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International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication

Volume: 2 Issue: 8

ISSN: 2321-8169
2106 2110

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

C Band Microstrip Patch Antenna with EBG & Superstrate Structure


Raju Verma M.Tech (Student)

Namrata Dewangan Asst.Professor

Dept. of ET&T, RCET


Bhilai,CG,India
raju.rrr.arg.cit@gmail.com

Dept. of ET&T, RCET


Bhilai,CG,India
namrata.dewangan@rediffmail.com

Abstract EBG structure and a dielectric layer over a microstrip patch antenna have remarkable effect on its input characteristics and
bandwidth. In proposed paper we studied both electromagnetic band-gap structure and a superstrate to increase the bandwidth of patch antenna.
We measured bandwidth with and without EBG to design an Antenna for resonance frequency 4 GHz. And then implemented superstrate in
EBG structure. This antenna designed on Ansoft HFSS designer software, impedance bandwidth ,VSWR ,return losses & smith charts are
observed and experimentally studied. Details of simulated results are presented and discussed.
Keywords- Microstrip Patch Antenna, Coaxial Feed, Electromagnetic band-gap (EBG), Superstrate layer.

__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________
I.

INTRODUCTION

Compact microstrip antennas have recently received much


attention due to the increasing demand of small antennas for
personal as well as communication equipment commercial. It
has been demonstrated that equilateral triangular microstrip
patch can effectively reduce the required patch size for a
given operating frequency [1]. In mobile communication
system such as satellite, RADAR, Global Position System
(GPS) often require extremely small size,light weight
.Microstrip Antenna also possess some limitations such as
narrow impedance bandwidth ,low efficiency and gain.many
process are used to overcome its limitations are reported[2][3].
Many techniques are uses to increase bandwidth like
stacked patches with truncating the opposite corners [4]Lshaped probe with impedance matching network [5] but such
processes require large antenna height and some additional
impedance matching network that creates some problem to
design antenna. The EBG structure shows high impedance
characteristic. There are various type of EBG structure are
proposed but mushroom type structure are widely used [6]
Like EBG a dielectric layer over patch antenna also plays a
important role to improve impedance bandwidth of microstrip
antenna . However , the presence of superstrate may affect the
performance of antenna like gain and efficiency.
In proposed paper we compare the bandwidth of equilateral
triangular patch in three condition
(A) Patch without EBG and superstrate
(B) With EBG
(C) With EBG and superstrate.

separated by a thin dielectric substrate. The lower conductor


acts as a ground plane. The device becomes a radiating
microstrip antenna when the upper conductor is a patch with a
length that is an appreciable fraction of a wavelength (),
approximately half a wavelength ( / 2 ). In other words, a
microstrip patch antenna consists of a radiating patch on one
side of a dielectric substrate which has a ground plane on the
other side as shown in Fig. 1.1. The patch is generally made of
conducting material such as copper or gold and can take any
possible shape.

Fig.1.1: Typical microstrip patch antenna

COAXIAL FEED

The coaxial feed or probe feed is a very common


contacting scheme of feeding patch antennas. The
configuration of a coaxial feed is shown in figure 1.2 . As
shown in figure1.2, the inner conductor of the coaxial
connector extends through the dielectric and is soldered to
the radiating patch, while the outer conductor is connected
to the ground plane. The main advantage of this type of
feeding scheme is that the feed can be placed at any
desired location inside the patch in order to match with its
input impedance. This feed method is easy to fabricate and
has low spurious radiation.

We also discuss the details and simulated study of


proposed antenna.

MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

Microstrip patch antennas are the most common form


of printed antennas. They are popular for their low profile,
geometry and low cost [4].A microstrip device in its simplest
form is a layered structure with two parallel conductors

Fig. 1.2: Coaxial feed for patch antenna

2106
IJRITCC | August 2014, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication


Volume: 2 Issue: 8

ISSN: 2321-8169
2106 2110

_______________________________________________________________________________________________
ELECTROMAGNETIC BAND-GAP (EBG) STRUCTURE

Electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures, also


known as photonic bandgap (PBG) structures with origin in
the area of optics have attracted much attention among
researchers in the microwave and antenna communities in the
recent past [6]. In general, EBG material is a periodic structure
that forbids the propagation of all electromagnetic surface
waves within a particular frequency band called the bandgap.
Because of this, it permits an additional control of the behavior
of electromagnetic waves other than conventional guiding
and/or filtering structures. EBG has the potential to provide a
simple and effective solution to the problems of surface and
leaky waves [15].
EBG structures have been found to have a wide
variety of applications in components of the microwave and
millimeter wave devices, as well as in antennas. In the recent
years, various types of EBG structures have been studied for
different applications [11].
In one of the first applications by using EBG
materials to antennas, a planar antenna mounted only on EBG
substrate was considered to increase the overall radiation
efficiency of the device. Increasing antenna directivity was
studied using an EBG structure. A mushroom like EBG
structure was designed by Sievenpiper et al [6].
This structure is characterized by having high surface
impedance. A fork-like shape novel EBG structure was later
studied which is very compact in nature. The area of the forklike structure was about 44% less than when compared to the
conventional mushroom EBG structure [13]. A compact spiral
EBG structure was studied for microstrip antenna arrays.
Spiral EBG structures, because of their compact nature are
very useful in wireless communications where size matters.
These spiral EBG structures have also been examined to
improve the performance of a triple band slot antenna [by
etching them on the feed line [16].
The original EBG structure fabrication method needs
painstaking work of drilling through the substrate in order to
form periodic array of dielectric inclusions with a dielectric
constant different from that of the host dielectric. It costs a lot
and time is wasted. Then comes the second method, which just
etches the periodic lattice on the ground plane of microstrip
line. This method is cheap and convenient [17].

enough, a superstrate layer may be used to eliminate surface


wave excitation, resulting in a radiation efficiency of 100%.
II. DESIGN OF ANTENNA
In proposed paper we uses an modified equilateral
triangular patch whose dimensions is 2727 mm ,and uses 2.54
mm thick Rogers RT /Duriod 5880 with a permittivity of 2.2 and
dielectric losses of 0.001. The modified patch is made by cutting
the each corner of triangle patch is shown in figure 2.1. The EBG
structure of proposed antenna is shown in figure 2.2.

Fig. 2.1: Modified triangle patch antenna without EBG and Superstrate

Fig. 2.2: EBG structure of patch antenna

In EBG structure mushroom like structure is


implemented in which unit cell dimensions of 2.062.06 mm
with separation of 0.5 mm. total 44 EBG structures are
implemented in proposed design.
Next we implemented a superstrate layer of thickness
12.70 mm shown in figure 2.3. We observed that improved
bandwidth is achieved by implemented superstrate layer over
electromagnetic band-gap structure.

SUPERSTRATR LAYER

A superstrate together with its antenna ground plane forms


a resonance structure, [2]-[3],which gives rise to a field
distribution that produces a larger effective aperture. The
resultant increase in the overall directivity of a single patch
can be quite significant depending on sizes of the superstrate
and the antenna ground plane. A superstrate can be
constructed in several ways, including use of multiple layers
of dielectric materials with high dielectric constants, layers of
EBG FSS structures, and use of parasitic patches. The
superstrate have been very effective in reducing the antenna
size and increasing the bandwidth at the expense to some
extent of antenna gain [16]. It is noteworthy that a superstrate
(cover) layer on top of a microstrip antenna may significantly
influence the radiation properties. If the substrate is thin

Fig. 2.3: Patch antenna with EBG and superstrate

2107
IJRITCC | August 2014, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication


Volume: 2 Issue: 8

ISSN: 2321-8169
2106 2110

_______________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Microstrip Patch Antenna with EBG Structure :-

1. Microstrip Patch Antenna without EBG and Superstrate :-

The antenna is simulated using Ansoft HFSS 11.1


which employs finite element method . The measured return
loss is -29.4356 dB & impedence bandwidth is 38.62%. In
this case measured VSWR is 1.0698 & resonance frequency is
4.9594 GHZ. Measured return loss, VSWR, smith chart and
radiation pattern is shown in fig.3.1.1-fig 3.1.4.
Ansoft
NameCorporation
X
m10.00 4.9594

XY Plot 1

HFSSDesign1

-29.4356

Curve Info
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))

-5.00

The antenna is simulated using Ansoft HFSS 11.1


which employs finite element method . The measured return
loss is -28.1369 dB & impedence bandwidth is 41.29%. In
this case measured VSWR is 1.0816 & resonance frequency is
5.0977 GHZ. Measured return loss, VSWR, and smith chart is
shown in fig.3.2.1-fig 3.2.3.
Ansoft
NameCorporation
X
m10.00 5.0977

XY Plot 25

HFSSDesign1

-28.1369

Curve Info
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

-5.00
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))

III. SIMULATION RESULT

-10.00

-15.00

-20.00

-10.00

-25.00

-15.00

-30.00

m1

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

Freq [GHz]

5.00

6.00

7.00

Fig. 3.2.1: Measured impedence bandwidth

-20.00
Ansoft
NameCorporation
X
m1
180.00 5.0977

XY Plot 26

HFSSDesign1

1.0816

Curve Info

-25.00

VSWR(WavePort1)
Setup1 : Sw eep1

160.00

m1

-30.00

140.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

Freq [GHz]

5.00

6.00

7.00
VSWR(WavePort1)

0.00

Fig. 3.1.1 : Measured impedance bandwidth


Ansoft
NameCorporation
X
m1
70.00

4.9594

XY Plot 2

HFSSDesign1

1.0698

60.00

120.00
100.00
80.00
60.00

Curve Info

40.00

VSWR(WavePort1)
Setup1 : Sw eep1

20.00
m1

0.00
0.00

VSWR(WavePort1)

50.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

Freq [GHz]

5.00

6.00

7.00

Fig.3.2.2: Measured VSWR

40.00

Smith Plot 1

Ansoft Corporation

30.00

110

100

120
130

20.00

HFSSDesign1
Curve Info

90 80
70
1.00

0.50

S(WavePort1,WavePort1)
Setup1 : Sw eep1

60
2.00

50

140

10.00

40

150

30

160 0.20

5.00 20

170

m1

10

0.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

Freq [GHz]

5.00

6.00

7.00

0.00
0.00

180

0.20

0.50

1.00

2.00

5.00

-170
-160

Fig. 3.1.2: Measured VSWR

-10
-0.20

-5.00

-150

Smith Plot 1

Ansoft Corporation
110

100

120
130

S(WavePort1,WavePort1)
Setup1 : Sw eep1

60
2.00

50

140

40

150

30

160 0.20

-1.00
-90

-70

HFSSDesign1
Curve Info

0
-30

5.00 20

0.80

10
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.50

1.00

2.00

5.00

rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='0deg'

30

rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='10deg'

0.60
-60

180

-50

-60
-80

Radiation Pattern 3

Ansoft Corporation

170

-2.00

-100

-40

Fig. 3.2.3 : Input impedance loci using smith chart

Curve Info

90 80
70
1.00

0.50

-0.50
-130
-120
-110

HFSSDesign1

-20

-30

-140

60
0.40

rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='20deg'

0.20

-170

-10

-160

-0.20

-5.00

-150

-90

90

-20

-140

-0.50
-130
-120
-110

-2.00

-100

-1.00
-90

-40

rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='30deg'
rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='40deg'

-30
-120

120

rETotal

-50

-60
-80

-70

-150

150
-180

Fig.3.2.4 : Radiation Pattern


Fig.3.1.3 : Input impedance loci using smith Chart
Radiation Pattern 1

Ansoft Corporation

HFSSDesign1

-30

rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='0deg'

30
0.96

rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='10deg'

0.72
-60

60
0.48

rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='20deg'

0.24
-90

90

rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='30deg'
rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='40deg'

-120

120

-150

3. Microstrip Patch Antenna with EBG and Superstrate :-

Curve Info

150
-180

rETotal

The antenna is simulated using Ansoft HFSS 11.1 which


employs finite element method . The measured return loss is 22.1642 dB & impedence bandwidth is 44.95%. In this case
measured VSWR is 1.1691 & resonance frequency is 4.8156
GHZ. Measured return loss, VSWR, and smith chart is shown
in fig.3.3.1-fig 3.3.3.

Fig.3.1.4 : Radiation Pattern

2108
IJRITCC | August 2014, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication


Volume: 2 Issue: 8

ISSN: 2321-8169
2106 2110

_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Ansoft
NameCorporation
X
m10.00 4.8556

XY Plot 50

HFSSDesign1

-22.1642

Curve Info
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))

-5.00

structure. Further when we implemented superstrate layer


over electromagnetic band gap structure bandwidth is
increased by 5.13% but return loss is maximized.

-10.00

-15.00

V. CONCLUSION

-20.00
m1

-25.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

Freq [GHz]

5.00

6.00

7.00

Fig. 3.3.1 :Measured impedance bandwidth


Ansoft
NameCorporation
X
90.00
m1

4.8556

XY Plot 51

HFSSDesign1

1.1691

Curve Info
VSWR(WavePort1)
Setup1 : Sw eep1

80.00

VSWR(WavePort1)

70.00

In this paper, design microstrip patch antenna with


electromagnetic band gap (EBG) and with superstrate has been
studied.
The main impact for studying this antenna structure with
electromagnetic band gap structure and with superstrate is to increase
the impedance bandwidth of patch antenna, the antenna has
successfully improved impedance bandwidth.

60.00
50.00

REFERENCES

40.00
30.00

[1]

20.00
10.00
m1

0.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

Freq [GHz]

5.00

6.00

7.00

[2]

Fig. 3.3.2 : Measured VSWR


Smith Plot 4

Ansoft Corporation
110

100

120
130

HFSSDesign1
Curve Info

90 80
70
1.00

0.50

S(WavePort1,WavePort1)
Setup1 : Sw eep1

60
2.00

50

140

40

150

30

160 0.20

5.00 20

170

10
0.00
0.00

180

0.20

0.50

1.00

2.00

5.00

[4]

-170
-160

[3]

-10
-0.20

-5.00

-150

-20

-30

-140

-0.50
-130
-120
-110

-2.00
-1.00
-100 -90

-40
-50

-60
-80

[5]

-70

Fig. 3.3.3 : Input impedance loci using smith Chart


Radiation Pattern 7

Ansoft Corporation

HFSSDesign1
Curve Info

0
-30

rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='0deg'

30
1.12

60
0.56

rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='20deg'

0.28
-90

90

rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='30deg'
rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='40deg'

-120

120

-150

[6]

rETotal
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='3.2GHz' Phi='10deg'

0.84
-60

[7]

rETotal

150
-180

Fig.3.3.4 : Radiation Pattern

IV. COMPARISON TABLE


Table 1. Comparison of simulated Result
Microstrip
Bandwidth
VSWR
Return loss
Patch Antenna
(db)
Without
EBG 39.82%
1.0698
-29.4356
and Superstrate
With
EBG 41.29%
1.0816
-28.1369
Structure
With EBG and 44..95%
1.1691
-22.1642
Superstrate
As comparison table 1 shows bandwidth of patch
antenna is increased by 1.47 % by implementing
Electromagnetic band gap structure, return loss is also
minimized by implementing electromagnetic band gap

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

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Using a Superstrate Layer, ETRI Journal ,Volume 25,No,
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EBG Structure with Rectangular Unit Cells, The 2009
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(ISPA 2009)Oct.20-23,2009,Bangkok,THAILAND
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Electromagnetic
Band
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in
AntennaEngineering,Fan Yang,University of Mississippi
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Using a Superstrate Layer, ETRI Journal ,Volume 25,No,
5, oct-2003
Wonkyu Choi , Yong Heui Cho, Cheol Sik Pyo and JAEIck Choi.,A High Gain Microstrip Patch Array Antenna
Using a Superstrate Layer, ETRI Journal ,Volume 25,No,
5, oct-2003
Teruhisa Nakamura,Takeshi FUKUSAKO Broadband
Design of Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna Using
EBG Structure with Rectangular Unit Cells, The 2009
International Symposium on Antenna and Propagation
(ISPA 2009)Oct.20-23,2009,Bangkok,THAILAND
K.L. Lau and K. M. Luk, A novel wide band circularly
polarized patch antenna based on L- probe and aperture
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Engineering,Fan Yang,University of Mississippi Yahya
2109

IJRITCC | August 2014, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication


Volume: 2 Issue: 8

ISSN: 2321-8169
2106 2110

_______________________________________________________________________________________________
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[16]

[17]

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AUTHORS PROFILE
Mr. Raju Verma received his B.E. degree
from CSVTU, India in 2009. He is presently
persuing M.Tech. in Digital Electronics
Branch From RCET,Bhilai. He is student
member of IEEE.

Miss. Namrata Dewangan received her


B.E.
degree
in
Electronics
and
Telecommunication Branch from CSVTU,
India in 2008 and M. TECH degree from
SSCET, india in 2013. She is presently
working as Asst.Prof. in RCET, Bhilai.

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IJRITCC | August 2014, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________