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Soybean oil

Soybean oil is widely used oil and is commonly called vegetable oil which is extracted
from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine max). It is one of the most widely
consumed cooking oils. soya bean oil doesnt contains much saturated fats. It is one of
the stable cooking oils; having a long shelf life. Soybean oil is very popular with rich
value of Omega 3 and Omega 6. Those fatty acids regulate lipid and cholesterol
metabolism and prevent narrowing in artery veins. As a drying oil, processed
soybean oil is also used as a base for printing inks (soy ink) and oil paints. Soybeans
owe their dominance of the oilseed market to the value of their protein, which is
much greater than that of other oilseeds. Soybean oil of typical composition
performs well as a salad oil, but it is usually hydrogenated for use as a margarine
stock or frying oil. Soybean oil is the primary commercial source of alphatocopherol,
also known as vitamin E.

Per 100 g, soybean oil has 16 g of saturated fat, 23 g of monounsaturated fat, and
58 g of polyunsaturated fat. The major unsaturated fatty acids in soybean
oil triglycerides are the polyunsaturates alpha-linolenic acid (C-18:3), 7-10%, and
linoleic acid (C-18:2), 51%; and the monounsaturate oleic acid (C-18:1), 23%. It also
contains the saturated fatty acids stearic acid (C-18:0), 4%, and palmitic acid (C16:0), 10%.100 g oil provides 884 calories.

Physical characteristics :
Dry soybean seeds compose about 18-20% of extractable oil by weight. The seeds are then
subject to pressing to obtain oil and the residue soybean meal which is used as animal feed.
Crude soybean oil is deep yellow in color and contains impurities such as moisture, lecithin,
free-fatty acids, and certain volatile compounds. These impurities are removed through
further refininement to obtain acceptable standard oil. Refined oil is clear light yellow liquid,
and features neutral odor and taste. Fresh oil has very low free fatty acids (FFA) less than
0.1%. Its specific gravity @ 25 C is 0.91500.9280, Iodine value-75 94, and saponification
value-184 195.


uses :
Salad Dressing
Baked goods

Barbecue sauce
Non-Dairy Creamers
Potato chips
Whipped Toppings

Non-food use of soybean oil: used as renewable raw material to produce a variety of
non-food products like

Bio diesel
Soy candles

Health benefits of soybean oil

Soybean oil is chiefly a poly-unsaturated fats rich vegetable oil. Linoleic acid (omega6) is the major poly-unsaturated fatty acid found in it. Additionally it is low in
saturated fats, and free from cholesterol; making it as one of the healthiest cooking
Soybean, being a vegetable oil, is a good source of plant sterols, especially sitosterol. The FDA has approved the following claim for phytosterols: "Foods
containing at least 0.4 gram per serving of plant sterols, eaten twice a day with
meals for a daily total intake of at least 0.8 gram, as part of a diet low in saturated fat
and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease." Phyto-sterols competitively
inhibit cholesterol absorption in the gut and thereby can reduce blood cholesterol
levels by 10% to 15%.
Soybean oil is a moderate source of anti-oxidant vitamin E. 100 g fresh oil has 8.18
mg of -tocopherol and 64.26 mg of gamma-tocopherol. Vitamin E is a powerful lipid
soluble antioxidant, required for maintaining the integrity of cell membrane of mucus
membranes and skin by protecting it from harmful oxygen-free radicals.
The oil has vitamin K in high concentrations; 100 g of oil compose of 183.9 mcg.
Vitamin K has potential role bone health by promoting osteotrophic (bone formation
and strengthening) activity. Adequate vitamin-K levels in the diet help limiting
neuronal damage in the brain; thus, has established role in the treatment of patients
suffering from Alzheimer's disease.

The production of commercial soybean oil is complicated. The mechanical
production of soybean oil with hydraulic presses is not much used because its
expensive and gives lower yields. Soybean oil is normally produced by extraction
with solvents. The production consists of following steps:
Cleaning of Soyabeans:

The soybeans are first cleaned, dried and dehulled prior to oil extraction. The
soybean hulls needs to be removed because they absorb oil and give a lower yield.
This de-hulling is done by cracking the soybeans and a mechanical separation of the
hulls and cracked soybeans. Magnets are used to separate any iron from the
soybeans. The soybean are also heated to about 75 C to coagulate the soy proteins
to make the oil extraction easier.
Extraction of soybean oil
First the soybeans are cut in flakes which are put in a percolation extractors and
immerged with a solvent, normally hexane. Counterflow is used as extraction
system because it gives the highest yield. After removing the hexane, the extracted
flakes only contain about 1% of soybean oil and is used as livestock meal or to
produce food products such as soy protein. The hexane is separated from the
soybean oil in evaporators. The evaporated hexane is recovered and returned to the
extraction process. The hexane free crude soybean oil is then further purified. In
India, crushing of soybean for soy oil and meal starts from October and it peaks
during the subsequent two-three months.
Purification of soybean oil
The crude soybean oil still contains many oil-insoluble and oil-soluble impurities that
needs to be removed. The oil-insoluble material are removed with filtration and the
soluble materials is removed with different processes including degumming
(removing of phosphatides), alkali refining (washing with alkaline solution to remove
free fatty acids, colorants, insoluble matter and gums) and bleaching (with activated
earth or activated carbon to remove colour and other impurities.
Hydrogenation of soybean oil (optional)
This process will increase the stability of the soybean oil and will make it less liquid.
However, this process will create more saturated fats and will reduce the favourable
unsaturated fats. In addition, transfats are produced which can cause hearth
problems. Hydrogenated soybean oil is used in foods that require more solid fat
such as margarines.

Major International Exchanges for Soy Oil Trade

Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT)

The South African Futures Exchange (SAFEX)
Dalian Commodity Exchange (DC)
Kansai Commodities Exchange (KEX) in Japan
Tokyo Grain Exchange (TGE) in Japan

Production of soyabean oil:

China, United States, Argentina and Brazil are the key producers of Soybean oil in
2014- 15.
Indias share in global production of Soybean Oil in 2014-15 is around 4.13

Major Exporting Countries:

Argentina is the largest exporting country in the world followed by Brazil, EU, and

Major Importing Countries of Soyabean oil:

India is the largest importer of soybean oil that constituted 17.55 percent of the
global import in the year 2014-15.