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EXPERIMENT 4 : ENERGY IN THERMAL

SYSTEM
OBJECTIVES
1. To gain thermal equilibrium.
2. To determine final temperature.
INFERENCES
Thermal equilibrium is achieved when two subtances reach the same
temperature and exchange to heat energy.
HYPOTHESIS
The final temperature obtained from the experiment will be the state in
which the temperature of two substances reached the equal temperature
at a certain time.
PROCEDURES
1. Record m1 as the weight of an empty beaker / Styrofoam.
2. Use the beaker / Styrofoam to fill 100ml tap water. Record as m2
when measure mass of the beaker with tap water.
3. Record as T1 when read the initial temperature of tap water.
4. Fill 100ml water to another empty beaker.
5. Using electric kettle or Bunsen burner to boil the tap water about 10
minutes.
6. In figure 1 record T2 when reading the temperature of the hot water.
If using Styrofoam.
7. Use the Styrofoam containing 100ml tap water and pour 100ml hot
water gently into it. Record as m3 weight the mass of the Styrofoam.
If using beaker.
7. Use the beaker containing 100ml hot water and pour 100ml tap
water gently into it. Record as m3 weight the mass of the beaker.

Figure 1

8. Record the final temperature as Tfinal while stir the mixture slowly
about 10 seconds.

APPARATUS

Mercury Thermometer
Styrofoam

Beaker

Electronic
balance
Bunsen burner

Wire Gauze

Electric kettle

Lighter

Tripod
Stand

DATA
Mass, m
gram
Empty beaker / Styrofoam,
61.92
m1
Beaker / Styrofoam with
96.36
100ml tap water, m2
Temperature
Beaker / Styrofoam with
131.21
,T
200ml mixture water (100ml
Tap water, T1
tap water with 100ml hot
water), m3
Hot water, T2

Table 1b

59C

The mixture, Tfinal

25C
80C

Use the values


and 1b above to answer the following question.
Mass of tap water = mcold = m2-m1
Mass of hot water = mhot = m3-m2
Mass of water mixture = mcold + mhot

Table 1a
from the table 1a

16.36 - 61.96 = 34.4


g
131.21 96.36 = 34.85
g
34.4 34.85 = 69.25
g

CALCULATION
Calculate Tfinal using the following equation:-

Tfinal = [ (mhot x Thot) + (mcold x Tcold) ]


(mhot + mcold)
Tfinal (from experiment)

59C

Tfinal (from calculation)

(34.85g x 80C) + (34.4 x


25C)

(34.85 + 34.4)
=52.68C
% Error = ( I theoretical actual I /
theoretical ) x 100 (same as 100 - % yield)

52.68 59 x 100
52.68
= 11.99%

ANALYSIS
Energy thermal system or thermal equilibrium is achieved when two
substances reach the same temperature and exchange to heat energy. We
calculate the gram (g) of the mass and Celsius (C) of the temperature.
The apparatus we using is mercury thermometer, beaker, Bunsen burner,
or electric kettle, electronic balance/beam balance, tripod stand and wire
gauze and lighter gun. Due to error in reading on the percentage error, we
can find this error by using the Tfinal (from experiment) and Tfinal (from
calculation). We carry out the experiment twice and we found that the
reading is not the same.

QUESTION
1. Does the final temperature in this experiment is equal with the final
temperature in calculation?
-No.
2. If both of the final temperatures are not the same, explain why and
relate to thermal equilibrium principle?
-Because two objects at the thermal equilibrium have the same
temperature and there is no net transfer of heat energy between
the objects.

CONCLUSION
-After the experiment, we should be able to gain thermal equilibrium. We
also know on how to determine the final temperature. As student, we can
also know on how to find the result of the empty beaker, beaker with
200ml cold water (tap water), and beaker 250ml hot water. We also can

found the temperature of the cold water (tap water), temperature of hot
water and the temperature of the mixture of water.