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Common Calculus Functions on the TI-83/84

This guide provides a list of the most common commands on the TI-84 used in a calculus class. Most of the commands also appear on the TI-83, unless otherwise noted. These exceptions are noted with a (*).

CONTENTS

 RADIAN VERSUS DEGREE 2 CREATING A GRAPH 2 ADJUSTING THE WINDOW 2 USING THE TRACE 2 FINDING A ZERO GRAPHICALLY 3 FINDING A MINIMUM GRAPHICALLY 3 FINDING A MAXIMUM GRAPHICALLY 3 FINDING WHERE TWO CURVES INTERSECT 3 DIFFERENT TYPES OF GRAPHS 4 GRAPHING PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS 4 GRAPHING POLAR EQUATIONS 4 FINDING A DERIVATIVE 5 FINDING AN INTEGRAL 5 EQUATION SOLVER 5 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 6 RANDOM NUMBERS 6 ENTERING MATRICES 6 COMMON MATRIX OPERATIONS 7 Option 1: det([A]) 7 Option 2: [A] T 7 Option B: rref([A]) 7 Home screen: [A] -1 7

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To switch between the two modes:

Press MODE

CREATING A GRAPH

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To create a graph:

Press “Y=”

Type the function to be graphed by Y1=

Type further functions to be graphed on Y2=, Y3=, etc. if more need graphing simultaneously

Press GRAPH

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More than likely the graph window will need to be adjusted to cater to the function at hand. To adjust it after either entering in the function or graphing it:

Press WINDOW

Choose a lower and upper bound for the x-axis (Xmin and Xmax)

Choose an appropriate scale for the x-axis (Xscl, by default 1)

Choose a lower and upper bound for the y-axis (Ymin and Ymax)

Choose an appropriate scale for the y-axis (Yscl, by default 1)

Typically leave Xres = 1

Press GRAPH

To go back to the standard window where both axes are between -10 and 10:

Press ZOOM

Select Option 6: ZStandard

The graph will appear with the default window settings

USING THE TRACE

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To get a specific y-value given an x-value:

Plot the function on the graph with a comfortable window

Press TRACE

Use the left and right arrows to move the cursor along the function

To find a specific y-value, enter the x-value and press ENTER (make sure the window includes the (x,y) point of interest)

 FINDING A ZERO GRAPHICALLY (Contents) Having plotted a graph, to solve numerically for a zero / root:  Press 2 nd , then TRACE (this pulls up the CALC menu)  Select Option 2: Zero  For Left Bound, enter a reasonable x-value to the left of the zero  Press ENTER  For Right Bound, enter a reasonable x-value to the right of the zero  Press ENTER  For Guess, enter a reasonable x-value close to the location of the zero  Press ENTER  The calculator will solve for the x-value of the zero. FINDING A MINIMUM GRAPHICALLY (Contents) Having plotted a graph, to solve numerically for a minimum:  Press 2 nd , then TRACE (this pulls up the CALC menu)  Select Option 3: Minimum  Follow similar steps for solving for a zero above, only for the minimum FINDING A MAXIMUM GRAPHICALLY (Contents) Having plotted a graph, to solve numerically for a maximum:  Press 2 nd , then TRACE (this pulls up the CALC menu)  Select Option 4: Maximum  Follow similar steps for solving for a zero above, only for the maximum FINDING WHERE TWO CURVES INTERSECT (Contents)

Having plotted two functions with their intersection appearing in the window:

Press 2 nd , then TRACE (this pulls up the CALC menu)

Select Option 5: Intersect

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For First Curve, just press ENTER

For Second Curve, just press ENTER

For Guess, enter a reasonable x-value close to the location of the intersection

Press ENTER

 DIFFERENT TYPES OF GRAPHS (Contents) To switch to a different type of graphical interface:  Press MODE  Select FUNC (regular Cartesian), PAR (parametric), or POL (polar) GRAPHING PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS (Contents)

To graph parametric equations x(t) and y(t):

Switch to Parametric Mode

Press “Y=”

Enter x(t) for X1 T

Enter y(t) for Y1 T

Press GRAPH

Adjust the window in a similar way as described above. The only additional step is to put a minimum, maximum, and spacing step on the time variable T.

GRAPHING POLAR EQUATIONS

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To graph a polar equation:

Algebraically solve for r

Switch to Polar Mode

Press “Y=”

Enter the right side of the equation, the part in terms of theta

Press GRAPH

Adjust the window in a similar way as described above. The only additional step is to put a minimum, maximum, and spacing step on the variable θ

FINDING A DERIVATIVE

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To find the derivative of a function evaluated at a given point a :

Press MATH

Select Option 8: nDeriv(

Compute nDeriv(function in terms of x, x, a)

Press ENTER

The calculator finds the derivative at a numerically

Example: To find the derivative of y = 3x 3 at x = 1, compute nDeriv(3X^3,X,1). The answer is 9.000003, or 9.

 FINDING AN INTEGRAL (Contents) To find the definite integral of a function from a to b :  Press MATH  Select Option 9: fnInt(  Compute fnInt(function in terms of x, x, a, b)  Press ENTER  The calculator finds the definite integral from a to b numerically. Example: To find the integral of y = sin(x) from 0 to π, compute fnInt(sin(X),X,0,π). The answer is 2. EQUATION SOLVER (Contents)

To use the equation solver:

Press MATH

Select Option 0: Solver…

Move the cursor to the equation

Enter the equation in terms of X, which must be equal to 0 on the left side

Move the cursor down to the next line, which says X = (some number). Ignore what that number says.

Press ALPHA, then ENTER. This selects the SOLVE option

The calculator solves for X numerically.

Example: solve for x in the equation x 3 = 8. Enter as the equation 0 = x 3 8. After executing SOLVE, the answer turns out to be 2.

PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

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Press MATH

Select PRB to access the probability-associated functions

We state the following three examples:

(1) Compute the permutation 8P3 as 8, then type “nPr 3”, then 3, and the answer is 336. (2) Compute the combination 8C3 as 8, then type “nCr”, then 3, and the answer is 56. (3) Compute the factorial 6! as 6, then “!”, and the answer is 720.

RANDOM NUMBERS

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Press MATH

Select PRB to access the random number generators.

We state the following

four

examples:

(1) To randomly generate a decimal number between 0 and 1, simple choose Rand and press ENTER. (2) To randomly generate k integers from the range a to b, type RandInt(a, b, k) and press ENTER. The result is a random sample of k integers from the given range, with possible repetitions.

ENTERING MATRICES

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Press 2 nd

Press x -1

To create or edit a matrix while in the MATRIX menu…

Select EDIT

Select a matrix

Specify its dimensions

Enter the required values

COMMON MATRIX OPERATIONS

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Certain matrix operations are not uncommon in higher statistics and algebra. The following are the most common., and they can be found under the MATRIX menu and selecting MATH.

Option 1: det([A])

This returns the determinant of matrix [A], provided [A] is a square matrix.

Option 2: [A] T

This returns the transpose of matrix [A]. Enter [A] first, followed by T .

Option B: rref([A])

This returns the reduced echelon form of matrix [A]. Be careful not to use ref( ) instead.

Home screen: [A] -1

Available on the home screen, this returns the inverse of matrix [A], provided [A] is a square, nonsingular matrix.