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__________________________________________________________________________

Fundamentals

2012

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Contents:

1.0 - INTRODUCTION

2.0 ASME SECTION I & SECTION VIII Fundamentals

3.0 ASME SECTION I POWER BOILERS: Types, Design, Fabrication, Inspection & Repair

4.0 ASME SECTION VIII Division 1, Division 2, Division 3

5.0 ASME SECTION I: Dished Heads Formulae

6.0 ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 1: Dished Head Formulae

7.0 - ASME SECTION VIII Main Scopes

8.0 ASME SECTION VIII Shell Nozzles

9.0 ASME SECTION II - Materials

10.0 ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 1: Suplementary Design Formulae

11.0 ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 1: Hydrostatic Pressure Tests

12.0 - ASME Section VIII - Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels

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1.0 - INTRODUCTION:

The ASME Code design criteria consist of basic rules specifying the design method, design loads, allowable stress, acceptable materials, fabrication, testing, certification, and inspection requirements. The design method known as "design by rule" defined in ASME Section VIII - Division 1 uses design pressure,

allowable stress and a design formula compatible with the geometry to calculate the minimum required

thickness of pressurized tanks, vessels and pipes.

The ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers - International Boiler and Pressure Vessel

Code is made of 12 sections and contains over 15 divisions and subsections.

1.1 - Code Sections:

I. Power Boilers

II. Materials

III. Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components

IV. Heating Boilers

V. Nondestructive Examination

VI. Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers

VII. Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers

VIII. Pressure Vessels

IX. Welding and Brazing Qualifications

X. Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels

XI. Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components

XII. Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks

SECTION I - Power Boilers:

This Section provides requirements for all methods of construction of power, electric, and miniature boilers; high temperature water boilers used in stationary service; and power boilers used in locomotive,

portable, and traction service.

SECTION II Materials:

Part

Part

Part

Part

B - Nonferrous Material Specifications

C - Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals

D - Properties

SECTION III - Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components: This Subsection contains appendices, both mandatory and non-mandatory for Section III, Division 1 (Subsection NCA through NG)

and Division 2, including a listing of design and design analysis methods and information, and Data Report Forms. Includes the NV (Nuclear Safety and Pressure Relief Valves), Section II, Part A, Ferrous

Materials, Part B, Nonferrous Materials, Part D, Properties, Customary or Metric and N3 (N-Type Certificates of Authorization and Certificates of Accreditation).

Subsection NCA - General Requirements for Divisions 1 and 2

DIVISION 1

Subsection NB- Class 1 Components

Subsection NC- Class 2 Components

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Subsection NE- Class MC Components

Subsection NF - Supports

Subsection NG - Core Support Structures

Subsection NH - Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service

DIVISION 2

Code for Concrete Containments

DIVISION 3

Containments for Transportation and Storage

SECTION IV - Heating Boilers:

Requirements for design, fabrication, installation and inspection of steam generating boilers, and hot w ater boilers intended for low pressure service that are directly fired by oil, gas, electricity, or coal. It contains appendices which cover approval of new material, methods of checking safety valve, safety relief

valve capacity, definitions relating to boiler design and welding and quality control systems.

SECTION V - Nondestructive Examination:

Requirements and methods for nondestructive examination which are referenced and required by other

code Sections. It also includes manufacturer's examination responsibilities, duties of authorized inspectors and requirements for qualification of personnel, inspection and examination.

SECTION VI - Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers:

It defines general descriptions, terminology and guidelines applicable to steel and cast iron boilers limited

to the operating ranges of Section IV Heating Boilers. It includes guidelines for associated controls and

automatic fuel burning equipment.

SECTION VII - Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers:

Guidelines to promote safety in the use of stationary, portable, and traction type heating boilers. The section provides guidelines to assist operators of power boilers in maintaining their plants as safely as possible. These guidelines contains fuels for routine operation; operating and maintaining boiler appliances;

Inspection and prevention of boiler failure; design of installation; operation of boiler auxiliaries; control of

internal chemical conditions.

SECTION VIII - Pressure Vessels:

Division 1 - Provides requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures exceeding 15 psig.

Division 2 - Alternative rules, provides requirements to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and

certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures exceeding 15 psig.

Division 3 - Alternative rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels, provides requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels operating at either

internal or external pressures generally above 10,000 psi.

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Rules relating to the qualification of welding and brazing procedures as required by other Code Sections

for component manufacture. Covers rules are related to the qualification and re-qualification of welders

and welding and brazing operators in order that they may perform welding or brazing as required by other Code Sections in the manufacture of components.

SECTION X - Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels:

Requirements for construction of FRP (Fiber-Reinforced Plastic) pressure vessels in conformance with

a manufacturer's design report. It includes production, processing, fabrication, inspection and testing

methods required.

SECTION XI - Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components:

Requirements for the examination, in-service testing and inspection, and repair and replacement of components and systems in light-water cooled and liquid-metal cooled nuclear power plants.

SECTION XII - Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks:

Requirements for construction and continued service of pressure vessels for the transportation of dangerous goods via highway, rail, air or water at pressures from full vacuum to 3,000 psig and volumes

greater than 120 gallons.

1.2 - The ASME-ANSI B31 Codes:

ASME B31 was earlier known as ANSI B31. The B31 Code for Pressure Piping, covers Power Piping,

Fuel Gas Piping, Process Piping, Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other

Liquids, Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components and Building Services Piping. Piping consists of pipe, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, relief devices, fittings and the pressure containing parts of

other piping components. It also includes hangers and supports, and other equipment items necessary to

prevent overstressing the pressure containing parts. It does not include support structures such as

frames of buildings, buildings stanchions or foundations.

B31.1 - 2001 - Power Piping:

Required piping for industrial plants and marine applications. This code prescribes requirements for the

design, materials, fabrication, erection, test, and inspection of power and auxiliary service piping systems

for electric generation stations, industrial institutional plants, central and district heating plants. The code

covers boiler external piping for power boilers and high temperature, high pressure water boilers in which

steam or vapor is generated at a pressure of more than 15 PSIG; and high temperature water is generated at pressures exceeding 160 PSIG and/or temperatures exceeding 250 degrees F.

B31.2 - 1968 - Fuel Gas Piping:

Withdrawn as a National Standard and replaced by ANSI/NFPA Z223.1, but B31.2 is still available from

ASME and is a good reference for the design of gas piping systems (from the meter to the appliance).

B31.3 - 2002 - Process Piping:

Code rules for design of chemical, petroleum plants, refineries, hydrocarbons, water and steam. This

Code contains rules for piping typically found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile,

paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals.

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It prescribes requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, exam ination, inspection, and testing of piping. Also included is piping which interconnects pieces or stages

within a packaged equipment assembly.

B31.4 - 2002 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids:

This Code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, construction, assembly, inspection, and

testing of piping transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural gasoline, natural gas liquids,

liquefied petroleum gas, carbon dioxide, liquid alcohol, liquid anhydrous ammonia and liquid petroleum

products between producers' lease facilities, tank farms, natural gas processing plants, refineries, st ations, ammonia plants, terminals (marine, rail and truck) and other delivery and receiving points. The requirements for offshore pipelines are found in Chapter IX, and included within this scope are:

Primary and associated auxiliary liquid petroleum and liquid anhydrous ammonia piping at pipeline terminals (marine, rail and truck), tank farms, pump stations, pressure reducing stations and m etering stations, including scraper traps, strainers, and proper loops;

Storage and working tanks including pipe-type storage fabricated from pipe and fittings, and piping interconnecting these facilities;

Liquid petroleum and liquid anhydrous ammonia piping located on property which has been set

aside for such piping within petroleum refinery, natural gasoline, gas processing, ammonia, and bulk

plants;

Those aspects of operation and maintenance of liquid pipeline systems relating to the safety and

protection of the general public, operating company personnel, environment, property and the piping

systems.

B31.5 - 2001 - Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components:

This Code prescribes requirements for the materials, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, test, and

inspection of refrigerant, heat transfer components, and secondary coolant piping for temperatures as

low as -320 F (-196 C), whether erected on the premises or factory assembled, except as specifically

excluded in the following paragraphs.

Users are advised that other piping Code Sections may provide requirements for refrigeration piping in

their respective jurisdictions. This Code shall not apply to:

Any self-contained or unit systems subject to the requirements of Underwriters Laboratories or

other nationally recognized testing laboratory:

Water piping and piping designed for external or internal gage pressure not exceeding 15 psi

(105 kPa) regardless of size; or

Pressure vessels, compressors, or pumps, but does include all connecting refrigerant and secondary coolant piping starting at the first joint adjacent to such apparatus.

B31.8 - 2003 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems:

This Code covers the design, fabrication, installation, inspection, and testing of pipeline facilities used for

the transportation of gas. This Code also covers safety aspects of the operation and maintenance of

those facilities. It includes gas transmission, appurtenances for transporting gas; gas storage equipment

fabricated from pipe and fittings; and gas storage lines.

B31.8S-2001 - 2002 - Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines:

This Standard applies to on-shore pipeline systems constructed with ferrous materials and that transport

gas. Pipeline system means all parts of physical facilities through which gas is transported, including

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pipe, valves, appurtenances attached to pipe, compressor units, metering stations, regulator stations,

delivery stations, holders and fabricated assemblies.

The principles and processes are applicable to all pipeline systems. This Standard is specifically designed to provide the operator (as defined in section 13) with the information necessary to develop and

implement an effective integrity management program utilizing proven industry practices and processes.

The processes and approaches within this Standard are applicable to the entire pipeline system.

B31.9 - 1996 - Building Services Piping:

This Section has rules for the piping in industrial, institutional, commercial and public buildings, and multiunit residences, which does not require range of sizes, pressures, and temperatures covered in B31.1.

This Code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, installation, inspection, exam ination and testing of piping systems for building services. It includes piping systems in the building or

within the property limits.

B31.11 - 2002 - Slurry Transportation Piping Systems:

Rule for design, construction, inspection and security requirements of slurry piping systems. This code

covers piping systems that transport aqueous slurries of no hazardous materials, such as coal, mineral

ores and other solids between a slurry processing plant and the receiving plant. It also covers piping

transporting liquids, tank farms, natural gas processing plants, refineries, pump stations, ammonia plants,

terminals (marine, rail, and truck), and other delivery and receiving points.

B31G - 1991 - Manual for Determining Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines:

The scope of this Manual includes all pipelines within the scope of the pipeline codes that are part of

ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping, ASME B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons,

Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols; ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems; and ASME B31.11, Slurry Transportation Piping Systems. Parts 2, 3, and 4 are

based on material in ASME Guide for Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, 1983 Edition.

1.3 - ASME Certification and Inspection Procedures:

The symbols "A", "S", "U", "PP" and "H" Stamps covers the fabrication and alteration of high pressure

boilers, unfired pressure vessels, power piping and heating boilers. Once an ASME Stamped Pressure

Vessel is manufactured, it is checked, tested and approved by the ASME Authorized Inspector, who

review all the procedures and all documentation and sign the Data Report Form before the procedure to

stamp the name plate with the U or UM symbols, which means that the Pressure Vessel fully complies with the ASME Code rules for construction of Pressure Vessels.

The National Board of Boiler & Pressure Vessel Inspectors uses the NB Symbol as well the R

Symbol to repair or to alter any previous Stamped Pressure Vessel. All material used in manufacture

must be documented. All welders must be certified. Manufacturers have an Authorized Inspector, who

is the judge of code acceptability. The quality of weld is then checked for lack of weld penetration, slag

inclusion, overlap and excessive reinforcement. At the final inspection the units are hydrostatically tested at 1.5 times working pressure and observed for leaks.

1.4 Imperial and Metric Values:

Professionals and students should be well versed in conversion practice. Many US customary unit

values presented in the ASME codes do not convert directly into metric values in the ASME editions.

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The formulae in ASME Section I and Section VIII are used to determine the minimum required thickness and design pressure of piping, tubes, drums and headers using the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP). However, Paragraph UG-31 states, that these formulae may be also used for

calculating wall thickness of tubes and pipes under internal pressure.

2.1 Design:

The ASME Boiler Code Section I, as well as Section VIII, requires longitudinal and circumferential butt

joints to be examined by full radiograph.

When the vessel design is required fully radiographed longitudinal butt-welded joint, the cylindrical shell

will have a joint efficiency factor (E = 1.0). This factor corresponds to a safety factor (or material quality factor) of 3.5 in the parent metal.

When the vessel design is required non-radiographed longitudinal butt-welded joints the vessel will

have a joint efficiency factor (E = 0.7, which corresponds to a safety factor of 0.5 in., resulting in an

increase of 43% in the thickness of the plates.

2.2 Pressure Vessels Maximum Allowable Stress Values:

The maximum allowable stress values to be used in the calculation of the vessels wall thickness are

given in the ASME Code for many different materials. These stress values are a function of temperature.

Maximum Allowable Stress Value for Common Steels

Material

Carbon Steel

Plates and

Sheets

High Alloy

Steel Plates

DIVISION 1

-20F to

650F

13,800

15,000

16,300

17,500

DIVISION 2

-20F to

650F

18,300

20,000

21,700

23,300

SA - 203

Grade A

Grade B

Grade D

Grade E

11,300

12,500

13,800

12,700

16,300

17,500

16,300

17,500

15,000

16,700

18,300

16,900

21,700

23,300

21,700

23,300

SA - 240

Grade 304

Grade 304L

Grade 316

Grade 316L

11,200

12,300

10,200

20,000

16,700

20,000

16,700

Spec. Nbr

Grade

SA - 516

Grade 55

Grade 60

Grade 65

Grade 70

SA - 285

Grade A

Grade B

Grade C

SA - 36

Division 1: Governs the design by Rules, is less stringent from the standpoint of certain design details

and inspection procedures, and thus incorporates a higher safety factor of 4. For example, if a 60,000

psi tensile strength material is used, the Maximum Allowable Stress Value is 15,000 psi.

Division 2: Governs the design by Analysis" and incorporates a lower safety factor of 3. Thus, the

maximum allowable stress value for a 60,000 psi tensile strength material will become 20,000 psi.

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Many companies require that all their pressure vessels be constructed in accordance with Division 2

because of the more exacting standards. Others find that they can purchase less expensive vessels

by allowing manufacturers the choice of either Division 1 or Division 2.

Normally, manufacturers will choose Division 1 for low-pressure vessels and Division 2 for highpressure vessels. The maximum allowable stress values at normal temperature range for the steel

plates most commonly used in the fabrication of pressure vessels are given in Table above.

3.0 ASME SECTION I - POWER BOILERS: Types, Design, Fabrication, Inspection & Repair:

Provides requirements for construction of power, electric, and miniature boilers; high temperature water

boilers used in stationary service; and power boilers used in locomotive, portable, and traction service.

Rules allow the use of the V, A, M, PP, S and E symbol stamps. The rules are applicable to boilers in

which the steam is generated at pressures exceeding 15 psig, and high temperature water boilers for

operation at pressures exceeding 160 psig and/or temperatures exceeding 250 F.

This code covers Power Boiler Superheaters, Economizers, and other pressure parts connected directly to the boiler without intervening valves are considered as part of the scope of Section 1.

3.1 ASME SECTION I Boiler Tubes up to and including 5 inches O.D. (125 mm):

a) The minimum required thickness, according to ASME paragraph PG-27.2.1, use equation below:

Where:

t = Minimum Design Wall Thickness (in);

P = Design Pressure (psi);

D = Tube Outside Diameter (in);

e = Thickness Factor (0.04 for expanded tubes; 0 = for strength welded tubes);

S = Maximum Allowable Stress According to ASME Section II, Table 1A.

Example 1 - Boiler Tube:

Calculate the minimum required wall thickness of a water tube boiler 2.75 in O.D., strength welded (E,

or, e = 0) into place in a boiler. The tube has an average wall temperature of 650F. The Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) is 580 psi gauge. Material is carbon steel SA-192.

Note: Before starting calculations check the correct stress table in ASME Section II, Table 1A:

Consider SA-192 = 11,800 psi allowable stress Div. 1.

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Solution:

For tubing up to and including 5 in O.D., use equation 1.1 above.

P = [580 psi]

D = [2.75 in]

e = 0 (strength welded)

S = [11,800 psi] at [650F])

t=

2.75 x 580

2 (11,800) + 580

+ 0.005 (2.75) + 0

t = 0.079 in.

Note: Where the manufacturing processes produce only standard plate thickness, so should be used

1/8 in (3.2 mm) minimum.

3.2 ASME SECTION I Piping, Drums, and Headers:

The following formulae are found in ASME Section I, paragraph PG-27.2.2. The information for piping,

drums, or headers may be given with either the inside I or outside D measurements.

a) Using the outside diameter:

Where:

t = Minimum Design Wall Thickness (in);

P = Design Pressure (psi);

D = Tube Outside Diameter (in);

R = Tube Radius (in);

E = Tube Welding Factor (1.0 for seamless pipe; 0.85 = for welded pipe);

y = Wall Thickness Welding Factor (0.4 for 900F & lower; 0.7 for 950F & up);

C = Corrosion Allowance (0 for no corrosion; 0.0625 in. commonly used; 0.125 in. maximum);

S = Maximum Allowable Stress According to ASME Section II, Table 1A.

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Calculate the required minimum thickness of a seamless steam piping at a pressure of 900 psi gauge

and a temperature of 700F. The piping is 10.77 in O.D., (10 inches nominal) plain end; the material is

SA-335 P1, alloy steel. Allow a manufacturers tolerance allowance of 12.5%.

Note: Before starting calculations check the material stress table in ASME Section II, Table 1A:

SA-335 P1 = 13,800 psi allowable stress Div.1. Use equation 2.1:

P = [900 psi]

D = [10.77 in]

C=0

S = [13,800] (SA-335 P1 alloy steel at 700F)

E = 1.0

y = 0.4 (Ferritic steel less than 900F)

t=

2(13,800) (1.0) + 2(0.4) (900)

Example 3 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP):

Calculate the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) for a seamless steel pipe of material SA209-T1. The outside pipe diameter is 12.75 in. (nominal diam. 12 in.) with a wall thickness of 0.46 in.

The operating temperature is 850F. The pipe is plain ended.

D = 12.75 in (outside diameter);

t = 0.46 in;

C = 0 (3 to 4 inches nominal and larger);

S = 13,100 psi (Section II, Table 1A, Div.1, SA-209-T1 at 850F);

E = 1.0 (seamless pipe as per PG-9.1);

y = 0.4 (austenitic steel at 850F).

Use equation 2.2:

P=

2SE (t C) =

D (2y) (t C)

12.75 (2 x 0.4) (0.46 0)

P = 26,200 x 0.46 =

12.75 0.368

P = 973 psi

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A welded water tube boiler drum of SA-515-60 material is fabricated to an inside radius of 18.70 in. on

the tube sheet and 19.68 in on the drum. The plate thickness of the tube sheet and drum are 2.34 in.

and 1.49 in., respectively. The longitudinal joint efficiency is 100%, and the ligament efficiencies are 56%

horizontal and 30% circumferential. The operating temperature is not to exceed 500F. Determine the

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) based on:

Welded Water Tube Boiler Drum:

DRUM &

TUBESHEET

Note: This is a common example of a water tube drum fabricated from two plates of different thickness.

Thicker material is required where the boiler tubes enter the drum than is required for a plain drum. This

example has two parts:

c) The drum consider the drum to be plain with no penetrations.

d) The tube sheet consider the drum to have penetrations for boiler tubes.

(a) Drum. Use equation 2.4 (inside radius R):

Where:

S = 15,000 psi (Section II, Table 1A, Div.1, SA-515-60 at 500F);

E = 1.0;

t = 1.49 in;

C = 0;

R = 19.68 in;

y = 0.4 (ferritic steel less than 900F).

Drum P = (15,000) (1.0) (1.49 0).. =

19.68 + (1 0.4) (1.49 0)

Drum P = 15,000 x 1.49

19.68 + 0.894

Drum P = 1,086 psi

(b) Tube Sheet. Use equation 2.4 (inside radius R):

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S = 15,000 psi;

E = 0.56 (circumferential stress = 30% and longitudinal stress = 56%; therefore = 0.56 < 2 x 0.30);

t = 2.34 in;

C = 0 (3 to 4 inches nominal and larger);

R = 18.70 in;

y = 0.4 (Ferritic steel less than 900F).

Tube Sheet P = (15,000) (1.0) (2.34 0) =

18.70 + (1 0.4) (2.34 0)

Tube Sheet P = 15,000 x 2.34

18.70 + 1.404

Tube Sheet P = 1,746 psi

Note: Consider the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) = 1,086 psi (lowest number).

4.0 ASME SECTION VIII Division 1, Division 2, Division 3:

The ASME Section VIII, rules for fired or unfired pressure vessels, is divided into three divisions to

provide requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification. The formulae and allowable stresses presented in this sketch are only for Division 1, the main code.

It contains mandatory and non-mandatory appendices detailing supplementary design criteria, nondestructive examination and inspection acceptance standards. Rules pertaining to the use of the U, UM

and UV Code symbol stamps are also included.

4.1 SECTION VIII - Thin Cylindrical Shells:

The formulae in ASME Section VIII, Division 1, paragraph UG-27, used for calculating the wall thickness and design pressure of pressure vessels, are:

a) Circumferential Stress (longitudinal welds):

When, P < 0.385SE:

(R = Internal Radius)

b) Longitudinal Stress (circumferential welds):

When, P < 1.25SE

(R = Internal Radius)

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A vertical boiler is constructed of SA-515-60 according to Section VIII-1. It has an internal diameter of

96 in. and an internal design pressure of 1,000 psi at 450 F. The corrosion allowance is 0.125 in., and

joint efficiency is E = 0.85. Calculate the required thickness of the shell. (Consider SA-515-60 = 15,000

psi allowable stress, ASME Section II, Table 1A, Div.1).

Since P < 0.385SE = P < 6,545 psi. Thus, as 1,000 psi < 6,545 psi, use equation 1.3:

t=

PR + C

SE 0.6P

Considering the internal radius = (48 in.) and corrosion allowance = 0.125 in.

t=

1,000 x 48 . + 0.125 =

2(15,000)(0.85) 0.6(1,000)

t = 2.052 in.

4.2 SECTION VIII - Thick Cylindrical Shells:

For internal pressures higher than 3,000 psi, special considerations as specified in paragraph U-1 (d).

As the ratio of t/R increases beyond 0.5, an accurate equation is required to determine the thickness.

The formulae in ASME Appendix 1, Supplementary Design Formulas used for calculating thick wall

and design pressure, are:

a) For longitudinal welds:

When, P > 0.385SE:

And:

When, P > 1.25SE:

And:

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Where:

R = Design Radius (in.):

Z = Dimensionless Factor.

Example 6 Thick Cylindrical Shells:

a) When P > 0.385SE:

Calculate the required shell thickness of an accumulator with a design pressure of P = 10,000 psi, R =

18 in., S = 20,000 psi, and E = 1.0. Assume a corrosion allowance of 0.125 in.

Since P > 0.385SE = P > 7,700 psi. Thus, as 10,000 psi > 7,700 psi, use equation 1.7:

t = R (Z

- 1) =

(20,000)(1.0) 10,000 10,000

t = (18) (3

b) When P < 0.385SE:

Calculate the required shell thickness of an accumulator with a design pressure of P = 7,650 psi, R = 18

in., S = 20,000 psi, and E = 1.0. Assume corrosion allowance = 0.

Since P< 0.385SE = P < 7,700 psi. Thus, as 7,650 psi < 7,700 psi, use equation 1.3:

t=

PR + C

SE 0.6P

t=

7,650 x 18 + 0

(20,000)(1.0) 0.6(7,650)

t = 8.9 in.

Example 8 Comparison between Equation 1.3 and Equation 1.7:

Calculate the shell thickness, comparing the equation 1.3 with another answer using equation 1.7.

t = R (Z

- 1) =

(20,000)(1.0) 7,650 12,350

t = (18 + 0) (2.24

- 1) = 8.9 in.

This shows that the simple use of equation (1.3) is accurate over a wide range of R/t ratios.

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4.3 ASME I and ASME-ANSI B31 Pressure Piping - Minimum Wall Thickness:

According to ASME Section I and ANSI B31, the minimum thickness of piping under pressure is:

Where:

t (min)= Minimum wall thickness required (in);

P = Design pressure (psig);

D = Outside diameter of pipe (in);

S = Allowable stress in pipe material (psi);

E = Longitudinal joint factor - E = 1.0 for seamless pipe, E = 0.85 for ERW pipe;

C = Corrosion allowance, typically 0.05 in.

y = Wall thickness coefficient in ASME Table 304.1.1 for ferritic steels, where:

y = 0.4 for T<= 900 F;

y = 0.5 for 900< T <= 950 F;

y = 0.7 for 950 < T <= 1000 F.

4.4 ASME SECTION VIII Reinforcement Wall Thickness Plate:

The standard design method uses an increased wall thickness plate at the equator line of the vessel to

support the additional stresses caused by the attachment of the legs. The formula for calculation the

wall thickness of a segmented plate of to be welded in a vessel or spherical shell is:

t=

PL + C

2SE 0.2P

L = Di/2

Where:

t = Minimum Design Wall Thickness (in);

P = Design Pressure (psi);

Di = Inside Diameter of Sphere (in);

L = Sphere Radius (in);

E = Tube Welding Factor (1.0 for seamless pipe; 0.85 = for welded pipe);

C = Corrosion Allowance (0 for no corrosion; 0.0625 in. commonly used; 0.125 in. maximum);

S = Maximum Allowable Stress According to ASME Section II, Table 1A.

5.0 ASME SECTION I: Dished Heads Formulae:

Dished heads can be manufactured using a combination of processes, spinning & flanging, where the

spherical radius is made via the spinning process and the knuckle is created under the flanging method.

Flanged and dished heads can be formed in a size range from 4 in to 300 in diameter and in thickness

range of 14 Gauge to 1-1/2 thick. Pressure vessel heads and dished ends are essentially the same

the end caps of a pressure vessel tank or an industrial boiler, supplied with a flanged edge to make it

easier for the fabricator to weld the head to the main body of the tank.

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Paragraph PG-29.1 states that the thickness of a blank, unstayed dished head with the pressure on the

concave side, when it is a segment of a sphere, shall be calculated by the following formula:

Where:

t = Minimum thickness of head (in);

P = maximum allowable working pressure (psi);

L = Concave side radius (in);

S = Maximum Allowable Working Stress (psi).

Paragraph PG-29.2 states: The radius to which the head is dished shall be not greater than the outside diameter of the flanged portion of the head. Where two radii are used, the longer shall be taken

as the value of L in the formula.

Example 9 Segment of a Spherical Dished Head:

Calculate the thickness of a seamless, blank unstayed dished head having pressure on the concave

side. The head has an inside diameter of 42.7 in. with a dish radius of 36.0 in. The Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) is 360 psi and the material is SA-285 A. The temperature does not exceed 480F. State if this thickness meets Code. (Solution: Use equation 1.11)

P = 360 psi;

L = 36.0 in;

S = 11,300 psi SA-285 A at 480F.

t = 5 (360 x 36) =

4.8 (11,300)

t = 1.19 in.

PG-29.6 states: No head, except a full-hemispherical head, shall be of a lesser thickness than that

required for a seamless pipe of the same diameter. Then, the minimum thickness of piping is:

t=

360 x 42.7

=

2(11,300)(1.0) + 2 (0.4)(360)

t = 0.67 in. The calculated head thickness meets the code requirements, since 1.19 > 0.67.

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Calculate the thickness of a seamless, unstayed dished head with pressure on the concave side, having

a flanged-in manhole 6.0 in x 16 in. Diameter head is 47.5 in with a dish radius of 45 in. The MAWP is

225 psi, the material is SA-285-C, and temperature does not exceed 428F.

First thing to check: is the radius of the dish is at least 80% of the diameter of the shell?

Dish Radius = 45 = 0.947 > 0.8 The radius of the dish meets the criteria, use equation 1.11:

Shell Diameter 47.5

P = 225 psi;

L = 45 in;

S = 13,800 psi (450F - use the next higher temperature).

t = 5 (225 x 45) =

4.8 (13,800)

t = 0.764 in.

This thickness is for a blank head. According to ASME - PG-29.3 requires this thickness to be increased by 15% or 0.125 in., whichever is greater. As 0.764 0.15 = 0.114 in., that is less than 0.125

in., then, the thickness must be increased by 0.125 in.

Then, the required head thickness is, t = 0.764 + 0.125 = ~0.90 in.

5.2 - Seamless or Full-Hemispherical Head:

The thickness of a blank, unstayed, full-hemispherical head with the pressure on the concave side shall

be calculated by the following formula:

P = Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (psi)

L = Radius to which the head was formed (in)

S = Maximum Allowable Working Stress (psi)

Note: The above formula shall not be used when the required thickness of the head given by the formula exceeds 35.6% of the inside radius. Instead, use the following formula:

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Calculate the minimum required thickness for a blank, unstayed, full-hemispherical head. The radius to

which the head is dished is 7.5 in. The MAWP is 900 psi and the head material is SA 285-C. The average temperature of the header is 570F.

Solution: Use equation 1.13.

P = 900 psi;

L = 7.5 in.;

S = 13,800 psi - (SA 285-C at 600F).

t=

900 x 7.5

= 0.24 in.

2 (13,800) 0.2 (900)

Check if this thickness exceeds 35.6% of the inside radius = 7.5 x 0.356 = 2.67 in. It does not exceed

35.6%, therefore the calculated thickness of the head meets the code requirements.

6.0 ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 1: Dished Head Formulae:

The ASME Section VIII Division 1 determines the rules for dished heads. The most common configurations are spherical, hemispherical, elliptical (or ellipsoidal) and torispherical shapes.

How the shapes are, make some confusion for beginners and even professionals users of ASME

Section VIII. To cast a little light on these subjects see the resume below:

Torispherical Heads

Dished Discs

Toriconical Heads

Non Standard 80-10 Dished Heads

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a) When t < 0.356R or P < 0.665SE - (Thin Spherical or Hemispherical Heads):

And,

A pressure vessel is built of SA-516-70 material and has an inside diameter of 96 in. The internal design

pressure is 100 psi at 450F. Corrosion allowance is 0.125 in. and joint efficiency is E = 0.85. Calculate

the required spherical head thickness of the pressure vessel if S is 20,000 psi?

Since P > 0.665SE = P > 11,305 psi. Thus, as 11,305 > 100 psi, use equation 2.1.

The inside radius in a corroded condition is equal to, R = 48 + 0.125 = 48.125 in.

t=

t=

PR

=

2SE 0.2P

100 x 48.125

=

2(20,000) (0.85) 0.2(100)

t = 0.14 in.

Example 12.1 - Thin Spherical or Hemispherical Head:

A spherical pressure vessel with an internal diameter of 120 in has a head thickness of 1 in. Determine the design pressure if the allowable stress is 16,300 psi. Assume joint efficiency E = 0.85. No corrosion allowance is stated to the design pressure.

Using t = 1.0 in., then t < 0.356R = 1.0 in. < 21.3 in., use equation 2.2.

P=

2SEt =

R + 0.2t

P = 2(16,300)(0.85)(1) =

60 + 0.2(1)

P = 460 psi

The calculated pressure 460 psi is < 0.665SE (9213 psi); therefore, equation 2.2 is acceptable.

a) When t > 0.356R or P > 0.665SE (Thick Spherical or Hemispherical Heads):

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And,

Calculate the required hemispherical head thickness of an accumulator with a design pressure of P =

10,000 psi, R = 18.0 in, S = 15,000 psi, and E = 1.0. Corrosion allowance is 0.125 in.

Since P > 0.665SE = P > 9975 psi. Thus, as 9975 psi < 10,000 psi, use equation 2.3.

Y = 2 [(15,000)(1.0) + 10,000] =

2 [(15,000)(1.0)] 10,000

Y = 50,000 = 2.5

20,000

t = R (Y1/3 1) = 18.0 (2.51/3 1) + 0,125 = 6.5 in.

6.2 Elliptical or Ellipsoidal Heads - Semi-Elliptical or Semi-Ellipsoidal Heads 2:1:

The commonly used semi-ellipsoidal head has a ratio of base radius to depth of 2:1 (shown below).

The actual shape can be approximated by a spherical radius of 0.9D and a knuckle radius of 0.17D.

The required thickness of 2:1 heads with pressure on the concave side is given below:

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Calculate a semi-elliptical head thickness considering the

dimensions given below:

Inside Diameter of Head (Di): 18.0 in;

Inside Crown Radius (L): (18.0 x 0.9Di) in;

Inside Knuckle Radius (ri): (18.0 x 0.17Di) in;

Straight Skirt Length (h): 1.500 in.;

Radius L - (18.0 x 0.9Di) = 16.20 in.;

Radius ri - (18.0 x 0.17Di) = 3.06 in.

Material: SA-202 Gr. B (Room Temperature);

Internal Pressure: 200 psi;

Allowable Stress: 20,000 psi;

Head Longitudinal Joint Efficiency: 0.85;

Corrosion Allowance: 0.010 in.

Variable:

L/r = L/ri = 16.20/3.06 = 5.29 in

a) Required Thickness. (Formula 2.5):

t=

PD

+ corrosion allowance

2SE 0.2P

t=

200 x 18.0

+ 0.010

2(20,000)(0.85) 0.2(200)

t = 0.116 in.

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b) Maximum Pressure:

P = 2SEt =

D + 0.2t

P = 2(20,000)(0.85)(0.116) =

18 + 0.2 (0.116)

P = 219 psi.

Note: Ellipsoidal heads and all torispherical heads having materials with minimum tensile strength

> 80,000 psi shall be designed using a value of S = 20,000 psi at room temperature (see UG-23).

6.3 - Torispherical Heads:

Shallow heads, commonly referred to as flanged and dished heads (F&D heads), are according to

paragraph UG-32 (e), with a spherical radius L of 1.0D and a knuckle radius r of 0.06D.

a) Flanged & Dished Head (F&D heads):

The dish radius of a Flanged and Dished Head is 1.0 D and the knuckle radius is 0.06% D. The required

thickness of a Torispherical F&D Head with r/L = 0.06 and L = Di, is:

And,

Where:

P = Pressure on the concave side of the head;

S = Allowable stress;

t = Thickness of the head;

L = Inside spherical radius;

E = Joint efficiency factor.

Example 15 - Torispherical Heads:

A drum is to operate at 500F and 350 psi and to hold 5000 gallons of water. The inside radius of the

Dished Torispherical Heads is 78 in. The material is SA 285 Grade A.

Assume S = 11,200 psi and E = 0.85.

Solution: Dished Torispherical Heads with L = Di and r/L = 0.06, use equation 2.7.

t = 0.885 PL =

SE 0.1P

t=

= 2.54

(11,200)(0.85) 0.1(350)

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On an 80-10 the inside radius (L) is 0.8 Di and the knuckle radius (ri) is 10% of the head diameter.

For the required thickness of a Non Standard 80-10 Head, use equations 2.7 and 2.8. Designing 8010 Torispherical Heads rather than standard shapes can be achieved by lowering the material costs.

The 80-10 is typically only 66% the thickness of the standard Torispherical Heads.

The required thickness of the Conical or Toriconical Head (knuckle radius > 6% OD) shall be determined by formula using internal diameter of shell, 30.

t=

PD

2 (SE - 0.6P) cos

2.9

L = Di / (2 cos );

Di = Internal Diameter (conical portion) = D - 2 r (1 - cos );

r = Inside Knuckle Radius.

6.5 - Toriconical Heads Definitions:

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Objective: Minimum requirements for safe construction and operation, Division 1, 2, and 3.

Section VIII Division 1:

15 psig < P

3000 psig

Other exclusions:

Internals (except for attachment weld to vessel)

Fired process heaters

Pressure containers integral with machinery

Piping systems

Section VIII, Division 2, Alternative Rules:

15 psig < P

Allowable stress

Stress calculations

Design

Quality control

Fabrication and inspection

The choice between Divisions 1 and 2 is based mainly on economics of materials.

Division 3, Alternative Rules - High Pressure Vessels:

Applications over 10,000 psi;

Pressure from external source, process reaction, application of heat, combination of these;

Maximum pressure limits for Division 1 or 2 or minimum limits for Division 3, not established.

7.1. Structure of ASME Section VIII, Division 1:

Subsection A: Part UG applies to all vessels;

Subsection B: Requirements based on fabrication method, Parts UW, UF, UB;

Subsection C: Requirements based on material class, Parts UCS, UNF, UHA, UCI, UCL, UCD,

UHT, ULW, ULT. Mandatory and Non-mandatory Appendices

Determination of Material Thickness:

Yield Strength, Ultimate Tensile Strength, Creep Strength, Rupture Strength and Corrosion Resistance.

Resistance to Hydrogen Attack:

-Temperature at 300 - 400F, monatomic hydrogen forms molecular hydrogen in voids;

- Pressure build-up can cause steel to crack;

- Above 600F, hydrogen attack causes irreparable damage through component thickness.

Brittle Fracture and Fracture Toughness:

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Typically at low temperature;

Can occur below design pressure;

No yielding before complete failure;

High enough stress for crack initiation and growth;

Low enough material fracture toughness at temperature;

Critical size defect to act as stress concentration.

7.2. Material Groups The Most Common Used Materials:

Curve A:

SA-216 Gr. WCB & WCC, normalized and tempered;

SA-217 Gr. WC6, normalized and tempered.

Curve C:

SA-182 Gr. 21& 22, normalized and tempered

SA-302 Gr. C & D

SA-336 Gr. F21 & F22, normalized and tempered

S A-3 8 7 G r. 21 & 22, normalized and tempered

S A-5 1 6 G r. 55 & 60, not normalized

SA-533 Gr. B & C

SA-662 Gr. A

Curve B:

SA-216 Gr. WCA, normalized and tempered or

water-quenched and tempered;

SA-216 Gr. WCB & WCC for maximum thickness

of 2 in. (water-quenched and tempered);

SA-285 Gr. A & B;

SA-414 Gr. A;

SA-515 Gr. 60;

SA-516 Gr. 65 & 70, not normalized.

Curve D:

SA-203

SA-537 Cl. 1, 2 & 3

SA-508 Cl. 1

SA-612, normalized

SA-516, normalized

SA 662, normalized

SA-524 Cl. 1 & 2

SA-738 Gr. A

Bolting: See the ASME Code Section VIII, Div. 1, for impact and nuts test for specified material

specifications.

Additional ASME Code Impact Test Requirements:

For welded construction over 4 in. thick, or non-welded construction over 6 in. thick, if MDMT < 120F

Not required for flanges if temperature -20F; required if SMYS > 65 ksi unless specifically exempt.

7.3 - Weld Joint Efficiencies, E:

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7.4 Resume of Pressure Vessels Formulae ASME Section I & ASME Section VIII:

Item

Thickness - t (in)

Cylindrical Shell

Hemispherical Shell (or

Head)

Stress - S (in)

PR

SEt

P(R + 0.6t)

SE - 0.6P

R + 0.6t

PR

2.SEt

P(R + 0.2t)

2SE - 0.2P

R + 0.2t

2t

D0.3P/S

tS/0.3D

0.3D P/t

Notes

t 0.25 D;

P 0.385 SE

t 0.178D;

P 0.685 SE

r/L = 0.06;

L D + 2t

0.885PL

SEt

P(0.885L + 0.1t)

SE - 0.1P

0.885L + 0.1t

PLM

2SE - 0.2P

2.SEt

LM + 0.2t

P(LM + 0.2t)

2t

M = 3 + (L/r)1/2 / 4

PD

2.SEt

P(D + 0.2t)

h/D = 4

2SE - 0.2P

D + 0.2t

2t

PDK

2SE - 0.2P

2.SEt

DK + 0.2t

P(DK + 0.2t)

2Et

PD

2.SEt cos

D + 1.2t cos

2t cos

2:1 Semi-Elliptical Head

(a)

Ellipsoidal Head (b)

Toriconical Head

Pressure - P

(in)

K = [2 + (D/2h)] / 6;

2 D/h 6

30

OBS.:

D = Shell / Head Inside Diameter, E = Weld Joint Efficiency (0.7 -1.0), L = Crown Radius, P = Internal Pressure, h = Inside

Depth of Head, r = Knuckle Radius, R = Shell/Head Inside Radius, S = Allowable Stress, t = Shell / Head Thickness.

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Vessel components are weakened when material is removed to provide openings for nozzles or access

openings. To avoid failure in the opening area, compensation or reinforcement is required. The Code

procedure is to relocate the removed material to an area within an effective boundary around the

opening. Figure bellow shows the steps necessary to reinforce an opening in a pressure vessel.

8.1 - Definitions:

d = Diameter of Opening 2 (Tn + Corrosion Allowance) =

Required wall thickness of the nozzle (min):

tn =

PR......

SE 0.6P

Area of required reinforcement, Ar:

Ar = d.ts.F (in) =

d =Diameter of circular opening, or finished dimension of opening in plane under consideration, in.

ts = Minimum required thickness of shell when E = 1.0, in.

F = Correction factor, normally 1.0

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Basic design:

Design Pressure = 300 psig

Design Temperature = 200 F

Shell Material is SA-516 Gr. 60

Nozzle Diameter 8 in, Sch. 40

Nozzle Material is SA-53 Gr. B, Seamless

Corrosion Allowance = 0.0625"

Vessel is 100% Radiographed

a) Wall thickness of the nozzle (min):

tn =

tn =

PR......

SE 0.6P

12,000(1.0) 0.6(300)

b) Circular opening, d:

d = Diameter of Opening 2 (Tn + Corrosion Allowance)

d = 8.625 2(0.32 + 0.0625) =

d = 8.625 2 (0.3825) = 7.86 in

c) Area of required reinforcement, Ar:

Ar = d.ts.F (in) =

Ar = 7.86 x 0.487 x 1.0 = 3.82 in

Available reinforcement area in shell, Ar, as larger of As or An:

As = Larger of: d (T s ts) - 2 T n (T s ts) =

As = 7.86 (0.5625 0,487) 2x 0,5625 (0.5625 0,487) = 0.50 in

An = Smaller of: 2 [2.5 (T s) (T n tn)]

An = 2 [2.5 (0.5625) (0.32 0.17)] = 0.42 in

Ar < (As + An) =

Ar < (0.50 + 0.42) = 0.92 in < 3.82 in (Reqd.)

OBS.: Therefore, its necessary to increase Ts and / or Tn to attend the premise Ar < (As + An).

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Shell and Nozzle Data:

Design Pressure = 700 psi

Design temperature = 700 F

Nozzle Diameter = 8 in. (8.625 OD)

Corrosion Allowance = 0.0625"

Material:

Shell SA 516 Gr.70;

Head SA 516 Gr. 70;

Nozzle SA 106 Gr. B;

E = 1.0 (weld efficiency).

Required Shell Thickness:

ts =

ts =

PR

SE 0.6P

Opening Reinforcement:

16,600(1.0) 0.6(700)

d = 8.625 2(1 + 0.0625) = 6.5 in.

th =

PR

2SE 0.2P

th =

2(16,600)(1.0) 0.2(700)

An = Smaller of: 2[2.5 (Ts) (Tn tn)]

tn =

PR

SE 0.6P

tn =

14,400(1.0) 0.6(700)

OBS.: Necessary to increase Ts and / or Tn to attend

the premise (As + An) > Ar.

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The following Tables indicates the most common ferrous materials used in Pressure Vessels design and

fabrication, including structural plates, pipes, tubes, castings, forgings, flanges, fittings, bolts and nuts.

Beyond the knowledge of the most common ferrous materials, the Tables also help the student how to

search the materials MAWP (Maximum Allowable Stress Values) in ASME Section II, Table 1A.

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The ASME Section II, Part D contains properties of ferrous and nonferrous materials adopted by the

Code for design of boilers, pressure-vessels, and nuclear-power-plant components including tables of

the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) - stress values and design-stress limits for the

materials adopted by various Codebook sections. The tables below are an extract from ASME for the

most common ferrous materials for a design purpose.

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Thickness of Cylindrical Shells: The following formulas, in terms of the outside radius, are equivalent

and may be used instead of those formulae given in UG-27(c) and (d).

For cylindrical shells (circumferential stress) the formulas can be:

Where:

Ro = Outside radius of the shell under consideration, in.

Thick Cylindrical Shells: (Circumferential Stress & Longitudinal Joints). When the thickness of the cylindrical shells under internal design pressure exceeds one-half of the inside radius, or when P exceeds

0.385SE, the following formulas shall apply. When P is known and t is desired.

P > 0.5R or P > 0.385SE:

Where:

or

Where:

Thick Cylindrical Shells: Longitudinal Stress & Circumferential Joints). When the thickness of the cylindrical shells under internal design pressure exceeds one-half of the inside radius, or when P exceeds

1.25SE, the following formulas shall apply. When P is known and t is desired.

P > 0.5R or P > 1.25SE:

Where:

or

Where:

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Thick Spherical Shells: When the thickness of the shell of a wholly spherical vessel or of a hemispherical head under internal design pressure exceeds 0.356R, or when P exceeds 0.665SE, the following

formulas shall apply. When P is known and t is desired.

P > 0.356R or P > 0.665SE:

Where:

Where:

Formulas for the Design of Formed Heads Under Internal Pressure: The formulas of this paragraph

provide for the design of formed heads of proportions other than those given in UG-32, in terms of inside

and outside diameter.

t = Minimum required thickness of head after forming, in.;

P = Internal design pressure (see UG-21), psi;

D = Inside diameter of the head skirt; or inside length of the major axis of an ellipsoidal head; or inside

diameter of a cone head at the point measured perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, in.;

Do= Outside diameter of the head skirt; or outside length of the major axis of an ellipsoidal head; or outside diameter of a cone head at the point measured perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, in.;

S = Maximum allowable working stress, as given in Subsection C, psi, except as limited to 1-4(c) and (d),

UG-24, UG-32(e), and UW-12;

E = Lowest efficiency of any Category A joint in the head (for hemispherical heads this includes head-toshell joint). For welded vessels, use the efficiency specified in UW-12;

r = Inside knuckle radius, in.;

L = Inside spherical or crown radius for torispherical and hemispherical heads, in.;

L = K1D for ellipsoidal heads in which K1 is obtained from Table UG-37, in.;

Lo = Outside spherical or crown radius, in.;

L /r = Ratio of the inside crown radius to the inside knuckle radius, used in Table 1-4.2;

M = A factor in the formulas for torispherical heads depending on the head proportion L /r;

h = One-half of the length of the minor axis of the ellipsoidal head, or the inside depth of the ellipsoidal

head measured from the tangent line (head-bend line), in.;

K = A factor in the formulas for ellipsoidal heads depending on the head proportion D/ 2h;

D/2h = Ratio of the major to the minor axis of ellipsoidal heads, which equals the inside diameter of the

skirt of the head divided by twice the inside height of the head, and is used in Table 1-4.1;

= One-half of the included (apex) angle of the cone at the center line of t of the head.

Ellipsoidal Heads: Ellipsoidal heads designed under K > 1.0 and all torispherical heads made of materials having a specified minimum tensile strength exceeding 80,000 psi shall be designed using a value of

S equal to 20,000 psi at room temperature and reduced in proportion to the reduction in maximum allowable stress values at temperature for the material as shown in the appropriate table (see UG-23).

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or

Where:

Numerical values of the factor K are also given in ASME VIII, Table 1-4.1.

Example 1: Determine the required thickness t of a seamless ellipsoidal head, exclusive of provision for

corrosion for the following conditions:

D = 40 in; h = 9 in; P = 200 psi; S = 13,750 psi; E = 1.00.

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Example 2: Determine the maximum allowable working pressure P of a seamless ellipsoidal head for the

following conditions:

D = 30 in.; h = 7.5 in.; total thickness = 12 in., no allowance for corrosion; maximum operating temperature = 800F; E = 1.00. (table in Subpart 1 of Section II, Part D, S = 10,200 psi.).

Torispherical Heads:

or

Where:

(Numerical values of the factor M are also given in ASME VIII, Table 1-4.2).

Example 3: Determine the required thickness t, exclusive of allowance for corrosion, of a torispherical

head for the following conditions:

D = 40 in.; L p 40 in.; r = 4 in.; P = 200 psi; S = 13,750 psi; E = 1.00 (seamless head).

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Example 4: Determine the maximum allowable working pressure P of a torispherical head for the following conditions:

D = 30 in.; L = 24 in.; r = 2.00 in.; E = 1.00 (seamless head); total thickness = 0.5 in., no allowance for

corrosion; material conforms to SA-515Grade 70; maximum operating temperature = 900F. From the

table in Subpart 1 of Section II, Part D, S = 6,500 psi.

Conical Heads:

or

or

Note: 1) Maximum ratio allowed by UG-32(j) when L equals the outside diameter of the skirt of the head.

The formulas below provide for the design of reinforcement, if needed, at the cone to cylinder junctions

for conical reducer sections and conical heads where all the elements have a common axis and the halfapex angle 30. Subparagraph (g) below provides for special analysis in the design of cone-tocylinder intersections with or without reinforcing rings where is greater than 30. In the design of reinforcement for a cone-to-cylinder juncture, the requirements of UG-41 shall be met.

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Nomenclature:

ArL = Required area of reinforcement at large end of cone, in.;

Ars = Required area of reinforcement at small end of cone, in.;

AeL = Effective area of reinforcement at large end intersection, in.;

Aes = Effective area of reinforcement at small end intersection, in.;

Es = Modulus of elasticity of cylinder material, psi;

Ec = Modulus of elasticity of cone material, psi;

Er = Modulus of elasticity of reinforcing ring material, psi;

E1 = Efficiency of longitudinal joint in cylinder. For compression (such as at large end of cone);

E1 = 1.0 for butt welds;

E2 = Efficiency of longitudinal joint in cone. For compression;

E2 = 1.0 for butt welds.

f1 = Axial load at large end due to wind, dead load, etc., excluding pressure, lb /in.;

f2 = Axial load at small end due to wind, dead load, etc., excluding pressure, lb /in.;

P = Internal design pressure (see UG-21), psi;

QL= Algebraically sum of PRL /2 and f1, lb/in.;

Qs = Algebraically sum of PRs /2 and f2, lb/in.;

Rs = Inside radius of small cylinder at small end of cone, in.;

RL = Inside radius of large cylinder at large end of cone, in.;

Ss= Allowable stress of cylinder material at design temperature, psi;

Sc = Allowable stress of cone material at design temperature, psi;

Sr = Allowable stress of reinforcing ring material at design temperature, psi;

t = Minimum required thickness of cylinder at cone-to-cylinder junction, in.;

tc = Nominal thickness of cone at cone-to-cylinder junction, in.;

tr = Minimum required thickness of cone at cone to-cylinder junction, in.;

ts = Nominal thickness of cylinder at cone-to-cylinder junction, in.;

= Half-apex angle of cone or conical section, deg.;

= Angle indicating need for reinforcement at cone to-cylinder junction having a half-apex angle 30.

When , no reinforcement is required at the junction (see Tables 1-5.1 and 1-5.2), deg.;

y = Cone-to-cylinder factor;

= SsEs for reinforcing ring on shell.

= ScEc for reinforcing ring on cone.

For a cone-to-cylinder junction, the following values shall be determined at large end and again at the

small end in order that both the large end and the small end can be examined:

Example 19 MAWP (Maximum Allowable Working Pressure:

The fabricator elected to use 1.00 inch plate to satisfy the design requirements and used a corrosion allowance of 0.125. What was the calculated nominal thickness of the cylindrical section?

Solution:

t = t (nominal) CA

t = 1.00 in. 0.125 in

t = 0.875

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Considering the formula in UG-27, where P < 0.385SE, and t < R/2. Calculate the design pressure of the

shell with the following data:

Material = SA 285 A, Max. Allowable Stress = 11,300 Line No. 6 (Tab 1A);

Plate Thickness, t = 0.875 in.

Weld Efficiency, E = 1.0

P=

R + 0.6t

60 in. + 0.6(0.875)

P = 163.5 psi

Checking condition = P < 0.385SE. Thus, 163.5 psi < 4350 psi.

Then, as calculated, the MAWP (4350 psi) is much greater than the design pressure (163.5 psi).

Example 20 Thickness of a Cylindrical Shell Considering Internal Pressure:

The horizontal pressure vessel above is 60 inch inside diameter, to be fabricated from SA-516 Gr. 70.

The design pressure at the top of the vessel is 490 psi at 600F. All longitudinal joints Type 1 and spot

radiographed in accordance with UW-52. Circumferential joints are Type 1 with no radiography. The vessel operates full of liquid. The density of the liquid is 62.4 lb/ft, and the distance from the center line to

the uppermost part of the vessel is 5 ft. Calculate the required thickness.

Solution: As stated in UG-22, the static head of the liquid must be included in P. The design pressure is

less than 0.385SE (P < 0.385SE) and t < R/2. The allowable stress for SA-516 Gr. 70, shown in Table 1A

considering ASME VIII, Division 1 is 17,500 psi. Weld efficiency, spot radiographed is 0.85 for Type 1. No

corrosion allowance is considered.

Since P is the total pressure acting on the section and must equal 490 psi plus the static head created by

8 feet (5 + 3 - the total height above the section) of liquid, then:

P = 490 psi + (8 ft) 62.4 lb/ft)

144 in/ft

P = 493.5 psi

The formula for calculate the shell plate thickness is:

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t=

PR

SE-06P

t=

17,500 psi (0.85) 0.6 (493.5 psi)

www.PDHonline.org

t = 1.01

For this calculation is also necessary to check the stress in longitudinal direction, which is the sum of the

stress due internal pressure and the bending stress. The resulting formula to be used is:

SL = MRo + P(R 04t) =

IE

2Et

Where Ro is the outside radius.

Calculation of moments at A give a bending moment of 183,900 ft-lb. The moment of inertia, I, for a thin

wall cylinder is calculated by the formula .r.t, where r is the mean radius of the shell. For Type 1 with

no radiography, welding efficiency, E, is 0.7. Thus, the stress in lingitudinal direction becomes:

SL = (183,900 ft-lb) (12 in./ft) (37.2 in.) + 493.5 psi (36 in. 0.4 (1.01 in.)

() (36.6) (1.01 in.) (0.7)

(2) (0.7) (1.01)

SL = 753.8 psi + 17,566.6 psi = 18,320 psi

Considerations: Assume the nominal thickness of the plate, 1 1/4 inch. Check post weld heat treatment

(PWHT) and preheat requirements according to ASME code. Check radiography requirement.

Paragraph UCS-56, Table 56 (2): PWHT or preheat is required if thickness is greater than 1 1/4

inches nominal thickness, thus PWHT or preheat are not necessary.

Paragraph UCS-57, Table 57 requires that P-Number 1 Group 2 materials be fully radiographed if

the butt weld thickness is greater than 1 1/4 inch. Thus, only spot radiography is sufficient.

Example 21 Design of a Standard Torispherical Head: Calculate a seamless torispherical head with

an inside crown radius equal to the outside diameter of the skirt and with 6 % knuckle radius, the vessel

is fabricated to have a cylinder with the same diameter. The internal design pressure is 150 psi at 800F,

full radiography, material SA-516 Gr. 70, corrosion allowance (CA) is 0.125. Consider, example 19, shell

plate thickness = 0.875, external diameter 120 inches, S = 17,500 psi (Table 1A); E = 1.0 (UW-32).

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t = 0.885 PL =

SE 0.1P

The inside crown radius (L) is equal inside diameter plus 2 times thickness of the shell, then:

L = 120 in. + 2 (0.875 in.) = 121.57

t=

(17,500 psi) (1.0) 0.1 (150 psi)

Check the minimum knuckle radius:

r = 0.06 (121.57) = 7.3 in.

r(min) =3.0 (1.35 in.) = 4.05 in

r > r(min). Meets requirement of UG 32.

t (required) = 1 1/2 in. Thus, all welds must be Type 1, fully radiographed. PWHT and preheat required.

Example 22 Design of a Non-Standard Torispherical Head: Rework example 21, considering a nonstandard torispherical head, assuming that the inside crown radius is 80% of the skirt outside diameter

and the inside knuckle radius is 10% of the skirt outside diameter.

L = 0.80 [120 in. + 2 (0.875 in.)]

L = 97.2 in.

r = 0.10 (121.57)

r = 12.15 in.

t=

PLM.

2SE 0.2P Where:

M may be also obtained from ASME Section VIII, Division 1, Table 1-4.2.

t=

PLM.

2SE 0.2P

t=

2 (17,500) psi) (1) 0.2 (150 psi)

t = 0.60 in.

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As per ASME Section VIII-1, UG-99, the pressure vessels designed for internal pressure shall be subjected to a hydrostatic test pressure which at every point in the vessel is at l east equal to 1.3 times

the MAWP multiplied by the lowest ratio for the materials of which the vessel is constructed of the stress

value S for the test temperature on the vessel to the stress value S for the design temperature.

Ph = 1.3 MAWP x (S at test temp. / S at design temp.) =

Where:

Ph = Hydrostatic Test Pressure;

MAWP = Maximum Allowable Working Pressure.

And as per UG-100, a pneumatic test (with at least equal to 1.1 times the MAWP multiplied by the lowest

ratio for the materials of which the vessel is constructed of the stress value S for the test temperature on

the vessel to the stress value S for the design temperature) may be used in lieu of the standard hydrostatic test prescribed in UG-99 for vessels under certain conditions:

Designed and/or supported that they cannot safely be filled with water;

Not readily dried, to be used in services where traces of the testing liquid cannot be tolerated and the

parts of which have, where possible, been previously tested by hydrostatic pressure to the pressure required in UG-99.

Pn = 1.1 MAWP x (S at test temp. / S at design temp.) =

Where:

Pn = Pneumatic Test Pressure.

12.0 - ASME Section VIII - Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels

The section of the ASME BPVC consists of 3 divisions.

Division 1: This division covers the mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions and non-mandatory

guidance for materials, design, fabrication, inspection and testing, markings and reports, overpressure

protection and certification of pressure vessels having an internal or external pressure which exceeds 15

psi (100 kPa).

The pressure vessel can be either fired or unfired. The pressure may be from external sources, or by the

application of heating from an indirect or direct source, or any combination thereof. The Division is not

numbered in the traditional method (Part 1, Part 2 etc.) but is structured with Subsections and Parts

which consist of letters followed by a number. The structure is as follows:

Subsection A - General Requirements:

Part UG - General Requirements for All Methods of Construction and All Materials:

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Design: UG-16 through to UG-35

Openings and Reinforcements: UG-36 through to UG-46

Braced and Stayed Surfaces: UG-47 through to UG-50

Fabrication: UG-75 through to UG-85

Inspection and Tests: UG-90 through to UG-103

Marking and Reports: UG-115 through to UG-120

Overpressure Protection: UG125 through to UG-140

Subsection B - Requirements Pertaining to Methods of Fabrication of Pressure Vessels:

Part UW - Requirements for Pressure Vessels Fabricated by Welding:

General: UW-1 through to UW-3

Materials: UW-5

Design: UW-8 through to UW-21

Fabrication: UW-26 through to UW-42

Inspection and Tests: UW-46 through to UW -54

Marking and Reports: UW -60

Pressure Relief Devices: UW-65

Part UF - Requirements for Pressure Vessels Fabricated by Forging

General: UF-1

Materials: UF-5 through to UF-7

Design: UF-12 through to UF-25

Fabrication: UF-26 through to UF-43

Inspection and Tests: UF-45 through to UF-55

Marking and Reports: UF-115

Pressure Relief Devices: UF-125

Part UB - Requirements for Pressure Vessels Fabricated by Brazing

General: UB-1 through to UB-3

Materials: UB-5 through to UB-7

Design: UB-9 through to UB-22

Fabrication: UB-30 through to UB-37

Inspection and Tests: UB-40 through to UB-50

Marking and Reports: UB-55

Pressure Relief Devices: UB-60

Subsection C - Requirements Pertaining to Classes of Materials:

Part UCS - Requirements for Pressure Vessels Constructed of Carbon and Low Alloy Steels:

General: UCS-1

Materials: UCS-5 through to UCS-12

Design: UCS-16 through to UCS-57

Low Temperature Operation: UCS-65 through to UCS-68

Fabrication: UCS-75 through to UCS-85

Inspection and Tests: UCS-90

Marking and Reports: UCS-115

Pressure Relief Devices: UCS-125

Non-mandatory Appendix CS: UCS-150 through to UCS-160

Part UNF - Requirements for Pressure Vessels Constructed of Nonferrous Materials:

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Materials: UNF-5 through to UNF-15

Design: UNF-16 through to UNF-65

Fabrication: UNF-75 through to UNF-79

Inspection and Tests: UNF-90 through to UNF-95

Marking and Reports: UNF-115

Pressure Relief Devices: UNF-125

Appendix NF: Characteristics of the Nonferrous Materials (Informative and Non-mandatory)

Part UHA - Requirements for Pressure Vessels Constructed of High Alloy Steel:

General: UHA-1 through to UHA-8

Materials: UHA-11 through to UHA-13

Design: UHA-20 through to UHA-34

Fabrication: UHA-40 through to UHA-44

Inspection and Tests: UHA-50 through to UHA-52

Marking and Reports: UHA-60

Pressure Relief Devices: UHA-65

Appendix HA: Suggestions on the Selection and Treatment of Austenitic Chromium Nickel and Ferritic

and Martensitic High Chromium Steels (Informative and Non-mandatory)

Part UCI - Requirements for Pressure Vessels Constructed of Cast Iron:

General: UCI-1 through to UCI-3

Materials: UCI-5 through to UCI-12

Design: UCI-16 through to UCI-37

Fabrication: UCI-75 through to UCI-78

Inspection and Tests: UCI-90 through to UCI-101

Marking and Reports: UCI-115

Pressure Relief Devices: UCI-125

Part UCL - Requirements for Welded Pressure Vessels Constructed of Material with Corrosion:

Resistant Integral Cladding, Weld Metal Overlay Cladding, or With Applied Linings

General: UCL-1 through to UCL-3

Materials: UCL-10 through to UCL-12

Design: UCL-20 through to UCL-27

Fabrication: UCL-30 through to UCL-46

Inspection and Tests: UCL-50 through to UCL-52

Marking and Reports: UCL-55

Pressure Relief Devices: UCL-60

Part UCD - Requirements for Pressure Vessels Constructed of Cast Ductile Iron:

General: UCD-1 through to UCD-3

Materials: UCD-5 through to UCD-12

Design: UCD-16 through to UCD-37

Fabrication: UCD-75 through to UCD-78

Inspection and Tests: UCD-90 through to UCD-101

Marking and Reports: UCD-115

Pressure Relief Devices: UCD-125

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Part UHT - Requirements for Pressure Vessels Constructed of Ferritic Steels with Tensile Properties

Enhanced by Heat Treatment:

General: UHT-1

Materials: UHT-5 through to UHT-6

Design: UHT-16 through to UHT-57

Fabrication: UHT-75 through to UHT-86

Inspection and Tests: UHT-90

Marking and Reports: UHT-115

Pressure Relief Devices: UHT-125

Part ULW - Requirements for Pressure Vessels Fabricated by Layered Construction:

Introduction: ULW-1 through to ULW-2

Materials: ULW-5

Design: ULW-16 through to ULW-26

Welding: ULW-31 through to ULW-33

Nondestructive Examination of Welded Joints: ULW-50 through to ULW-57

Fabrication: ULW-75 through to ULW-78

Inspection and Tests: ULW-90

Marking and Reports: ULW -115

Pressure Relief Devices: ULW-125

Part ULT - Alternative Rules for Pressure Vessels Constructed of Materials Having Higher Allowable

Stresses at Low Temperature

General: ULT-1 through to ULT-5

Design: ULT-16 through to ULT-57

Fabrication: ULT-76 through to ULT-86

Inspection and Tests: ULT-90 through to ULT-100

Marking and Reports: ULT-115

Pressure Relief Devices: ULT-125

Part UHX - Rules for Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

Part UIG - Requirements for Pressure Vessels Constructed of Impregnated Graphite

General: UIG-1 through to UIG-3

Materials: UIG-5 through to UIG-8

Design: UIG-22 through to UIG-60

Fabrication: UIG-75 through to UIG-84

Inspection and Tests: UIG-90 through to UIG-112

Marking and Reports: UIG-115 through to UIG-121

Pressure Relief Devices: UIG-125

Mandatory Appendices: 1 through to 42.

Nonmandatory Appendices: A through to MM.

Division 2 - Alternative Rules:

Covers the mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions and non-mandatory guidance for materials,

design, fabrication, inspection and testing, markings and reports, overpressure protection and certification of pressure vessels having an internal or external pressure, which exceeds 15 psi (103 kPa). The

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plication of heating from an indirect or direct source as a result of a process, or any combination of the

two. The rules contained in this section can be used as an alternative to the minimum requirements specified in Division 1.

Generally the Division 2 rules are more onerous than in Division 1 with respect to materials, design

and nondestructive examinations but higher design stress intensity values are allowed. Division 2 has

also provisions for the use of finite element analysis to determine expected stress in pressure equipment,

in addition to the traditional approach of design by formula (Part 5: "Design by Analysis requirements").

Division 3 - Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels:

Covers the mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions and non-mandatory guidance for materials,

design, fabrication, inspection and testing, markings and reports, overpressure protection and certification of pressure vessels having an internal or external pressure which exceeds 10,000 psi (70,000 kPa).

The pressure vessel can be either fired or unfired. The pressure may be from external sources, by the

application of heating from an indirect or direct source, process reaction or any combination thereof.

The Section VIII, Division 1 presents several design procedures and methods in both the Mandatory and

Nonmandatory Appendices; however, design procedures in the appendices differ from those in the body

of the Code. As an example, Appendix 2 provides methods for designing multibolted flanges. Paragraph

2-1 (c) recommends that bolted flange connections, be used within the material, size, and pressure temperature ratings listed in UG-44. UCI-3 and UCD-3 also have restrictions on the pressure-temperature

ratings of standard flanges.

ASME Section I and Section VIII Stamps:

ASME/ANSI B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings;

ASME/ANSI B16.20, Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges, Ring Joints, Spiral-Wound and Jacketed;

ASME/ANSI B16.24, Cast Copper Pipe Flanges and Fittings, Classes 150 to 900, 1500 and 2500;

ASME/ANSI B16.42, Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Class 150 and 300;

ASME/ANSI B16.47, Large Diameter Steel Flanges, NPS 26 Through NPS 60.

Links and References:

https://www.asme.org/products;

Carucci, Vincent. Overview of Pressure Vessel Design;

Farr, James. Guidebook for the Design of ASME Section VIII Pressure Vessels, 2001;

Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), 2009;

OSHA Technical Manual Section IV, Chapter 3, 2004.

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