly
wisely
vivaciously

ADVERB OF PLACE.

Adverb of place tells us about the place of action or where action


occurs/occurred/will occur e.g. here, there, near, somewhere, outside,
ahead, on the top, at some place.
Examples.
He will come here.
The children are playing outside.
He was standing near the wall.
They were flying kites on the top of hill.
He lives somewhere in New York.
She went upstairs.

LIST OF ADVERBS OF PLACE


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about

below

indoors

over

above

down

inside

there

abroad

downstairs

near

towards

anywhere

east

nearby

under

away

elsewhere

of

up

back

far

on

upstairs

backward

here

out

where

behind

in

outside

ADVERB OF TIME
These adverbs tell us about the time of action. e.g. now, then, soon,
tomorrow, yesterday, today, tonight, again, early, yesterday.
Examples.
I will buy a computer tomorrow.
The guest came yesterday.
Do it now.
She is still waiting for her brother.
He got up early in the morning.

LIST OF ADVERBS OF TIME

now

annually

always

already

then

daily

constantly

before

today

fortnightly

ever

early

tomorrow

hourly

frequently

earlier

tonight

monthly

generally

eventually

yesterday

nightly

infrequently

finally

quarterly

never

first

weekly

normally

formerly

yearly

occasionally

just

often

last

rarely

late

regularly

later

seldom

lately

sometimes

next

regularly

previously

usually

recently
since
soon
still
yet

ADVERB OF FREQUENCY
Adverbs of frequency tell us how many times the action occurs or
occurred
or
will
occur.
e.g. daily, sometimes, often, seldom, usually, frequently, always, ever,
generally, rarely, monthly, yearly.
Examples.
He goes to school daily.
She never smokes.
He is always late for class.
They always come in time.
Barking dogs seldom bite.
The employees are paid monthly.
The employees are paid every month.

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LIST OF ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

never
rarely
seldom
hardly ever
occasionally
sometimes
generally
often
regularly
frequently
usually
always

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PREPOSITIONS
It is a word such as after, in, to, on, and with. Prepositions are usually
used in front of nouns or pronouns and they show
the relationship between the noun or pronoun and other words in a
sentence.
These are words that introduce the following information :
1. Where something takes place (ex. at the store).
2. When something takes place (before dinner).
3. General descriptive information (the girl with the cool tattoo).

Examples of Commonly-used Prepositions


about

above

across

after

against

along

behind

below

beneath

beside

besides

between

down

during

except

for

from

in

of

on

onto

opposite

out

outside

till

to

toward

under

underneath

until

with

within

without

Describe the position of something:


1. Her bag was under the chair.
2. The dog crawled between us and lay down at our feet.
3. His flat was over the shop.
Describe the time when something happens:
1. They arrived on Sunday.
2. The class starts at 9 a.m.
3. Shortly after their marriage they moved to Colorado.
Describe the way in which something is done:
1. We went by train.
2. They stared at each other without speaking.
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CONJUNCTIONS
It is a part of speech that connects words, sentences, phrases, or
clauses.

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Coordinating Conjunctions
Also called coordinators, are conjunctions that join, or coordinate,
two or more items (such as words, main clauses, or sentences) of
equal syntactic importance.
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Examples:
For : They do not gamble or smoke, for they are ascetics.
And : They gamble and they smoke.
Nor : They do not gamble, nor do they smoke.
But : They gamble, but they don't smoke.
Or : Every day they gamble or they smoke.
Yet : They gamble, yet they don't smoke.
So : He gambled well last night so he smoked a cigar to celebrate.

Correlative Conjunctions
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A work in pairs to join words and groups of words of equal weight in a


sentence. There are many diferent pairs of correlative conjunctions:
either...or
not only...but (also)
neither...nor

both...and
whether...or
just as...so

the...the
as...as
no sooner...than
rather...than

Examples:
1. You either do your work or prepare for a trip to the ofice.
2. Not only is he handsome, but he is also brilliant.
3. Neither the basketball team nor the football team is doing well.
4. Both the cross country team and the swimming team are doing
well.
5. Whether you stay or you go, it's your decision.
6. Just as many Americans love basketball, so many Canadians love
ice hockey.
7. The more you practice dribbling, the better you will get at it.
8. Football is as fun as hockey.
9. No sooner did she learn to ski, than the snow began to thaw.
10.

I would rather swim than surf.

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Subordinating Conjunctions
It is also called as subordinators, are conjunctions that join
an independent clause and
a dependent clause, and also introduce adverb clauses.
The most common subordinating conjunctions:
after

as long as

even if

until

although

as soon as

even though

when

as

as though

every time

whenever

as far as

because

if

wherever

as if

before

in order that

while.

since

unless

than

so that

so

whereas

though

where

1. As Mark blew out the candles atop her birthday cake, she
caught her hair on fire.
2. Sara begins to sneeze whenever she opens the window to get a
breath of fresh air.
3. When the doorbell rang, my dog Browny barked loudly.
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4. After the basement flooded, we spent all day cleaning up.


5. I dont want to go to the movies because I hate the smell of
popcorn.
6. As soon as the alarm goes of, I hit the snooze button.

PARTICIPLES
A participle is a word formed from a verb which can be used as
an adjective.
The two types of participles are the present participle (ending ing)
and the past participle (usually ending -ed, -d, -t, -en, or -n).
Examples of participles being used as adjectives:
The Verb

The Past Participle

The Present
Participle

To rise

the risen sun

the rising sun

To boil

the boiled water

the boiling water

To break

the broken news

the breaking news

To cook

the cooked ham

the cooking ham

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Examples :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

I am working.
He was singing.
They have been walking.
We will be staying.
She would have been expecting me.

6.
7.
8.
9.

She went shopping.


I go running every morning.
He lay looking up at the clouds.
She came running towards me.
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10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

I heard someone singing.


He saw his friend walking along the road.
I can smell something burning!
I watched the birds flying away.
Feeling hungry, he went into the kitchen and opened the fridge.
Being poor, he didn't spend much on clothes.
Knowing that his mother was coming, he cleaned the flat.
He whispered, thinking his brother was still asleep.

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19.
20.
21.

It was an amazing film.


Dark billowing clouds often precede a storm.
He was trapped inside the burning house.
Many of his paintings show the setting sun.

GERUNDS
A gerund is a noun formed from a verb. All gerunds end -ing.
Examples:

swimming
running
drinking

Even though a gerund is a noun, a gerund can still take a direct


object (like a verb). This is known as a gerund complement.
Examples:

swimming the lake


running a mile
drinking a beer
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More Examples of Gerunds


1. Acting is fun.
(Gerund as the subject of a sentence)
2. Playing football is fun.
(Here, football is the gerund complement of the gerund playing.)
3. Acting is merely the art of keeping a large group of people
from coughing.
(Acting is a gerund as a subject. The
gerunds keeping and coughing are objects of prepositions.)
In this example, a large group of people is the gerund complement
ofkeeping.)
4. Generosity is giving more than you can, and pride is taking less
than you need.
(Two gerunds, both subject complements)
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5. I love acting. It is so much more real than life.


(A gerund as the direct object of the verb love)
6. You can tell a lot about a fellow's character by his way
of eating jellybeans.
(A gerund as the object of a preposition)
7. I like to play blackjack. I'm not addicted to gambling, I'm addicted
to sitting in a semi-circle.
(Two gerunds, both objects of prepositions)

INFINITIVE
It is a type of verbal. (A verbal is a verb form that looks like a verb but
does not act as a finite verb in a sentence.)

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An infinitive is the basic form of a verb, usually with to in front of


it: to go, to stay, to be.
Infinitives act as nouns, adjectives or adverbs:

Infinitives are the "to" form of the verb. The infinitive form of
"learn" is "to learn." You can also use an infinitive as the subject,
the complement, or the object of a sentence.
Examples:
1. To learn is important. (SUBJECT OF SENTENCE)
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2. The most important thing is to learn. (COMPLEMENT OF SENTENCE)


3. He wants to learn. (OBJECT OF SENTENCE)
Infinitives can be made negative by adding "not."
Examples :
1. I decided not to go.
2. The most important thing is not to give up.

As the object of a sentence, it is more dificult to choose between a


gerund or an infinitive. In such situations, gerunds and infinitives are
not normally interchangeable. Usually, the main verb in the sentence
determines whether you use a gerund or an infinitive.
Examples:
He enjoys swimming. (ENJOY" REQUIRES A GERUND).
He wants to swim. (WANT" REQUIRES AN INFINITIVE).

Some verbs are followed by infinitives.


Examples:
1. She wants to go to a movie.
2. Mary needs to talk about her problems.

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