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Section 1
GSM QoS Monitoring
Module 1
Introduction

3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01

EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem


Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10
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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

YYYY-MM-DD

Last name, first name

First edition

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 2

Module Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
Explain what is QoS and Traffic Load monitoring of the BSS
Explain what are the information sources available for that purpose

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Module Objectives [cont.]

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Table of Contents
Page

Switch to notes view!


1 Monitoring the QoS of the BSS
2 Monitoring the Traffic Load of the BSS
3 Information Sources Available
4 Introduction to K1205 PC Emulation

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7
10
12
28

Table of Contents [cont.]


Switch to notes view!

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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1 Monitoring the QoS of the BSS

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1 Monitoring the QoS of the BSS

Definition
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"Monitor" "network" "quality"


monitor = measure or ensure?
network = BSS? BSS+NSS? BSS+NSS+PSTN
quality = service (end-user) and/or system (technical)

But also detect, localize, diagnose outages


detect (decide according to thresholds)
localize (which cell, BSC, etc.)
diagnose: radio, BSS, TC problems

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1 Monitoring the QoS of the BSS

Usage

Radiooptimization
optimization
Radio

cellradio
radioquality
qualitysurvey
survey
cell

HO
quality
monitoring
HO quality monitoring
assessmentofoftuning
tuningefficiency
efficiency
assessment

Management
Management

networkmonitoring
monitoring
network

comparison
withcompetitor
competitor
comparison with

comparison
of
manufacturers
comparison of manufacturers
contractualrequirement:
requirement:licence
licence
contractual
qualityresponsible
responsible
quality

BSSmaintenance
maintenance
BSS

cell/BSC/TCproblem
problemdetection
detection
cell/BSC/TC

QoS
QoS Results
Results

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

3 usages of QoS data 3 levels of QoS reports:


1. Management team: has to compare Network QoS with competitors' one and to plan Network evolutions.
needs to have a general view of the Network QoS on a monthly (and sometimes weekly) basis.
2. Radio Optimization team: has to detect bad QoS areas in the network and to implement and assess
modifications for QoS improvement.
needs to have a detailed status and evolution of the QoS at BSS and cell (and sometimes TRX) levels on
a weekly, daily (and sometimes hourly) basis.
3. Supervision and Maintenance team: has to detect dramatic QoS degradations and identify the responsible
Network Element (and if possible component).
needs to have the most detailed status of QoS at cell and TRX levels on an hourly basis.

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2 Monitoring the Traffic Load of the BSS

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2 Monitoring the Traffic Load of the BSS

Definition
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Measure the "quantity" of traffic handled by:


the network
the BSCs
the cells

Analyze traffic characteristics


call, handover, location update, etc.

As input for dimensioning/architecture team

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3 Information Sources Available

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Observation Means
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DIFFERENT WAYS TO OBSERVE/MEASURE the GSM network

External Interface Analysis


A interface: MSC/TC-BSC
Abis interface: BSC/BTS
Air MS/BTS

OMC Counters
BSC
(NSS)

Tektronix K1205

Counter browser
W&G NPA

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Gnnettest MPA

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

QoS data can be built up from different and complementary kinds of information sources.
Usually post-processing applications will build up QoS indicators from:
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OMC-R counters provided by the BSS system itself.

Signaling messages provided by a protocol acquisition tool on the different interfaces handled by the BSS:
Air, Abis, A (or Ater).

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3 Information Sources Available

A Interface Trace
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INFORMATION SOURCE: EXTERNAL INTERFACE "A"


Capture/decode signaling between MSC and BSC-TC (A or Ater MUX)
with "protocol analyzer" (Wandel, Tektronix, Gnnettest, etc.)
+ GSM standard, can be used for arbitrage between manufacturers
+ Complete information (message contents, time-stamp)
+ Possible detection of User/MS/BSS/TC/NSS problems
-

High cost of equipment


Time consuming, "post mortem" (installation of tool, file analysis)
Expertise needed for analysis
Low coverage (K1103/MA10: 8 COCs, K1205/MPA: 32 COCs maximum!)
Large amount of data (>> 10 Mbytes /hour/BSC)

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The main advantage of the A interface is to allow the detection of Call Setup failures either due to the User
or to the NSS (or PSTN).
Some typical user failure causes are:

Some typical NSS failure causes are:

IMSI Unknown in VLR


IMSI Unknown in HLR
IMEI Not Accepted
PLMN Not Allowed
Service Option Not Supported
Requested Service Not Supported
Unassigned Number
Operator Determined Barring
User Alerting
Facility Not Subscribed
No Route to Destination
Normal Call Clearing
User Busy
Invalid Number Format
Call Reject
Interworking
Normal Unspecified

Temporary Failure
Resource Unavailable
Switching Equipment Congestion
Normal Unspecified
Recovery on Timer Expiry
Call Reject
Interworking
Protocol Error
Network Failure
Congestion

CAUTION: In order to assess the QoS of a BSS or some cells of a BSS, all N7 links between this BSC and the
MSC must be traced. Indeed, as the N7 signaling load is spread over all N7 links, signaling messages relating
to one call can be conveyed on any of the active N7 links.
K1103 protocol analyzer can trace up to 8 COCs at the same time but on maximum 4 PCM physical links.
K1205 protocol analyzer can trace up to 32 COCs at the same time but on maximum 16 PCM physical links.
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Example of Trace
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On a K1205 protocol analyzer

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3 Information Sources Available

Abis Interface Trace


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INFORMATION SOURCE: EXTERNAL INTERFACE "Abis"


Capture/decode signaling between BSC and BTS with "protocol
analyzer" (Wandel, Tektronix, Gnnettest, etc.)
+ Complete information (message contents, time-stamp)
+ Possible detection of User/MS/BSS/TC/NSS problems
+ Complete radio information thanks to measurement messages
+ Downlink and uplink
-

High cost of equipment


Time consuming, "post mortem" (installation of tool, file analysis)
Important expertise needed for analysis
Very low coverage (A few RSLs, a few cell(s))
Very large amount of data (>> 10 Mbytes/hour/BTS)

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The main advantage of the Abis trace is to allow a detailed and precise assessment of the radio quality of a
cell at TRX level. Both DownLink and UpLink paths can be observed and compared.
BUT from B7 release, the Radio Measurement Statistics (RMS) feature implemented in the BSS provides a
good level of information allowing to reduce the number of Abis traces to be done for radio network
optimization.

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3 Information Sources Available

Air Interface Trace


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INFORMATION SOURCE: EXTERNAL INTERFACE "Air"


Use trace MS to capture signaling and signal characteristics
+ Give precise location (x,y) of problems
+ Give downlink radio information
+ Only way to localize a lack of coverage
+ Only way to monitor competitor
- High cost of equipment
- Very time-consuming
- Difficulty to perform a lot of calls
-> number of samples insufficient
-> only a few streets

- No uplink

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The main advantage of the Air trace is to associate a radio quality measurement to a given geographical
area of the network.
Even if the RMS feature will allow to assess the radio quality as perceived by the end user, no location of
the radio problems is provided through the RMS.

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Performance Measurement Counters


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SUB-SYSTEM COUNTERS
Count events seen by sub-system, value reported periodically
(1 hour)
+ Low cost: collected directly at OMC
+ Compact data: possibility to store counters for a complete network
- Raw information, having to be consolidated to be understandable
- Manufacturer's dependent: questionable/difficult to compare
- Weak to analyze other sub-systems

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The main advantage of the BSS counters is to provide easily QoS data for permanent QoS monitoring.

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Exercise
l
l

Draw the BSS PM counters flow on the chart


In which sub-system are the BSS QoS indicators computed and stored?

BSC

OMC-R

OMC-R

BSC

OMC-R
NPA
BSC

RNO

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BSS Counters

Combined into significant formulae: indicators


Used to monitor BSS network quality
Over a complete network, with breakdown per cell/BSC

SPECIFIC DRAWBACK

l
l

NSS/PSTN/MS/USER problems not seen

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

As BSS PM counters are defined in order to provide information to assess the QoS of the BSS and help to
detect BSS misbehavior, there is no way to identify QoS problems due to NSS, PSTN or User.

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NSS Counters

Combined into significant formulas: indicators


Used to monitor NSS network quality
Over a complete network, with breakdown per BSC (maximum)

SPECIFIC DRAWBACKS

l
l

BSS problems usually not precisely identified


No breakdown per cell

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The NSS QoS is provided through NSS PM counters and indicators. It is out of the scope ot this training
course.

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3 Information Sources Available

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Counters


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l

INFORMATION SOURCES: BSS Counters (1/2)


Performance Management implementation
Easy and cost-effective way to monitor network and carried traffic

Principle:
For a given duration (granularity period= typically 1 hour)
To count pre-defined events occurring on the Abis or A interface, or
internally.
Counters stored with breakdown per network component (i.e. cell)

In the BSS B9, around 1000 counters are available (without GPRS).

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Alcatel-Lucent has chosen to implement PM counters in the BSC and to increment them mostly on Abis
interface signaling messages.
Other suppliers may have chosen to increment them on A interface signaling messages or to implement
them in the BTS.
Therefore caution should be taken when interpreting QoS indicators value since some discrepancies may be
observed due to these possible choices.
In order to provide the operators with an easy and cost-effective way to monitor their network and carried
traffic, BSS manufacturers have implemented specific software features, called performance management.
The principle is to count for a given duration called granularity period (typically 1 hour) pre-defined events
occurring on the Abis or A interface, or internally. These counters are stored for each duration, with
breakdown per network component (i.e. cell).

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3 Information Sources Available

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Counters [cont.]


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l
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INFORMATION SOURCES: BSS Counters (2/2)


In Alcatel-Lucent BSS (except GPRS), counters are computed by the BSC,
based mainly on Abis messages.
Every reporting period, counters values are sent to the OMC-R for
storage.
Several counters are reported to the OMC-R permanently every PM
granularity period:
Type 180: per cell adjacency
Type 110 per cell
Other Types: per TRX / N7 Link / BSC /

Millions of counters are collected every day

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BSS Counter Example


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MC718:
counter number

NB_TCH_NOR_ASS_SUCC_TRX: counter name


Cumulative: method of computation
Type 110: BSS PM measurement type to which the counter belongs
Measured object: minimum object level for which the counter is
provided: TRX or CELL or BSC or N7 LINK or X25 LINK etc.

l
l
l

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All counters are described in PM Counters and Indicators.

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BSS Counter Characteristics


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Collection mechanism

Cumulative
The counter is incremented at the occurrence of a specific event.
Abis or A message, or internal event.
At the end of a collection period, the result is the sum of the events.

Inspection
Every 20 or 10 seconds, a task quantifies an internal resource status (usually
a table).
At the end of a collection period, the result is the mean value.

Observation
Set of recorded information about a telecom procedure (handover, channel
release, UL & DL measurements reporting).

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Main counters are of cumulative type.


Inspection counters are of gauge type.
Observation counters are grouped in a Performance Measurement record associated to a particular GSM BSS
telecom procedure: SDCCH channel seizure, TCH channel seizure, internal handover, etc.

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3 Information Sources Available

BSS Performance Measurement Types

ANNEX 6

N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
18
19
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
110
180

Type Name
Traffic Measurement
Resource Availability Measurement
CCCH channel resource usage measurements
SDCCH channel resource usage measurements
TCH channel resource usage measurements
TCH Handover Measurements
LAPD Measurement
X.25 Measurement
N7 Measurement
SDCCH Observations
TCH measurements observations
Internal Handover Observations
Incoming External Handover Observations
Outgoing External Handover Observations
TCH Observation
A Interface measurements
SMS PP Measurements
SCCP Measurements
TCH outgoing Handover per adjency
TCH incoming Handover per adjency
SDCCH Handover
Directed Retry measurements
SMS CB Measurements
Radio Measurement Statistics
Change of frequency band measurements
BTS Power Measurement
Modified B10
Overview measurements
Traffic Flow measurements

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B10

Type definition
Set of counters related to the traffic evaluation per telecom procedure
Set of counters related to the availability of the CCCH, SDCCH, or TCH channels
Set of counters related to the usage of CCCH channel (PCH, AGCH, RACH)
Set of counters related to the usage of SDCCH channel
Set of counters related to the usage of TCH channel
Set of counters related to the TCH handover procedure
Set of counters related to the LapD logical links
Set of counters related to the X25 links OMC-BSC
Set of counters related to the N7 Signaling Links
Observation counters on SDCCH channels allocated
Observation counters on 08.58 MEASUREMENT REPORT for a TCH
Observation counters on internal intra-cell or inter-cell SDCCH or TCH handover
Observation counters on incoming external SDCCH or TCH handover
Observation counters on outgoing external SDCCH or TCH handover
Observation counters on TCH channel allocated
different causes of 08.08 CLEAR REQUEST and 08.08 ASSIGNMENT FAILURE
Set of counters related to Short Message Service Point to Point
Set of counters related to SCCP Layer of the N7 signaling Links
Set of counters related to outgoing TCH handover provided per adjency
Set of counters related to incoming TCH handover provided per adjency
Set of counter related to the SDCCH handover procedure
Set of counter related to the directed retry handover procedure
Set of counters related to Short Message Service Cell Broadcast
Set of counters providing radio quality measurements for TRX/Cell
Set of counters related to handovers including a change of TCH Frequency band
Average emitted power at the BTS antenna output
Set of key counters allowing to access Quality of Service of a given Cell/BSC/Network
Set of counters related to incoming inter-cell SDCCH/TCH handover performed per adjency

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

BSS Performance Measurement types (PM types) are split into two categories:
l

standard types (7, 8, 9, 18, 19, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32,110, 180)

detailed types (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 26, 27)

The most important types for QoS monitoring and Radio Network Optimization are in bold.
A standard PM type can be activated for the whole network. It means that the related counters are
reported for all the Network Elements they are implemented on (TRX, CELL, N7 link, X25 link, LAPD link,
Adjacency).
A detailed PM type can be activated only on a sub-set of the network. It means that the related counters
are reported only for a limited number of Network Elements:
l

40 cells per BSS for PM types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 26, 29

15 cells per BSS for PM types 10, 12, 13, 14, 15

1 cell per BSS for PM types 11, 27

Counter numbering rules:


l

Cyz: cumulative or inspection counters in PM types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 18, 19, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 180

Ly.z: cumulative counters in PM type 7 (L stands for LAPD link)

Xy.z: cumulative counters in PM type 8 (X stands for X25 link)

Ny.z: cumulative counters in PM type 9 (N stands for N7 link)

Syz: observation counters in PM type 10 (S stands for SDCCH)

Ryz:: observation counters in PM type 11 (R stands for Radio measurements)

HOyz: observation counters in PM type 12, 13, 14 (HO stands for HandOver)

Tyz: observation counters in PM type 15 (T stands for TCH)

RMSyz: cumulative counters in PM type 31 (RMS stands for Radio Measurement Statistics)

MCyz or MNy.z: cumulative counters in PM type 110 (M stands for Major)


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3 Information Sources Available

Exercise
l

Observation Means: find the best source of information.


Observation to be done :
1- overall radio quality of 1 cell

Best source
Counters

2- monitor user failures


3- get average network quality
4- localise precise location of a radio pb
5- localise abnormal cells in a network
6- history of network quality for several
weeks
7- compare networks quality
8- discriminate problems between BSS/NSS.
BSS and NSS coming from different
providers
9- In a building, one is thinking that an
elevator is inducing PCM trouble, how to
confirm ?
10- Identify potential interfering cells of 1
Cells
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Why
Type 31: RMS

4 Introduction to K1205 PC Emulation

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4 Introduction to K1205 PC Emulation

Usage
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The trace done with K1205 can be read:


Directly on K1205 itself
On any PC Windows NT with dedicated emulation software

Practical exercises will be done during the course using this software

The following slides and exercises are here to teach you the basic skill
needed to operate the tool for A Interface decoding

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4 Introduction to K1205 PC Emulation

Measurement Scenarios Screen

To
Toenter
enterinin
monitoring
monitoringmode
modeto
to
analyze
the
analyze the
AAtrace
trace
To
Tofilter
filterthe
themain
main
GSM
protocols
GSM protocolsand
and
messages
messages
To
Toselect
selectbinary
binary
trace
tracefile
file

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

1. Start the K1205 Protocol Tester application.


2. In the Recording File box: click on the Open button and select the "PAIB29.rec" file.
3. Select all displayed N7 logical links (corresponding to 4 PCMs in this case).
4. Click on the Browse button and select gsm2_A.stk in the gsm2 sub-directory (corresponding to the GSM
Phase 2 A interface protocol stack).
5. Click on OK.
6. Click on the Monitor box to display the content of the recorded trace.

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4 Introduction to K1205 PC Emulation

Filter Configuration
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Configure your filter to remove some messages


and protocols => Bypass Protocol Filter
and select:

ANNEX 4

SCCP Except UDT


Keep all DTAP
BSSM Except PAGIN

Select also all


Logical Links

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The ANNEX 4 introduces some basics on the GSM protocol layers that will be traced for the A interface
analysis.
UDT: Unit Data (for Signaling Control Point) Remove Paging information

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4 Introduction to K1205 PC Emulation

Monitor Screen

To
Toextract
extract11call
call

Short
ShortView
View
11line
line//message
message

Frame
FrameView
View
Full
Fulldecoding
decodingofof
selected
selectedmessage
message

Packet
Packetview
view
Message
Messagecontent
content
ininhexadecimal
hexadecimal

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4 Introduction to K1205 PC Emulation

Extract a Call
l

How to find a specific message?


Edit - Find (or ctrl + F3)
Select All Logical Links.
Choose the protocol.
Select the message studied.

Use F3 to find another same message.


l

How to extract a call from these traces?


Click on the Zoom button.
Select CC message (Connection Confirm).
And UnZoom + Zoom to get:
SLR: Source Location Reference
LR: Destination Location Reference

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

At call setup, the first signaling message on the A interface is sent by the BSC to the MSC in order to set up
a logical link (called SCCP connection) between the BSS and the NSS.
Both BSS and NSS entities choose a unique reference which has to be used by the other party to identify the
SCCP connection on which the messages are conveyed. Both BSS reference (xxx) and NSS reference (yyy)
are exchanged during the SCCP Connection Request and Connection Confirm phases. After that only the
reference of the other party is used.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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4 Introduction to K1205 PC Emulation

Call Extraction
l

Then

1 1 34

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Click on the Filter button and filter out all protocol layers and messages except:
l

all DTAP messages,

all BSSMAP messages except "Paging,

SCCP CR (Connection Request) and CC (Connection Confirm) messages.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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4 Introduction to K1205 PC Emulation

Exercise
l

Use the tool to extract a few calls from file PAIB29.REC


1) Zoom on a CC message:
Find the definition of all messages in the Frame View.
2) Zoom on a CR message with LUREQ.
How to extract the complete call?
3) Use Find to extract a call with an ALERTING message.
Can you see the CC message? If not, Why?

1 1 35

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 35

Self-assessment on the Objectives


l

Please be reminded to fill in the form


Self-Assessment on the Objectives
for this module
The form can be found in the first part
of this course documentation

1 1 36

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 36

End of Module
Introduction

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 37

11

Do not delete this graphic elements in here:

Section 1
GSM QoS Monitoring
Module 2
Global Indicators

3JK11044AAAAWBZZA Issue 01

EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem


Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10
3FL10491ADAAZZZZA Issue 01

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Blank Page

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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

YYYY-MM-DD

Last name, first name

First edition

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 39

Module Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
Explain what is a Global indicator and what are the main BSS indicators
regarding GSM services provided by the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 40

Module Objectives [cont.]

1 1 41

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This page is left blank intentionally

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 41

Table of Contents
Page

Switch to notes view!


1 Indicators Definition
2 Methodological Precautions
3 Typical Call Failures
4 Description of Global Indicators
5 Traps and Restrictions of Global Indicators
6 Global Indicators Interpretation

1 1 42

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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7
13
20
83
104
111

Table of Contents [cont.]


Page

Switch to notes view!

1 1 43

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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1 Indicators Definition

1 1 44

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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1 Indicators Definition

BSS Indicators Definition (Alcatel-Lucent)


l

Global / Detailed
Numerical data providing information about network performance regarding:
The complete network: GLOBAL indicator
An element of the network: DETAILED indicator

TS/TRX/CELL/BTS/BSC/TC

A formulae of several counters


Counters vs. Indicators
Counters: provided by the BSS equipment
Indicators: computed by BSS Monitoring equipment

1 1 45

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The indicators computation can be performed from several counters or by a simple counter mapping.
Example:
l

call drop rate = Call Drop nb / Call nb = f(counters)

call drop = Call drop nb = 1 counter

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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1 Indicators Definition

Global Indicators
l

Measure the performance of the complete network

Analyzed according to their trend and values


Usually every day (week, month)

Compared with:
Competitor results if available
Contractual requirements
Internal quality requirements

1 1 46

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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1 Indicators Definition

Thresholds

EXAMPLE: Thresholds on Call Drop Rate indicator

Weekly
WeeklyCDR
CDR"GSM"
"GSM"

2,50%
2,50%
2,00%
2,00%

weekly
weeklycall
calldrop
droprate
rate
contractual
call
drop
contractual call droprate
rate
quality
CDR
quality CDR

41
41
45
45

33
33
37
37

25
25
29
29

17
17
21
21

0,50%
0,50%
0,00%
0,00%

99
13
13

1,50%
1,50%
1,00%
1,00%

11
55

CDR
CDR

3,50%
3,50%
3,00%
3,00%

week
weeknumber
number
1 1 47

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The Call Drop rate at network level has to compared to:


l

Contractual threshold: can be requested by the operator management to the operational radio team, can be
requested by the operator to the provider on swap or network installation

Quality threshold: fixed internally by radio team management.

Quality thresholds are usually tighter than contractual ones.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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1 Indicators Definition

Exercise
l

Are the indicators in the table below global ones?

INDICATOR
INDICATORDESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION

average
averageof
ofcall
callsetup
setupsuccess
successrate
ratefor
forthe
thenetwork
network
rate
of
call
lost
due
to
radio
pb
on
cell
CI=14,
rate of call lost due to radio pb on cell CI=14,LAC=234
LAC=234
call
calldrop
droprate
ratein
inyour
yourcapital
capital
call
drop
rate
of
the
cell
call drop rate of the cellcovering
coveringaaspecific
specificbuidling
buidling

%%of
ofHO
HO with
withthe
thecause
causebetter
bettercell
cell(among
(amongother
othercauses)
causes)for
forthe
thenetwork
network
average
rate
of
TCH
dropped
for
all
TRX
of
the
network
carrying
1
average rate of TCH dropped for all TRX of the network carrying 1SDCCH8
SDCCH8
rate
rateof
ofSDCCH
SDCCHdropped
droppedon
onTRX
TRX11of
ofcell
cell12,24
12,24
call
success
of
1
PLMN
call success of 1 PLMN
%%of
ofcells
cellsbeing
beingcongested
congestedtoday
today

1 1 48

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 48

GG??

YYes
es
No
No

1 Indicators Definition

Typical KPI of Radio Network


l

Example of KPI used on network:

1 1 49

KPI Parameter

Source

Call Drop Rate

OMC/Drive test

Congestion Rate

Drive test

Handover Success Rate

OMC/Drive test

Busy Hour Traffic

OMC

TCH Utilization

OMC

Call Setup success rate

OMC/Drive test

Coverage

Drive test

Quality

Drive test

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The KPI is a good way to measure the overall performance of the network. Several KPI parameters will be
defined in the network to enable the operator to monitor the network performance throughout important
events, new release, soft/hardware upgrades, etc.
Normally the formula of KPI are defined by the operator, and usually different operators may consider
different KPIs and use different formulas. The KPI can be derived from driving tests and OMC traffic statistics.

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2 Methodological Precautions

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 50

2 Methodological Precautions

Objective
l

Avoid typical errors regarding indicators interpretation

1 1 51

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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2 Methodological Precautions

Global Indicator Value

A good value for a global indicator

All network components are OK regarding this indicator

Example:
A global call drop rate of 1% can hide some cells with 10% of call drop rate

1 1 52

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 52

2 Methodological Precautions

Network Element Aggregation

cell 1
cell 2
cell 3
cell 4
cell 5
cell 6
cell 7
cell 8
cell 9
cell 10

number of calls number of call drop call drop rate


390
8
2,10%
546
29
5,25%
637
20
3,10%
1029
12
1,14%
536
3
0,50%
2
1
50,00%
3
1
33,00%
210
4
2,11%
432
5
1,20%
321
4
1,11%

average of cell results


total nb of drop/total number of calls

The average value of an indicator for a Network:


Is not the average of cell results (or any sub-part of it)
BUT is the average weighted by the traffic

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 53

9,95%
2,10%

2 Methodological Precautions

Global Indicator Validity


To be reliable, an indicator must be based on a sufficient number of
events

Estimation theory (MR.Spiegel, theory and problems of probability and


statistics , SCHAUM):
if p is the probability of success for a complete population
if one is measuring the probability P based on a sample of size N

There is a probability of 95 % that p is between:


P +/- 1.96*[(p*(1-p))/n]

Example: for p = 90 % and N = 100 => [ 84,12% ; 95,88% ]

This law cannot be used directly for indicators (an hourly indicator is
not based on a random sample), but it is giving a rough estimate of
level of confidence one can apply regarding the size of the sample

If a sample (number of calls) is too small, one can take it for a longer
duration

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

On Alcatel-Lucent QoS monitoring tool (MPM application on OMC-R, NPA or RNO), NEs (BSS, Cell or TRX) are
highlighted with bad QoS indicator value if enough corresponding events have been observed (called Validity
threshold).
Examples:
Cells with bad Call Drop rate will be highlighted if CDR > CDR_threshold and if the Number of Calls is greater
than the CDR Validity threshold.

Cells with bad Outgoing handover success rate will be highlighted if OHOSUR > OHOSUR_threshold and if the
Number of Outgoing Handovers is greater than the OHO Validity threshold.
l

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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2 Methodological Precautions

Time Period Aggregation


l

Take care of data consolidation

Example:
Mean cell congestion rate during busy hour:
Weighted average of cell congestion at the busy hour of the network?
Weighted average of cell congestion rate for its specific busy hour?
(definition of busy hour?)

1 1 55

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Usually:
l

Cell Busy Hour = hour of the day where max TCH traffic (in erlang) is observed.

BSC Busy Hour = hour of the day where max TCH traffic (as the sum of the TCH traffic of all cells of the BSS)
is observed.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 55

2 Methodological Precautions

Exercise
l

Is the conclusion given for each indicator right?

INDICATOR

Sample
(calls)

conclusion

call drop = 0.9% in your country

2456435

NOK all the cells have a good call drop

call setup success for cell 15, 145 = 99.5%

2315

In Paris: 2500 cells with 95% of call setup


success
In the rest of France: 5000 cells with
98%
call drop for BSS BSS_1 = 1%

3267872
for France

there is a good call setup success rate for


15, 145
In France, call setup success = 97 %

4500

the call drop for BSS_1 is good

call drop for cell 156;13 = 5%

215

cell 156;13 has certainly a trouble

for BSS 1, call drop of 2.0%


for BSS 2, call drop of 3.0%

4000
2000

LA = BSS1 + BSS2 has a call drop of 2.3 %

MSC Stadium has a call setup success of


95 %

15346

BSS1 belonging to MSC Stadium has a call setup


success of 95%

1 1 56

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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OK ?

3 Typical Call Failures

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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3 Typical Call Failures

Objective
l

Description of the main call success and failures cases, with:


Main specific counters
Main protocol timers

Diagnose the main case of failures on A interface traces using the K1205
emulation software

1 1 58

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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3 Typical Call Failures

Call Setup phasing


l

4 stages for a call establishment, 2 for a


location update:
1- Radio link establishment
2- "SDCCH phase
then only for "Circuit Switch call"
3- TCH assignment
4- "Alerting/connection" phase

Each phase has a specific utility and some


weaknesses

1 1 59

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 59

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - OC success


l

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

Originated Call: RLE success case

MS

BTS
BSC
MSC
CHANNEL REQUEST
------------- (RACH)------------>
CHANNEL REQUIRED
----------------------------------------------> MC8C
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH)
<---------------------------------------------- MC148
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
---------------------------------------------->
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN
<---------------------------------------------- start T3101
MC8B
<------------(AGCH)------------SABM (L3 info)
------------- (SDCCH)----------->
ESTABLISH IND (L3 info)
----------------------------------------------> stop T3101
UA (L3 info)
<-----------(SDCCH)------------MC02
CR (COMPLETE L3 INFO)
---------------------------------->

LapD

CC

<----------------------------------

Specific case of Call establishment


failure:
Loss of messages due to LapD congestion
can be followed with a counter (see notes)

T3101: guard timer for SDCCH allocation (Default: 3 seconds)


CR/CC are used to exchange SCCP references
Any further message related to this call will have one (or 2) of these 2 references
K1205 can extract the call using these references (SLR, DLR!!)
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The SDCCH resource allocation is performed by the BSC. Once allocated, the SDCCH channel is activated by the
BTS on BSC request.
T3101 is the guard timer for the SDCCH access from the MS. The Default value is 3 seconds.
MC8C counts the number of Channels Required received from the MS in a cell.
MC148 counts the number of SDCCH channels activated (therefore allocated) in a cell.
MC8B counts the number of times an MS is commanded to access an SDCCH channel in a cell.
MC02 counts the number of MSs which have successfully accessed an SDCCH in a cell as part of a Mobile
Originating (MO) call.
The SCCP Connection Request message is conveyed on an A interface PCM timeslot chosen by the BSC (called
COC).
The SCCP Connection Confirm message is conveyed on a COC chosen by the MSC which can be located on a
different PCM than the one of the COC used by the BSC to send signaling messages to the MSC.
Take care that, when the BSC is congested on the downlink, some messages are discarded. This may result for
example in call establishment failures, loss of paging messages or delay in handover procedures.
A LapD counter that indicates the time a LapD link is congested is created to analyze the cause of a degraded
quality of service. This counter is implemented in type 7 and thus be only available in a detailed measurement
campaign.
Counter: L1.18: TIME_LAPD_CONG
Definition: Time in seconds during which the LapD link is congested in transmission in the BSC.
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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 60

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - TC Success


Terminated Call: RLE success case

MS

BTS
PAGING REQUEST
<------------- (PCH) -------------CHANNEL REQUEST
------------- (RACH) ------------>

BSC

PAGING COMMAND
<---------------------------------------------CHANNEL REQUIRED
---------------------------------------------->
(SDCCH)
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
<---------------------------------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
---------------------------------------------->
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
<----------------------------------------------

IMMEDIATE ASSIGN
<------------ (AGCH) ------------SABM (PAGING RESP)
------------- (SDCCH) ----------->
ESTABLISH IND
(PAGING RESP)
UA (PAGING RESP)
---------------------------------------------->
<----------- (SDCCH) -------------

MSC
PAGING
<---------------------------------start T3113
MC8A

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

MC8C
MC148

Start T3101
MC8B
Stop T3101
MC01
CR (COMPLETE L3 INFO)
---------------------------------->
stop T3113
CC

<----------------------------------

1 1 61

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A paging message is broadcast by the MSC to all BSCs controlling cells belonging to the same Location Area as
the one of the paged MS.
In case no MS is accessing the SDCCH channel (T3101 expiry) then the BSC does not repeat the Immediate
Assignment since the MS may have accessed an SDCCH in another BSS. It is up to the MSC to repeat Paging if
T3113 expires (usually around 7 seconds).
MC8A counts the number of Paging Command messages sent on a cell.
MC01 counts the number of MSs which have successfully accessed an SDCCH in a cell as part of a Mobile
Terminating (MT) call.
Caution:
A paging Request message sent on the Air interface by the BTS may contain several MS identities. 3 Paging
Request types can be used:
l

in Paging Request Type 1: up to 2 MSs (IMSI1,IMSI2) can be included.

in Paging Request Type 2: up to 3 MSs (IMSI1,TMSI1,TMSI2) can be included.

in Paging Request Type 3: up to 4 MSs (TMSI1,TMSI2,TMSI3,TMSI4) can be included.

On the other hand, a Paging message and a Paging Command message relate to only one MS identity.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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B10

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - MO Success for DTM


l

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

Terminated Call: RLE success case


MS

BTS

BSC

MFS

MSC

Packet Idle Mode


CHANNEL REQUEST
------------- (RACH) ------------>

IMMEDIATE ASSIGN
<------------ (AGCH) -------------

CHANNEL REQUIRED
---------------------------------------------->
(SDCCH)
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
<---------------------------------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
---------------------------------------------->
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
<----------------------------------------------

MC8C
MC148

Start T3101
MC8B

(L3 info)
ESTABLISH IND
---------------------------------------------->
(L3 info)
<----------- (SDCCH) ------------Mult. SACCH info Modify [SI5, SI6]

SABM[L3 info]
------------- (SDCCH) ----------->

SCCP Connection Req (Compt. L3 info)

UA

<----------------------------------------------

SCCP Connection Confirm

Classmark Change DI (Classmark Change)


Creation of DTM MS
context

1 1 62

COMMON ID
Class Mark update
BSC Shared DTM Info Indication

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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New B10

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - Paging


l

RLE > Paging: MC8A=C8A

1 1 63

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Normally all cells of the same Location Area must have the same MC8A counter value since all these cells must
be paged for an MT call on an MS located in the Location Area they are included in.
If not: it means that a cell is not declared in the right LA at NSS level.

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3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - RACH Counter


l

RLE > RACH: MC8C=C8C

1 1 64

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Caution: All Channels Required (therefore RACH) are counted in MC8C: valid and invalid causes (see later). Indeed ghost
RACHs are also counted.
The Channel Required content corresponds to the Channel Request message sent by the MS to the BTS.
This Channel Request message is made up of one byte with 2 Information Elements (IEs):
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
+-----------------------------------------------+
ESTABLISHMENT
RANDOM

+ - - - - - - - - +

CAUSE
REFERENCE
+-----------------------------------------------+
lESTABLISHMENT

CAUSE: This information field indicates the reason for requesting the establishment of a connection. This
field has a variable length (from 3 bits up to 6 bits).
lRANDOM

REFERENCE: This is an unformatted field with a variable length (from 5 bits down to 2 bits).

Due to the fact that the NECI bit is always set to 1 in Alcatel-Lucent BSS, Establishment causes can be divided into 2
categories:
l

Valid causes: 5 (6 if GPRS)


000: Location Update (Normal, Periodic, IMSI Attach)
100: Terminating call
101: Emergency call
110: Call Re-establishment
111: Originating call (not emergency)
011: if GPRS is implemented in the cell
Invalid causes: 3 (2 if GPRS)
001:
010:
011: if GPRS is not implemented in the cell
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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 64

3 Typical Call Ffailures

Radio Link Establishment - OC Success Counters Split


l

RLE > success MO split: MC02x=C02x


MC02A: LU
MC02B: SMS
MC02C: SS
MC02D: LU follow-on
MC02E: CR
MC02F: unknown
MC02G: IMSI Detach
MC02H: EC or NC
MC02i: LCS

MC02 =MC02A+MC02B+MC02C+.+MC02G+MC02H+MC02i

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

MC02A = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Normal or Periodic LU request (IMSI Attach also counted).
MC02B = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Short Message Service.
MC02C = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Supplementary Service.
MC02D = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for LU with follow-on bit set to 1 (means that the SDCCH phase
will be followed by a TCH assignment for speech call establishment).
MC02E = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Call Re-establishment.
MC02F = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized in case of L3 Info (within 08.58 ESTABLISH INDICATION) unknown
by the BSC but transferred to the MSC.
MC02G = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for IMSI Detach.
MC02H = Number of SDCCHs successfully seized for Normal or Emergency call.
MC02i = Number of Mobile Originating SDCCH establishments for LCS purposes.
Also, Evaluation of the Mobiles location (see the next slides)
LCS: Location Services

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 65

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH Congestion Failure


l

Main failure cases for Radio Link Establishment

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

SDCCH
Access Failure
SDCCH
SDCCH
Congestion
Congestion

SDCCH
SDCCH
BSS
BSSProblem
Problem
SDCCH
SDCCH
Radio
RadioFailure
Failure

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 66

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH Congestion


l

RLE > SDCCH congestion


MS

BTS
BSC
MSC
CHANNEL REQUEST
-------------(RACH)------------>
CHANNEL REQUIRED
----------------------------------------------> MC8C
No free SDCCH !!
MC04
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
<---------------------------------------------IMM. ASS. REJECT
(immediate assignment reject)
MC8D, and MC8B
<-------------(AGCH)------------

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

The Immediate Assignment Reject mechanism can be disabled at OMC-R


level
It is not activated for answer to paging
If disabled, no answer to the MS

The MS will repeat automatically its request in case of congestion (next


slides)
Waiting for T3122 expiry in case of Immediate Assignment Reject
Waiting for T3120 expiry otherwise
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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

In case of Immediate Assignment Reject: T3122 = value of Wait_Indication parameter sent by the BSC to the MS.
Otherwise T3120 is computed by the MS as a random number of slots between:
250 and 250+T-1 for a phase 1 MS where:
T=Tx_integer parameter (1 value per cell chosen between 3 to 50 slots)
l

S and T+S for a phase 2 MS where:


T=Tx_integer parameter (1 value per cell chosen between 3 to 50 slots)
S is a parameter depending on the CCCH configuration and on the value of Tx_integer as defined in the
following table:
l

TX_integer

S(CCCH Not Comb)

S(CCCH Combined)

3, 8, 14, 50

55

41

4, 9, 16

76

52

5, 10, 20

109

58

6, 11, 25

163

86

7, 12, 32

217

115

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 67

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH Congestion Counter


l

RLE > SDCCH congestion: MC04=C04

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 68

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH Cong. Consequences


l

RLE > SDCCH congestion: MAIN CONSEQUENCES


The MS will try "max_retrans +1 " times before giving up

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

Immediately for phase 1 MS


After T3126 for phase 2 MS (still waiting for Immediate Assignment during this timer)

In case of "max_retrans+1" failures, the MS will:


Either try an automatic cell reselection
Or do nothing

In case of LU, the MS will attempt a new LU request


In case of Call establishment, the MS will not re-attempt automatically. It is up to the
subscriber to try to set up the call again

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 69

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH Cong. Causes/Solutions


l

RLE > SDCCH congestion: MAIN causes/solutions

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

Location area border results in excessive location update and SDCCH


attempt

Inadequate LA design (too many LUs)


Modify CRH (Cell Reselect Hysteresis)
Modify BSC period location update
Solve frequent handover problem between dual-band network

Excessive short messages


Add SDCCH channel
Enable dynamic SDCCH Dynamic Allocation function

Insufficient system capacity, lack of SDCCH channels


Expansion for more TCH and SDCCH channels
More SDCCHs should be added

Improper configuration of system parameters, RACH system parameter


Increase RACH access threshold (overcoming interference) with care!
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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

SDCCH congestion can be too high because of the subscribers' traffic demand in terms of calls / LUs.
Solution = add a TRX or site / redesign the LA plan
High SDCCH congestion can be observed at peculiar period of the day due to a peak of LU requests generated
by a big group of subscribers entering a new LA at the same time (bus, train, plane).
Solution = redesign the LA plan or play on radio parameters (CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS, WI_OP)
High SDCCH congestion can be abnormally observed without real MS traffic in case a high level of noise or the
proximity of a non-GSM radio transmitter.
Solution = change the BCCH frequency or put an RX filter
High SDCCH congestion can also be abnormally observed in a cell in case one of its neighboring cell is barred.
Solution = Remove the barring

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 70

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH Cong. Causes/Solutions [cont.]

RLE > SDCCH congestion: MAIN causes/solutions

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

Board (TRX) fault and transmission fault result in SDCCH congestion


"Common Transport Effect"
Difficult to avoid for small cells

Abnormal SDCCH traffic


Phantom" channel requests (seen in SDCCH RF failure session)
Neighboring cell barred

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

SDCCH congestion can be too high because of the subscribers' traffic demand in terms of calls / LUs.
Solution = add a TRX or site / redesign the LA plan
High SDCCH congestion can be observed at peculiar period of the day due to a peak of LU requests generated
by a big group of subscribers entering a new LA at the same time (bus, train, plane).
Solution = redesign the LA plan or play on radio parameters (CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS, WI_OP)
High SDCCH congestion can be abnormally observed without real MS traffic in case a high level of noise or the
proximity of a non-GSM radio transmitter.
Solution = change the BCCH frequency or put an RX filter
High SDCCH congestion can also be abnormally observed in a cell in case one of its neighboring cell is barred.
Solution = Remove the barring

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 71

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH Cong. Resolution?


Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

RLE > SDCCH congestion


DYNAMIC SDCCH ALLOCATION

l
l

MS

BTS

BSC

CHANNEL REQUEST
(RACH)

CHANNEL REQUIRED
If No free SDCCH, then
run dynamic SDCCH/8timeslot allocation MC801a&b
algorithm. If allocation is successful, then
activate dynamic SDCCHsubchanneland serve request

MC802a&b

If allocation was unsuccessful, then reject SDCCH request (possibly


using the Immediate Assignment Reject procedure).

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

SPECIFIC COUNTERS (Type 110 / Cell Level):


l

MC800

Average number of available dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots.

MC801a

Average number of busy dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots allocated as TCH (FR or HR).

MC801b

Maximum number of busy dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots allocated as TCH (FR or HR).

MC802a

Average number of busy SDCCH sub-channels allocated on the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots.

MC802b Maximum number of busy SDCCH sub-channels allocated on the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots.
These four previous counters are Inspection Counters; that means that the resource is checked regulary by the BSC and at the end of
the period, an average is done. Example: 3 physical channels are defined as Dyn SDCCH and the counter gives the following indication:
MC801a = 1.7 that means sometimes the 3 Dyn SD are allocated as TCH, sometimes only 2 of them, sometimes 1 or 0 and the average
is 1.7.
l

The FOLLOWING COUNTERS ARE IMPACTED BY the Dynamic SDCCH Allocation feature:
MC28, MC29 The Number of busy radio timeslots in TCH usage takes into account the busy TCH timeslots and the dynamic SDCCH/8
timeslots allocated as TCH.
l

l C30, MC31 The Number of busy SDCCH sub-channels takes into account the SDCCH sub-channels allocated on the static and dynamic
SDCCH/8 timeslots.
l C370a, MC370a, C370b, MC370b The Number of times the radio timeslots are allocated for TCH usage (FR / HR) takes into account
the busy TCH timeslots and the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots allocated as TCH.
l C/MC380a/b C/MC381a/b The Cumulated time (in second) the radio timeslots are allocated for TCH usage (FR or HR) does not take
care whether the TCHs are allocated on the TCH radio timeslot or on the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots.

C39, MC390, C40, MC400 The Number of times or the Cumulated time (in second) the SDCCH sub-channels are busy does not take
care whether the SDCCH sub-channels are allocated on the static or dynamic SDCCH/x timeslot.

C/MC34 C/MC380 The Cumulated time (in second) all TCHs / SDCCHs in the cell are busy does not take care whether the TCHs /
SDCCHs are allocated on the TCH radio timeslot /SDCCH/x timeslot or on the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots.
l

C/MC320a/b/c/d/e Free TCH radio timeslots count the free TCH timeslots and the free dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 72

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH Radio Failure


l

Main failure cases for Radio Link Establishment

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

SDCCH
Access Failure
SDCCH
SDCCH
Congestion
Congestion

SDCCH
SDCCH
BSS
BSSProblem
Problem
SDCCH
SDCCH
Radio
RadioFailure
Failure

1 1 73

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 73

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - SDCCH Radio Access Failure


l

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

RLE > SDCCH RF Failure

MS
BTS
BSC
MSC
CHANNEL REQUEST
-------------(RACH)------------>
CHANNEL REQUIRED
----------------------------------------------> MC8C
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH)
<---------------------------------------------- MC148
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
---------------------------------------------->
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN
<---------------------------------------------- start T3101
<------------(AGCH)------------MC8B
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN
-------(SDCCH)-----X
T3101expiry->radio failure
MC149

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

MC149 counts the number of SDCCH access failures due to radio problems.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 74

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - Real Radio Problems


l

RLE > SDCCH RF Failure

Main causes > real radio problems

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

Unbalanced cell power budget


Bad coverage (for example a moving car)
Interference (for example downlink)
l

In case of radio failure, the MS will retry as for SDCCH congestion

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

AGCH

Unbalanced Power Budget:

RACH

Max Path Loss DL


Max Path Loss UL

Channel Request
BTS

Bad coverage:
building

Access Grant

RACH

Interference:

AGCH lost

DL interference area
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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 75

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH


l

RLE > SDCCH RF Failure

Main causes > "Phantom/Ghost/Spurious/Dummy ... RACH"

Channel request received but not sent: 3 causes


Noise decoding
Reception of channel request sent to a neighboring cell
Reception of HO_ACCESS sent to a neighboring cell

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 76

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH Causes


l
l
l

RLE > SDCCH RF Failure


Main causes > "Phantom/Ghost/Spurious/Dummy ... RACH"
Example of a channel required message

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

For this Channel Required, the establishment cause is valid (Call re-establishment) but the Access Delay
(corresponding to the distance between the MS and the BTS) is high.
Indeed the Access Delay being equal to the Timing Advance is coded in slot unit representing a distance of
550m. It can take values from 0 (0m) to 63 (35km).
Thus the Channel Required above is received from an MS located at 19km from the site. It may therefore be
rather a ghost RACH than a real MS which wants to re-establish a call.
In Alcatel-Lucent BSS, it is possible to filter the Channel Required received from a distance greater than a
distance defined as a parameter value: RACH_TA_FILTER tunable on a per-cell basis. Caution should be
taken since a too low value may reduce the network coverage.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 77

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH Causes [cont.]


l
l
l

RLE > SDCCH RF Failure


Main causes > "Phantom RACH" > noise decoding
GSM 05.05: " 0.02 % of Rach Frame can be decoded without error
without real input signal" (No impact for the system)
BCCH not combined: 51 Rach/Multi Frame > (3600 * 1000) ms / 4.615 ms at
0.02 %: 156 dummy RACH/hour
BCCH combined: 27/51 RACH/Multi-Frame > 83 dummy RACH/hour
3/8 of causes (field of channel request, 5 valid causes over 8) will be unvalid
Example of induced SDCCH traffic:
(5/8*156*T3101 (3 sec))/3600 = 0.08 Erlang SDCCH

Some tips:
Dummy Rach load depends on minimum level for decoding configured in
Evolium BTS
During period with low real traffic (night), high rate of dummy RACH
For dummy RACH, the channel required has a random value of TA

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

STRUCTURE of the MULTIFRAME in "TIME SLOT" 0


(Non-combined BCCH)
R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R -

UPLINK

(Multiframes of 51 frames)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
20 21
31
41
51 1
f s b b b b C C C C f s C C C C C C C C f s C C C C C C C C f s C C C C C C C C f s C C C C C C C C - f s

DOWNLINK

f = FCCH

s = SCH

C C C C = CCCH (PCH or AGCH)

b = BCCH

R = RACH

(Combined BCCH)
DOWNLINK
FS

FS

FS

D0

D1

FS

D2

D3

FS

A0

A1

FS

FS

FS

D0

D1

FS

D2

D3

FS

A2

A3

UPLINK
D3

RR

A2

A3

RRRRRRRR RRRRRRR RRRRRRRR

D0

D1

RR

D2

D3

RR

A0

A1

R R R R R R R R R R R R RR R RR R RR RR R

D0

D1

RR

D2

F = FCCH

S = SCH

B = BCCH

C = CCCH (PCH or AGCH)

R = RACH

51 multiframe duration = 51 x 8 x 0,577 = 235ms


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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 78

Dn/An = SDCCH/SACCH/4

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH Causes [cont.]


l
l

RLE > SDCCH RF Failure


Main causes > "Phantom RACH" >noise decoding
MS

BTS

IMMEDIATE ASSIGN
<------------ (AGCH) -------------

BSC
CHANNEL REQUIRED
---------------------------------------------->
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
(SDCCH)
<---------------------------------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
---------------------------------------------->
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
<----------------------------------------------

MSC

MC8C
MC148

start T3101
MC8B

T3101expiry
->radio failure
MC149

l
l

No subscriber -> no impact for subscriber


But MC149 incremented -> SDCCH RF access failure is impacted

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 79

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH Causes [cont.]


l
l

RLE > SDCCH RF Failure


Main causes > "Phantom RACH" > Channel Request
sent to the neighboring cell
MS

BTS

IM M E D IA T E A S S IG N
< ------------ (A G C H ) -------------

BSC

C H A N N E L R E Q U IR E D
---------------------------------------------->
C H A N N E L A C T IV A T IO N (S D C C H )
< ---------------------------------------------C H A N N E L A C T IV A T IO N A C K
---------------------------------------------->
IM M E D IA T E A S S IG N C O M M A N D
< ----------------------------------------------

M C 8C
M C 14 8

s tart T 31 01

T 31 01 ex piry
-> ra dio fa ilu re

l
l
l

M SC

MC8B

M C 1 49

Subscriber not impacted (real transaction performed elsewhere)


But MC149 incremented -> SDCCH RF access failure is impacted
Usual radio planning rules are sufficient to avoid the trouble

2 cells must not have the same (BCCH, BSIC) couple

1 1 80

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

BSIC = BCC (3 bit) + NCC (3 bit)


l

BCC: BTS Color Code

NCC: Network Color Code

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 80

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH Causes [cont.]


l
l
l
l

l
l

RLE > SDCCH RF Failure


Main causes > "Phantom RACH" > Channel Request due to handover
During HO, the first message sent to the target cell is HO Access
This message is an Access Burst like Channel Request

If received on BCCH, can be understood as a Channel Request (RACH)


A new case of "Phantom RACH"

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 81

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - Ghost RACH Causes [cont.]


l
l
l

RLE > SDCCH RF Failure


Main causes > "Phantom RACH" > Channel Request due to handover
This case is the most dangerous
The MS usually sends a sequence of HO Access messages, every frame
In some cases, this can create a phantom RACH if the frequency of the
TCH is identical or adjacent to the one of interfered BCCH
Characteristics of such phantom RACH (Channel Required)
Subsequent frame number
Random, but stable timing advance

Can block very easily SDCCH

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 82

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - BSS Failure


l

Main failure cases for Radio Link Establishment

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

SDCCH
Access Failure
SDCCH
SDCCH
Congestion
Congestion

SDCCH
SDCCH
BSS
BSSProblem
Problem
SDCCH
SDCCH
Radio
RadioFailure
Failure

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 83

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - BSS Problem


l

RLE > BSS problem

MS
BTS
BSC
CHANNEL REQUEST
-------------(RACH)------------>
CHANNEL REQUIRED
----------------------------------------------> MC8C
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH)
<---------------------------------------------- MC148
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
---------------------------------------------->
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN
<---------------------------------------------- start T3101
<------------(AGCH)------------MC8B
SABM (L3 info)
------------(SDCCH)------------>

MSC

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

No specific counter

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

BSS Problems are difficult to specify a priori. It is better to deduce them from other counters which are
easier to implement and thus more reliable.

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 84

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - Counters


l

RLE counters

GPRS causes

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

REQUEST

GSM/GPRS invalid causes

GSM valid causes

Radio Link Establishment

Preparation

Execution

1 1 85

ATTEMPT

Request

MC8C

GPRS causes
GSM invalid causes
GSM valid causes

P62C
unknown
unknown

Congestion
BSS Pb

MC04
unknown

Attempt

MC148

Radio Access Failure


BSS Pb

MC149
MC148 - (MC01+MC02) - MC149

Success

MC01+MC02

SUCCESS

Preparation Failure

Execution Failure

Congestion
BSS problem

Radio access
failure
BSS problem

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Statistically a ghost RACH can correspond to any kind of establishment cause: valid and invalid.
As ghost RACH which corresponds to a GSM valid cause will lead to an SDCCH allocation which will not be
seized by an MS, it will lead to the incrementation of the MC149 counter and therefore counted as an SDCCH
access failure due to radio.

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 85

3 Typical Call Failures

Radio Link Establishment - Indicators


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TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: RLE indicators

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

SDNAFLBN
SDNAFLRN
SDNACGN
SDNAFSUN
SDNAFLR

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > SDCCH > Assignment Phase
l

SDNAUR: SDCCH assignment unsuccess rate

SDNACGR: SDCCH assignment failure rate due to congestion (Global)

SDNAFLRR: SDCCH assignment failure rate due to radio

SDNAFLBR: SDCCH assignment failure rate due to BSS problem

An SDCCH radio access failure due to ghost RACH occurrence is easily observed during low traffic hour (night
time) since ghost RACHs are almost the only cause of failure.

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 86

3 Typical Call Failures

SDCCH Phase - OC Success


l

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

Successful SDCCH phase: OC call


MS

BTS
BSC
SDCCH Phase : Originating Call case

MSC

< ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------AUTHENTICATION REQUEST


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
< ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CIPHERING MODE COMMAND
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
SETUP
< ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CALL PROCEEDING

Transparent message: no dedicated counters

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Transparent messages (DTAP) are used in order the NSS performs control procedures to enable the MS to set up
a speech call.
Authentication: Checks that the Mobile Station is the required station and not an intruder.
Ciphering: All Information (signaling, Speech and Data) is sent in cipher mode, to avoid monitoring and
intruders (who could analyze signaling data).
Setup/Call Processing: call is being processed between the calling Party and the Called Party.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 87

3 Typical Call Failures

SDCCH Phase - TC Success


l

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

Successful SDCCH phase: TC call


MS

BTS
BSC
SDCCH Phase : Terminating Call case

MSC

< ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------AUTHENTICATION REQUEST


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
< ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CIPHERING MODE COMMAND
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE
< ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SETUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
CALL CONFIRM

Transparent message: no dedicated counters

1 1 88

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Setup/Call Confirm: the call is being processed between the Calling Party and the Called Party.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 88

3 Typical Call Failures

SDCCH Phase - LU Success


l

Successful SDCCH phase: Location Update


MS

BTS
BSC
MSC
SDCCH Phase : Location Update Case (with TMSI reallocation)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
LOCATION UPDATE REQUEST

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

< ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------AUTHENTICATION REQUEST


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
< ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CIPHERING MODE COMMAND
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE
< ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LOCATION UPDATE ACCEPT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
TMSI REALLOCATION COMPLETE

Transparent message: no dedicated counters

1 1 89

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Some transparent messages are also exchanged between the MS and the network in case of a Location Update
transaction.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 89

3 Typical Call Failures

SDCCH Phase - Drops


Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

SDCCH phase

Loss of connection during SDCCH phase = "SDCCH drop"

3 origins of SDCCH drop:


Radio problems when connected on SDCCH
BSS problems
Call lost during an SDCCH HO (handover failure without reversion to old
channel)

1 1 90

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Generally SDCCH handovers are disabled in the network since the average SDCCH duration is only around 2 to
3 seconds.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 90

3 Typical Call Failures

SDCCH Phase - Radio Drop


Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

SDCCH phase > drop Radio

Connection lost due to Radio problem


MS

BTS

BSC
SDCCH Phase established

MSC

Radio connection lost


---------------------------------------------------- > MC138
CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION
(cause : radio link failure)
--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
Cause : radio interface failure

1 1 91

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

MC138 counts the number of SDCCH channel drops due to radio problems.
Radio problems can be due to coverage, interference and sometimes BSS dysfunction which is not detected as
a system alarm by the O&M Fault Management application.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 91

3 Typical Call Failures

SDCCH Phase - BSS Drop


Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

SDCCH phase > drop BSS

Connection lost due BSS problem


MS

BTS

BSC
SDCCH Phase established

MSC

MC137

--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
Cause : O&M intervention
Cause : radio interface failure

1 1 92

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

MC137 counts the number of SDCCH channel drops due to BSS problems.
A BSS problem can be a BTS/BSC hardware or software failure. It can also be due to a problem on the Abis
interface (due to Micro Wave transmission for instance).

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 92

3 Typical Call Failures

SDCCH Phase - HO drop


Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

SDCCH phase > drop HO

Connection lost during Handover

MS

BTS

BSC
SDCCH Phase established

HO FAILURE WITHOUT REVERSION

MSC

MC07
--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
Radio Interface Message Failure (Alcatel)

1 1 93

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

MC07 counts the number of SDCCH channel drops due to handover failure.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 93

3 Typical Call Failures

SDCCH Phase - Counters


l

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

SDCCH phase counters


SDCCH connection

Normal release

TCH assignment phase

SDCCH Phase

Drop radio

SDCCH connection

SDCCH Drop

1 1 94

SDCCH drop

MC01+MC02+MC10
Drop radio
Drop BSS
Drop HO

MC138
MC137
MC07

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 94

Drop BSS

Drop HO

3 Typical Call Failures

SDCCH Phase - Indicators


l

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

SDCCH phase indicators

SDCDBN
SDCDRN
SDCDHN
SDCDR

1 1 95

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > SDCCH > Established phase
l

SDCDR: SDCCH drop rate (Global)

SDCDRR: SDCCH drop rate due to radio problem

SDCDBR: SDCCH drop rate due to BSS Problem

SDCDHR: SDCCH drop rate due to HO failure

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 95

3 Typical Call Failures

SDCCH Phase - Exercise


l

With K1205 (file PAIB29.REC)


1) Extract a location update (successful case)
2) Extract a transaction with an SDCCH drop.

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

What is the cause of the failure?


Is it possible to "guess" the type of transaction (OC, TC, LU, etc.)?

3) Extract an SDCCH drop for a different cause.

Time allowed:
15 minutes

1 1 96

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 96

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Assignment - Success


l

TCH assignment success case


MS

BTS
BSC
MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
MC140a < ----------------------------------ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
< -------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST
-------------------------------------------------------- >
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

< -------------------------------------------------------MC703 MC460a


CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH)
-------------------------------------------------------- >
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE
< ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------MC140b Start T3107
(SDCCH)
ASSIGNMENT COMMAND
TCH

---------------------- >
SABM
-------------------------------------------------------- >
< ---------------------ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Stop T3107
>
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
MC718
----------------------------------- >
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE

T3107: guard timer for TCH assignment

1 1 97

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

MC703 counts the number of TCH channels activated (therefore allocated) in a cell.
MC718 counts the number of MSs which have successfully accessed a TCH in a cell as part of a call
establishment (Normal Assignment).
Both counters are implemented at TRX level.

MC140a counts the number of normal assignment requests for TCH establishment.
MC140b counts the number of normal assignment commands for TCH establishment.
Both counters in order to discriminate BSS problems in Preparation and Execution phases.
MC460a is a counter for type 110: NB_TCH_EMERGENCY_HO_PRESERVATION:
Definition: Number of high priority TCH requests served when:
l

the number of free TCH timeslots is less than or equal to NUM_TCH_EGNCY_HO.

the queue for this cell is not empty.

MC140a, MC140b and MC460 are given at Cell level.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 97

B10

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Assignment Success for DTM

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

TCH assignment success case

MS

BTS

BSC

MFS

Assignment Request

SDCCH

MSC
Start Trr1

MC140a

Phys. Context Conf


Chan. Act. (TCH)

MC703 MC460a

Chan. Act. ACK


Assignment CMD
SABM

DR[Assignt CMD]
MC140b Start T3107

Est. Indication

UA
Assign Complete

DI[Assignt CMP]

Assignment Complete
Stop T3107

Stop Trr1

BSC Shared DTM Info Indication


Store TCH
location in DTM
MS context

1 1 98

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

MC703 counts the number of TCH channels activated (therefore allocated) in a cell.
MC718 counts the number of MSs which have successfully accessed a TCH in a cell as part of a call
establishment (Normal Assignment).
Both counters are implemented at TRX level.

MC140a counts the number of normal assignment requests for TCH establishment.
MC140b counts the number of normal assignment commands for TCH establishment.
Both counters in order to discriminate BSS problems in Preparation and Execution phases.
MC460a is a counter for type 110: NB_TCH_EMERGENCY_HO_PRESERVATION:
Definition: Number of high priority TCH requests served when:
l

the number of free TCH timeslots is less than or equal to NUM_TCH_EGNCY_HO.

the queue for this cell is not empty.

MC140a, MC140b and MC460 are given at Cell level.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 98

New B10

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Assignment - TCH Congestion


l

TCH assignment > congestion


MS

BTS

BSC
MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
< ----------------------------------------------ASSIGNMENT REQUEST

No RTCH available on requested cell

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

MC812
------------------------------------------------ >
ASSIGNMENT FAILURE
Cause No Radio Resource Available

5 causes of congestion 5 counters: C612A, B, C, D, E whenever


Queuing is not allowed
Queue is Full
T11 expires
RTCH request is removed from the queue due to a higher priority request to
be queued
No Abis-TCH resource is available

1 1 99

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

C612E: Number of 08.08 ASSIGNMENT REQUEST for TCH normal assignment rejected due to congestion on the
Abis interface. (from B8)
Therefore B6 counter MC612 is replaced by MC812 from B7.
MC812 = C612A+C612B+C612C+C612D+C612E of PM Type 1.
But as C612E was in restriction in B8 (always = 0) then MC812(B7) = MC612(B6)
MC612A, MC612B, MC612C, MC612D also exist in PM Type 110.
A TCH request is attached a Priority Level from 1 (highest priority) to 14 (lowest priority).

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 99

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Assignment Exercise


l

TCH assignment > congestion

Causes of High TCH congestion


Incorrect configuration of trunk circuit data at A interface
Co-frequency and co-BSIC lead to TCH assignment failure in
handover
Board fault or unstable performance causes the high
congestion rate
BTS hardware is not properly installed, which causes
uplink/downlink signal level unbalance and TCH congestion.
The transmitting power of BCCH TRX is too much higher than
that of TCH TRX in the same cell.
Interference causes the congestion
TCH assignment failure due to isolated site and complicated
topography result in a high congestion rate
1 1 100

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The causes of high TCH congestion can be checked using 2 different kinds of items:
l

Either analyze the causes of congestion remotely


n

Traffic statistics

Alarm information

BTS remote maintenance on OMC

Abis interface message analysis

Or check the BTS on-site

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 100

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

Items to check

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Assignment - Radio Failure


l

TCH assignment > radio failure

Radio problem
MS

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

BTS
BSC
MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
< ----------------------------------MC140a
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
< -------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST
-------------------------------------------------------- >
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM
< -------------------------------------------------------- MC703
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH)
-------------------------------------------------------- >
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE

MC140b

< ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Start T3107


(SDCCH)
ASSIGNMENT COMMAND
SABM
----(TCH)------X
T3107 Expiry
MC746B
----------------------------------- >
ASSIGNMENT FAILURE
Radio interface failure

1 1 101

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

MC746B counts the number of TCH access failures due to radio problems.
The MC746B counter is implemented at TRX level from B7.
In case of TCH access failure, the MS will try to revert back to the SDCCH channel. Whether it succeeds in
reverting to the SDCCH or not the call establishment fails. On the other hand, some MSCs may resend the
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST again.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 101

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Assignment - BSS Problem


Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

TCH assignment > BSS problem

BSS problem (Abis, BTS/BSC HW or SW)


MS

BTS
BSC
MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
MC140a < ----------------------------------ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
< -------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST
-------------------------------------------------------- >
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM
< -------------------------------------------------------- MC703
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH)
-------------------------------------------------------- >
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE

< ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------MC140b Start T3107


(SDCCH)
ASSIGNMENT COMMAND
SABM
----(TCH)---- >

No specific counter
MC14B

1 1 102

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The number of TCH Assignment failures due to BSS problem can be correctly deduced and distinguished for
preparation and execution phases from B8 with the 2 counters MC140a and MC140b.
(see the next slide)
B7 counter MC14b has been removed.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 102

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Assignment - Counters


l

TCH assignment counters

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

REQUEST

ATTEMPT

Preparation Failure

SUCCESS

Execution Failure

Radio access
failure
TCH Assignment
Preparation

1 1 103

BSS problem

BSS problem
Request

MC140a

Congestion
Execution

Congestion

MC812

BSS Pb

MC140a-MC140b-MC812

Attempt

MC140b

Radio Access Failure

MC746b

BSS Pb

MC140b-MC718-MC746b

Success

MC718
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 103

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Assignment - Indicators


l

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

TCH Assignment indicators

TCNAFLBN
TCNAFLRN
TCNACGN
TCAHCAN
TCNAUR

1 1 104

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > RTCH > Assignment Phase
l

TCNAUR: TCH assignment unsuccess rate (Global)

TCNACGR: TCH assignment failure rate due to congestion

TCNAFLRR: TCH assignment failure rate due to radio problems

TCNAFLBR: TCH assignment failure rate due to BSS problems

From B7.2 some indicators can be provided on a per TRX basis due to the availability of counters provided per
TRX in Type 110:
l

TCNAEFR = RTCH_assign_efficiency_rate (RNO name) = MC718 / MC703


n

Rate of successful RTCH seizures in relation to all RTCHs allocated, during the TCH assignment
procedure.

TCNAAFLRR = RTCH_assign_allocated_fail_radio_rate (RNO name) = MC746B / MC703


n

Rate of RTCH seizures failed during the normal assignment procedure because of radio problems in
relation to all RTCHs allocated for TCH assignment procedure.

This will help a lot detect bad QOS due to TRX hardware-related problem.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 104

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Assignment - Exercise


l
l
l

TCH assignment failure and BSC


Shared DTM message
With K1205 (file PAIB29.REC)
1) Find and extract a case of TCH congestion (if any).

B10

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

2) Find and extract a case of Assignment Failure due to Radio Problem (if any).
3) In file 10, identify and give the content of the BSC Shared DTM Info
Indication message.
New B10

Time allowed:
15 minutes

1 1 105

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 105

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Phase - Success


l

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

TCH phase:
OC

MS

BTS
BSC
Alerting Connection Phase (OC case) : ringing phase

MSC

< --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ALERTING
< --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CONNECT
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
CONNECT ACK

TC

MS

BTS
BSC
Alerting Connection Phase : TC case

MSC

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
ALERTING
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- >
CONNECT
< --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CONNECT ACK

Transparent messages for BSS, no specific counters


TCH DROP: any problem occurring after TCH assignment (during or after connection)
cannot be discriminated

1 1 106

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The Call setup phase and the Stable call phase are not corresponding between the BSS and the NSS.
For the BSS, a call is established when the MS has successfully accessed a TCH channel on the Air interface.
For the NSS, a call is established when the speech data exchanged is started between end users.
Thus the Call setup phase is shorter and the Call phase is longer in the BSS.
Therefore the Call Setup Success rate is worse in the NSS and the Call Drop rate is worse in the BSS.

MS

BTS
BSC
MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
< ----------------------------------ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
< -------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST
-------------------------------------------------------- >
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM
< -------------------------------------------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH)
-------------------------------------------------------- >
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE

Call Setup

Call Setup

< ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Start T3107


(SDCCH)
ASSIGNMENT COMMAND

TCH

---------------------- >
SABM
-------------------------------------------------------- >
< ---------------------ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- > Stop T3107
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
----------------------------------- >
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE

Call phase

< --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ALERTING
< --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CONNECT
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->
CONNECT ACK

Call phase
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008
3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 106

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Phase - Radio Drop


l

TCH phase > drop radio

Radio problem
MS

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

BTS
BSC
Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time

MSC

Radio problem
-------------------------------------------------------- > MC736
CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION
--------------------------------------- >
Cause radio link failure
CLEAR REQUEST
Cause radio interface failure
(alcatel)

1 1 107

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

MC736 counts the number of TCH channel drops due to radio problems.
The MC736 counter is implemented at TRX level.
Radio problems can be due to coverage, interference and sometimes BSS dysfunction which is not detected as
a system alarm by the O&M Fault Management application.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 107

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Phase - Remote TC Drop


Radio Link Establishment
SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

TCH phase > drop TC

Remote TransCoder problem


MS

BTS
BSC
Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time

MSC

Radio problem
-------------------------------------------------------- > MC739
CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION
--------------------------------------- >
Remote transcoder failure
CLEAR REQUEST
Equipment failure

1 1 108

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

MC739 counts the number of TCH channel drops due to BSS problems reported as "remote TransCoder failure".
The MC739 counter is implemented at TRX level.
It can usually be a bad quality of the transmission on the Abis interface (Micro Wave) or a faulty hardware
component in the TransCoder or even sometimes BSS software/hardware problems.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 108

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Phase - BSS Internal Drop


l

TCH phase > drop BSS internal

Other internal BSS problem (excluding TC)


MS

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

BTS
BSC
Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time

MSC

MC14C
--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
O&M intervention
Radio interface failure

1 1 109

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

MC14C counts the number of TCH channel drops due to BSS problems other than the ones reported by the
TransCoder.
A BSS problem can be a BTS/BSC hardware or software failure.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 109

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Phase - HO Drop


l

TCH phase > drop HO

Handover failure
MS

BTS

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

BSC
Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time

HO FAILURE WITHOUT REVERSION

1 1 110

MSC

MC621
--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
Radio Interface Message Failure (Alcatel)

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

MC621 counts the number of TCH channel drops due to Handover failure.
The MC621 counter is implemented at TRX level.
This event is also counted in the set of Handover counters as an Outgoing handover failure without reversion to
the old channel.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 110

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Phase - Preemption Drop


l

TCH phase > drop preemption

TCH preempted
MS

BTS

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

BSC
Alerting Connection Phase of a call
with priority level pl2 and preemption vulnerability indicator pvi=1
no TCH free

MSC

ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
<--------------------------------------Priority level pl1 > pl2
preemption capability indicator pci=1
MC921C
--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
preemption

1 1 111

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

MC921C counts the number of TCH channel drops due to preemption for another call to be established.
The MC921C counter exists from B7 as linked to the feature Preemption.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 111

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Phase - Counters


l

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: TCH phase counters


TCH connection

NSS abnormal release Normal release

Outgoing HO success

Call drop

TCH Phase
TCH connection

MC718+MC717A+MC717B

Outgoing HO success

MC712

Call drop

Drop
Drop
Drop
Drop
Drop

Normal release
NSS abnormal release

1 1 112

radio
TC
internal BSS
HO
preemption

MC736
MC739
MC14C
MC621
MC921C
unknown
unknown

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 112

Call drop preemption

Call drop radio

Call drop BSS

TC

Call drop HO

BSS internal

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Phase - Call Drop Rate


l

TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: TCH phase indicators

Call drop rate = call drop / RTCH success end

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

BSS2

BSS1

outgoing HO

Incoming internal HO+DR


Incoming external HO+DR
TCH assignment
l

RTCH success end = RTCH assignment success


+ RTCH incoming (HO+DR) success
- RTCH outgoing HO

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

QSCDN

= call drop
= drop radio + drop TC + drop internal BSS + drop HO + drop Preemption
= MC736 + MC739 + MC14C + MC621 + MC921C

TCQHCCN

= RTCH success end


= assignment success + incoming (HO+DR) success - outgoing HO
= MC718 + (MC717A+MC717B) - MC712

As MC718, MC717A, MC717B and MC712 are provided per TRX, the RTCH success end indicator (TCAHCCN) can
be computed per TRX.
But since only MC736 (drop radio), MC739 (drop TC) and MC621 (drop HO) are provided per TRX, the call drop
rate indicator (QSCDR) can be computed per CELL only.
On the other hand, the following call drop indicators can be computed per TRX:
l

call drop radio rate (QSCDRR) = call drop radio / RTCH success end

call drop HO rate (QSCDHR) = call drop HO / RTCH success end

call drop TC rate (QSCDBTR) = call drop TC / RTCH success end

Note:
l

MC718 counts the number of successful TCH assignments.

MC717A counts the number of successful internal DRs.

MC717B counts the number of successful incoming internal and external (HOs+DR) as well as the number of
intra cell HOs successfully performed.
l

MC712 counts the number of successful outgoing internal and external HOs as well as the number of intra cell
HOs successfully performed.
l

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 113

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Phase - RTCH Drop Rate


l

TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: TCH phase indicators

RTCH drop rate = call drop / RTCH success begin

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

BSS2

BSS1

outgoing HO

Incoming internal HO+DR


Intra-cell HO

Incoming external HO+DR


TCH assignment

RTCH success begin = RTCH assignment success


+ RTCH incoming (HO+DR) success
- RTCH intra cell HO success

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

QSCDN

= call drop
= drop radio + drop TC + drop internal BSS + drop HO + drop Preemption
= MC736 + MC739 + MC14C + MC621 + MC921C

TCQHSUBN

= RTCH success begin


= assignment success + incoming (HO+DR) success - intra cell HO
= MC718 + (MC717A+MC717B) - MC662

As MC662 is not provided per TRX, the RTCH success begin indicator (TCAHSUBN) cannot be computed per
TRX but per CELL only.
Therefore all RTCH drop rate indicators can be computed per CELL only.
Note:
MC662 counts the number of successful TCH intracell HOs.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 114

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Phase - TRX TCH Drop Rate


l

TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: TCH phase indicators

TRX TCH drop rate = call drop / RTCH success

BSS2

BSS1

outgoing HO

Incoming internal HO+DR


Intra-cell HO

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

Incoming external HO+DR


TCH assignment

RTCH success = RTCH assignment success


+ RTCH incoming (HO+DR) success

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

QSCDN

= call drop
= drop radio + drop TC + drop internal BSS + drop HO + drop Preemption
= MC736 + MC739 + MC14C + MC621 + MC921C

TCAHSUN

= RTCH success
= assignment success + incoming (HO+DR) success
= MC718 + (MC717A+MC717B)

Whereas some call drop rate indicators are defined per TRX and per CELL, TRX RTCH drop rate indicators are
defined at TRX level only.
As MC718, MC717A, MC717B are provided per TRX, the RTCH success indicator (TCAHSUN) can be computed
per TRX.
But since only MC736 (drop radio), MC739 (drop TC) and MC621 (drop HO) are provided per TRX, a global TRX
RTCH drop rate indicator cannot be provided.
On the other hand, the following TRX RTCH drop indicators can be computed:
l

TRX_RTCH_drop_radio_rate (TCAHCDRTR) = call drop radio / RTCH success

TRX_RTCH_drop_HO_rate (TCHOCDTR) = call drop HO / RTCH success

TRX_RTCH_drop_BSS_remote_TC_rate (TCTRTCDTR) = call drop TC / RTCH success

CAUTION: Intra-cell HO being counted in MC717B and not deduced in the RTCH success computation in
order to provide the TRX RTCH drop indicators at TRX level then these indicators may be abnormally low
(good) if a large amount of intra-cell HOs are performed in the cell (concentric cell, multiband cell).

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 115

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS.


call drop indicators: all of them are available per CELL only and some of them per TRX
l

GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > Call Statistics > Call drop
n

QSCDR: call drop rate (Global): CELL

QSCDRR: call drop rate due to radio: CELL + TRX

QSCDBIR: call drop rate due to BSS internal problem: CELL

QSCDBTR: call drop rate due to TransCoder reported problem: CELL + TRX

QSCDHR: call drop rate due to HO failure: CELL + TRX

QSCDPR: call drop rate due to preemption: CELL

RTCH drop indicators: all of them are available per CELL only
l

GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > RTCH > Established phase


n

QSTCCDR: RTCH drop rate

TCAHCDRR: RTCH drop rate due to radio problem

TCTRICDBR: RTCH drop rate due to BSS internal problem

TCTRTCDR: RTCH drop rate due to TransCoder reported problem

TCHOCDR: RTCH drop rate due to HO failure

TCPPCDR: RTCH drop rate due to preemption

TRX TCH drop indicators: all of them are available per TRX only
l

GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > RTCH > Established phase


n

TCAHCDRTR: TRX TCH drop rate due to radio problem

TCTRTCDTR: TRX TCH drop rate due to TransCoder reported problem

TCHOCDTR: TRX TCH drop rate due to HO failure

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Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS.


call drop indicators: all of them are available per CELL only and some of them per TRX
l

GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > Call Statistics > Call drop
n

QSCDR: call drop rate (Global): CELL

QSCDRR: call drop rate due to radio: CELL + TRX

QSCDBIR: call drop rate due to BSS internal problem: CELL

QSCDBTR: call drop rate due to TransCoder reported problem: CELL + TRX

QSCDHR: call drop rate due to HO failure: CELL + TRX

QSCDPR: call drop rate due to preemption: CELL

RTCH drop indicators: all of them are available per CELL only
l

GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > RTCH > Established phase


n

QSTCCDR: RTCH drop rate

TCAHCDRR: RTCH drop rate due to radio problem

TCTRICDBR: RTCH drop rate due to BSS internal problem

TCTRTCDR: RTCH drop rate due to TransCoder reported problem

TCHOCDR: RTCH drop rate due to HO failure

TCPPCDR: RTCH drop rate due to preemption

TRX TCH drop indicators: all of them are available per TRX only
l

GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > RTCH > Established phase


n

TCAHCDRTR: TRX TCH drop rate due to radio problem

TCTRTCDTR: TRX TCH drop rate due to TransCoder reported problem

TCHOCDTR: TRX TCH drop rate due to HO failure

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 117

3 Typical Call Failures

TCH Phase - Exercise


l

Alerting/Connection: TCH drop

With K1205 (file PAIB29.REC)

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase

1) For a Radio TCH drop, give the message and the cause. Extract a call with this cause.
Can you say if it is occurring during the communication phase?

2) Find a TCH drop due to Handover and extract the call.


3) Find a TCH drop due to TC problem and extract the call:
Can you identify PCM, CIC?
How many TC PBs are there in this Trace?
Any remark about PCM and CIC?

Time allowed:
15 minutes

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3 Typical Call Failures

Summary
l

TYPICAL CALL FAILURES: summary

Call stage

A interface

radio link
establishment

no message

SDCCH phase

ClearRequest

TCHassignment

Cause field

- radio interface failure


- radio interfacefailure
- O&M intervention
AssignmentFailure - no radio resource avalaible
- Radio Interface Failure

Alerting/connection Clear Request


callestablished

Radio Link Establishment


SDCCH Phase
TCH assignment
Alerting/CNX Phase
Related problem
- SDCCH congestion
- radio problem
- Dummy rach
- radio problem
- BSS system HW/SW pb
- recovery/operator
- TCH congestion
- Radio problem

- radio interface failure


- radio problem
- radio interface messagefailure - HO failurew/oreversion
-equipmentfailure
- Transcoder failure
- O&M intervention
-operator action/recovery
- radio interface failure
- BSS system HW/SW pb
- preemption
-preemption

LAPD counter to analyze the cause of call establishment failures


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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

When the BSC is congested on the downlink, some messages are discarded. This may result for example in call
establishment failures, loss of paging messages or delay in handover procedures.
An LapD counter that indicates the time an LapD link is congested is created to analyze the cause of a
degraded quality of service. This counter is implemented in type 7 and thus is only available in a detailed
measurement campaign.
l

Counter: L1.18: TIME_LAPD_CONG

Definition: Time in seconds during which the LapD link is congested in transmission in the BSC.

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4 Description of Global Indicators

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4 Description of Global Indicators

Reminder
l

Global Indicators are


A set of indicators selected by Alcatel-Lucent
Useful to monitor the overall network

What are the user and or system impacts if a Global Indicator (GI) is
bad?

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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4 Description of Global Indicators

SDCCH Congestion Rate


(G)
SDCCH ASSIGN CONG FAIL RATE

INDICATOR
DEFINITION
FORMULA
THRESHOLD
COMMENT

REF NAME

Rate of SDCCH not allocated during radio link establishment procedure due to congestion on the
Air interface
cell(MC04) / SDCCH ASSIGN REQUESTS
> 5%
Check SDCCH Erlang : if not critical, SDCCH availability/allocation problem, or HO access on a
nearby cell side effect or interference on the carrier handling SDCCH (the last 2 can lead to high
rate of phantom RACH )
SDNACGR
%
UNIT

SDCCH CONGESTION rate: may have impact for subscriber


Call setup failure only after 3 subsequent congestions
If not, only some extra delay for call establishment
(less than 1 second) without immediate_assign_reject
Can be longer with reject (but usually short values are used for call request)

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

INDICATOR

SDCCH ASSIGN REQUESTS

DEFINITION
FORMULA

Number of SDCCH seizure requests during radio link establishment procedure


cell (MC148 + MC04)

THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME

This includes requests rejected due to congestion on SDCCH


SDNARQN
UNIT

(G) means that the indicator is Global, i.e. it is important to provide it at Network level.

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Number

4 Description of Global Indicators

SDCCH Congestion Rate


l

SDCCH CONGESTION rate


SDNARQN
SDCGMR

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > SDCCH > Assignment phase
SDNACGR: SDCCH assignment failure rate due to congestion (Global)

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4 Description of Global Indicators

SDCCH Drop Rate

(G)
INDICATOR

SDCCH DROP RATE

DEFINITION
FORMULA
THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME

Rate of dropped SDCCH (SDCCH is established for any transaction OC, TC, LU,etc.)
cell (MC138 + MC07 + MC137) / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
> 4%
Drop radio + Drop HO + Drop BSS
SDCDR
%
UNIT

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS

INDICATOR
DEFINITION
FORMULA
THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME

Total number of SDCCHs successfully seized by mobile during radio link establishment
procedure
cell (MC01 + MC02)

SDNASUN

UNIT

Number

In a dense network, SDCCH drop rate should be lower than 1%. Indeed the probablity to drop a radio link when
the MS is on SDCCH is less than on TCH since the SDCCH phase is shorter (less than 5 seconds) than TCH phase
(several tens of seconds).

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 124

4 Description of Global Indicators

TCH Assign Unsuccess Rate

(G)
TCH ASSIGN UNSUCCESS RATE

INDICATOR
DEFINITION
FORMULA B7.2
THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME

Rate of unsuccessful RTCH seizures for normal assignment purpose (congestion + HO&radio
failures)
(TCH ASSIGN REQUESTS TCH ASSIGN SUCCESS) / TCH ASSIGN REQUESTS
> 3%
TCNAUR

UNIT

TCH ASSIGN UNSUCCESS rate:


congestion
radio problem
BSS problems

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

In a dense network, the TCH assignment unsuccess rate should be lower than 1%.
T C H A S S IG N R E Q U E S T S

IN D IC A T O R
D E F IN IT IO N

N u m b e r o f T C H s e iz u r e r e q u e s ts f o r n o r m a l a s s i g n m e n t p r o c e d u r e .

FO R M U LA B8

c e ll

M C 140a

TH R ESH O LD
COM M ENT

M C 1 4 0 a : n e w c o u n t e r i n t r o d u c e d in B 8 r e l e a s e .
M C 1 4 0 a ( t y p e 1 1 0 ) : N B _ T C H _ N O R _ A S S _ R E Q t h a t i n d ic a te s t h e n u m b e r o f n o r m a l a s s i g n m e n t
r e q u e s ts fo r T C H e s ta b lish m e n t (in H R o r F R u s a g e )

REF NAM E

TCNARQN

INDICATOR
DEFINITION
FORMULA B8
THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME

U N IT

N um ber

TCH ASSIGN SUCCESS


Number of TCH successfully seized by MS for normal assignment procedure.
TRX (MC718)

TCNASUN

UNIT
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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 125

Number

4 Description of Global Indicators

Global Radio Congestion Level


(G)
INDICATOR
DEFINITION
FORMULA
THRESHOLD
COMMENT

REF NAME

GLOBAL RADIO CONGESTION LEVEL


Global radio congestion level : number or rate of cells recurrently congested
COUNT_OF_CELLS (AVERAGE (MAX (TCH ASSIGN FAIL CONG RATE)) > 2%))
According to operator
This indicator reports the global radio congestion rate on the network. We define a specific
indicator counting the number of cells that are in congestion in a recurrent manner.
MAX (TCH ASSIGN FAIL CONG RATE) : is the peak of failures due to congestion observed
during the period (the day normally). See the definition of TCH ASSIGN FAIL CONG RATE in the
Quality of Service chapter)
AVERAGE
:
is an averaging function of the blocking rate over the selected period, that is over BH
of days for a week, or over BH of weeks for a month
COUNT_OF_CELL
:
is a function counting the number of cells for which condition between () is
respected.
The number of cells can be used as indicator, or the rate of cells over the total number of cells in the
network or area.
QSCGR
Number
UNIT

GLOBAL RADIO CONGESTION LEVEL (TCH congestion rate)


Subscriber impact: call setup failure
More a management indicator: % of network which has congestion

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

This counter intends to give a measurement of the TCH congestion of the whole network.
It is implemented on the Alcatel-Lucent tools but other indicators can be defined.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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4 Description of Global Indicators

Call Drop Rate

(G)

CALL DROP RATE

INDICATOR
DEFINITION

Rate of dropped calls (system +radio+ HO +preemption) over the total amount of calls with a
successful end

FORMULA
THRESHOLD
COMMENT

Scell (MC621 + MC14c + MC736 + MC739 + MC921c) / TCH SUCCESS END


> 4%
Drop system + Drop radio + Drop HO + Droppreemption
TCH drops occurring after successful assignment but before speech connection are considered as

call drops even if from the customer point of view it is a call setup failure

MC739, MC736 and MC621 derive from B6 counters C139, C136 and C21. These new counters

REF NAME

are per TRX


MC921c was new in B7.2
QSCDR

UNIT

CALL DROP rate: The most important indicator


Used with call setup success rate to compare PLMN (GSM and other one)
Subscribers impact: call drop!!

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

In a dense network, the Call Drop Rate should be lower than 2%. It should even go down to 1% or less in case
Slow Frequency Hopping is used.
The RTCH drop rate is defined below:
GLOBAL TCH DROP

INDICATOR
DEFINITION
FORMULA
THRESHOLD
COMMENT

REF NAME

Rate of TCHs dropped (system + radio + handover + preemption) over the total amount of
calls established in the cell
cell (MC14c + MC739 + MC736 + MC621+ MC921c) / TCH SUCCESS BEGIN
> 3%
Drop System + Drop radio + Drop HO + Drop preemption
Indicator relevant at cell level mostly.
MC739, MC736 and MC621 derive from B6 counters C139, C136 and C21. These new
counters are per TRX
MC921c is new in B7.2
QSTCCDR
UNIT
%

The TRX TCH drop radio rate is defined below:


TRX TCH DROP RADIO RATE

INDICATOR
DEFINITION
FORMULA
THRESHOLD
COMMENT

Rate of TCHs dropped due to radio problems, per TRX


(MC736) / TCH SUCCESS
> 3%
New from B7
MC736 derives from B6 counters C136. This new counter in B7 is per TRX.
Indicator only per TRX because intracell handovers are taken into account

REF NAME

TCAHCDRTR
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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 127

UNIT

4 Description of Global Indicators

Call Setup Success Rate

INDICATOR
DEFINITION
FORMULA
THRESHOLD
COMMENT

REF NAME

CALL SETUP SUCCESS RATE (BSS view)

(G)

Rate of calls going until TCH successful assignment, that is not interrupted by SDCCH DROP
neither by Assignment failures
(1 ( SDCCH DROP / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS ) ) * (1 TCH ASSIGN UNSUCCESS RATE)

> 95%
SDCCH assignment failures are not considered in CSSR as :
ghost (spurious) RACH cannot be discriminated from a real access failure
effect of re-attempts performed autonomously by the MS cannot be quantified
QSCSSR
%
UNIT

CALL SETUP SUCCESS rate: the second most important indicator


Used to compare PLMN
Subscriber: call not established at the first attempt

Beware: call setup failures due to a lack of coverage are not taken into
account in this indicator!!
No way to quantify them (as there is no initial access)

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Ghost Racks which correspond to a valid establishment cause are not identified by the BSS. Therefore they can
lead to a high SDCCH assignment failure rate if they are too numerous.
As the end user is not impacted by this phenomenon if no SDCCH congestion is induced, the SDCCH assignment
phase is not considered in the computation of the Call Setup Success rate provided by Alcatel-Lucent tools.
In a dense network, the Call Setup Success Rate should be greater than 98%.
The SDCCH congestion rate should also be considered to have a complete picture of Call Setup efficiency.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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4 Description of Global Indicators

Call Success Rate

(G)
INDICATOR
DEFINITION
FORMULA
THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME

l
l

CALL SUCCESS RATE (BSS view)


Rate of calls going until normal release , that is not interrupted by SDCCH DROP, neither by
Assignment Failures nor by CALL DROP
(CALL SETUP SUCCESS RATE) * (1 CALL DROP RATE)
< 92%
QSCCR

UNIT

CALL SUCCESS rate:


1 call success =
1 call successfully established
Without any call drop

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

In a dense network, the Call Setup Success Rate should be greater than 97%.

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4 Description of Global Indicators

Call (Setup) Success Rate


l
l

CALL SETUP SUCCESS rate


CALL SUCCESS rate
TCAHSUN
QSCCR
QSCSSR

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS > Call statistics > Call success
l

QSCSSR: Call setup success rate (Global)

QSCCR: Call success rate (Global)

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4 Description of Global Indicators

Handover Cause Distribution


(G)
INDICATOR
DEFINITION
FORMULA B7.2

HO CAUSE DISTRIBUTION
Distribution of Handover attempts by cause X : UL/DL Qual, UL/DL Lev, UL/DL Interference,
Distance, Better Cell, Interband, Micro cells HO, Concentric cell, Traffic, AMR, TFO causes.
cell (MC67w or MC785x or MC586y or MC10zz or MC447 or MC461)
cell (MC67all + MC785all + MC586all + MC10all + MC447 + MC461)
MC67all = MC671+MC672+MC673+MC674+MC675+MC676+MC677+MC678+MC679
+MC670
MC785all = MC785a + MC785d + MC785e + MC785f (microcell)
MC586all = MC586a + MC586b + MC586c (concentric)
MC10all = MC1040 + MC1044 + MC1050

THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME

Quality DL > 10%, Qual UL > 10%, Level UL > 20%, Level DL > 20%
Interf UL > 5%, Interf DL > 5%, Better Cell < 30%
HCSTBPBR, HCCCELVDR, HCCCELVUR, HCCCBCPR,
HCSTEDIR, HCSTEIFDR, HCSTELVDR, HCSTEQLDR,
HCSTBDRR, HCMBBCPR, HCMCEBSR, HCMCELVDR,
HCMCBCPR, HCMCELVUR, HCSTEMIR, HCSTEIFUR,
HCSTELVUR, HCSTEQLUR, HCSTAMR, HCSTBTFR

UNIT

Indicator aiming at measuring the efficiency of planning /optimization

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4 Description of Global Indicators

Handover Standard Cause Distribution


(G)
INDICATOR

DISTRIBUTION HO CAUSE STANDARD

DEFINITION

Distribution of Handover attempts by standard cause : Power Budget, quality too low, level too low,
high interference and MS-BTS distance too long.

FORMULA B7.2

cell ( (MC67x) / GLOBAL HO CAUSE STANDARD)


MC67x = MC670 or MC672 or MC671 or MC673 or MC676 or MC677 or MC678 or MC674 or
(MC670+MC672) or (MC671+MC673) or (MC676+M677)

THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME

l
l

HCSTEIFDSR, HCSTEIFUSR, HCSTEIFSR, HCSTELVDSR,


HCSTELVUSR, HCSTELVSR, HCSTEQLDSR,
HCSTEQLUSR, HCSTEQLSR, HCSTBPBSR, HCSTEDISR

UNIT

Indicator aiming at measuring the efficiency of planning / optimization


Interesting for comparing HO distribution after concentric or micro cell
implementation

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The Global HO cause standard indicator is defined as below:


where:
l

MC670: Number of handover attempts cause 2: "uplink quality too low"

MC672: Number of handover attempts cause 4: downlink quality too low"

MC671: Number of handover attempts cause 3: "uplink level too low"

MC673: Number of handover attempts cause 5: "downlink level too low"

MC676: Number of handover attempts cause 15: "too high uplink interference level"

MC677: Number of handover attempts cause 16: "too high downlink interference level"

MC678: Number of handover attempts cause 12: "too low power budget"

MC674: Number of handover attempts cause 6: "MS-BTS distance too long"

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4 Description of Global Indicators

Handover Cause Distribution


l

HANDOVER CAUSE rates


HCSTEIFR
HCSTEQLR
HCSTELVR
HCSTEDMR
HCSTBPBR
HCMCR
HCCC
TMHOSR

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Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Handover statistics INDICATORS > Handover causes
HCXXYYYYR: Rate of specific HO cause xxyyyy versus all HO causes (Global)
l

where XX = ST (standard) or MC (micro cell) or CC (concentric cell) or MB (multi band)

and YYYY is specific to the cause

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4 Description of Global Indicators

Outgoing Handover Success Rate


l

Global success rate of Outgoing HO


(G)

INDICATOR

OUTGOING HO SUCCESS RATE

DEFINITION
FORMULA B7.2

Rate of successful outgoing external and internal intercell SDCCH and TCH handovers
cell (MC646 + MC656) / cell (MC645a + MC655a)

THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME

< 90%
This indicator includes preparation and execution.
HOORSUR

UNIT

Success rate of execution of Outgoing HO


(G)

INDICATOR
DEFINITION
FORMULA
THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME

EFFICIENCY OF OUTGOING HANDOVER EXECUTION


Rate of successful outgoing external and internal
intercell SDCCH and TCHhandovers
cell (MC646 + MC656) /cell (MC650 + MC660)
< 90%
This indicator takes into account HO execution only (not ho preparation).
HOOREFR
UNIT

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Global Outgoing HO success rate: represents the global efficiency of the outgoing handovers performed from
one cell to any of its neighboring cells (same BSS or not).
Efficiency of Outgoing HO execution: represents the efficiency of the channel change procedure during
outgoing handovers performed from one cell to any of its neighboring cells (same BSS or not). It does not take
into account the HO failures that can occur during the preparation phase when the new channel is being
selected and activated.
From B7 MC645A replaces MC645 of B6.

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4 Description of Global Indicators

Incoming Handover Success Rate


l

Global success rate of Incoming HO


(G)

INDICATOR
DEFINITION
FORMULA
THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME

INCOMING HANDOVER SUCCESS RATE


Rate of successful incoming external and internal
intercell SDCCH and TCHhandovers.
cell(MC642 + MC652) /cell(MC820 + MC830)
< 90%
HOIRSUR

UNIT

Success rate of execution of Incoming HO


(G)

INDICATOR

EFFICIENCY OF INCOMING HANDOVERS

DEFINITION
FORMULA

Rate of successful incoming external and internalintercell SDCCH and TCH HOs
cell (MC642 + MC652) /cell(MC821 + MC831)

THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME

< 90%
Excluding congestion failures and BSS preparation failures from requests.
HOIREFR
UNIT

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Global Incoming HO success rate: represents the global efficiency of the incoming handovers performed to one
cell from any of its neighboring cells (same BSS or not).
Efficiency of Incoming HO execution: represents the efficiency of the channel change procedure during
incoming handovers performed to one cell from any of its neighboring cells (same BSS or not). It does not take
into account the HO failures that can occur during the preparation phase when the new channel is being
selected and activated.

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4 Description of Global Indicators

Handover Failure Main Causes


l Main Causes of handover failure

Bad handover parameters settings (check with the RFT


Training)
Hardware fault (TRX board fault)
Congestion
Interference
Coverage
Clock or timer mismatching

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Coverage
l

Coverage hole

Coverage hole may exist when coverage areas of two BTSs do not overlap or there are some big obstacles in the
coverage area, this lead to no signal or very poor signal level.
l

Over shooting

In the actual network, the high BTS antenna can propagate far away along a road and serve in area which its
not suppose to serve in; which result in the "isolate Island" problem.
Interference
Interference usually occurs when more than one idle channel appear in the highest interference band. If the
interference is internal, it will usually increase with the growth of traffic. If the interference is external, it is
usually not related to traffic, but it may increase with the traffic growth if the interference is from the close
analog network.
There is also the possibility to work with the RMS (per TRX).
If there are high Rx_lev but bad quality, it indicates that co-channel and/or adjacent-channel interference
exist.
Congestion: see previous case study
Timer mismatching: check with the NSS team whether BSS-NSS parameters are well set.

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4 Description of Global Indicators

Call Quality Factor Absolute

CELL QUALITY FACTOR ABSOLUTE

DEFINITION

Indicator summarizing the cell behavior and allowing the operator to sort out cell for
investigation.This indicator is based on failure events. For each part of the indicator,
twothresholds are used: Topt and TQoS. TQoS is the QoS warning threshold (e.g. above or
belowthe threshold, a warning is generated on the cell. Topt + TQoS is the optimal value
that should be acheived. Each part as a weighting factor (WF) according to the
impact on the subscribers point of view.

FORMULA

THRESHOLD

COMMENT
REF NAME

l
l

(G)

INDICATOR

((1 SDCCH CONGESTION rate) -QoS


T)/ Topt * WF
+ (CALL SETUP SUCCESS rate - QoS
T )/ Topt *WF
+ ((1 CALL DROP rate -QoS
T )/ Topt * WF
+ (OUTGOING HO SUCCESS rate QoS
- T)/ Topt * WF
+ ((1 HO QUALITY rate -QoS
T )/ Topt * WF
SDCCH CONGESTION rate :QoS
T = 0.97, T
= 0.03, WF = 0.1
opt
CALL SETUP SUCCESS rate : TQoS= 0.9, Topt= 0.09, WF = 0.2
CALL DROP rate : TQoS= 0.96, T
= 0.04, WF = 0.3
opt
OUTGOING HO SUCCESS rate :QoS
T = 0.85, T
= 0.12, WF = 0.15
opt
HO QUALITY rate : QToS= 0.85, oTpt= 0.1, WF = 0.25
QSCQAR

UNIT

The highest, the best is the cell


But the traffic handled is not taken into account

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

This counter intends to compute for every cell of the network a global indicator taking into account the major
causes of bad Quality of Service.
Each cause is weighted according to the impact on the end user.

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4 Description of Global Indicators

Call Quality Factor Relative

(G)
INDICATOR
DEFINITION

CELL QUALITY FACTOR RELATIVE


This indicator is the Cell Quality Factor Absolute weighted by the cell traffic.Investigation should
be done in priority on the cell having a high rate of failures with high traffic (the traffic is the rate of
traffic handled by the cell over the total network traffic traffic is TCH seizure attempts)

FORMULA
THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME
l
l

CQFA * ((MC15a + MC15b + MC703)cell / (MC15a + MC15b + MC703)network)

N/A
QSCQRR

UNIT

For optimization
Try to improve cells with the worst CQFR

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Normalizing the previous Cell Quality Factor Absolute by the traffic of the cell will allow to compare the QoS of
the cell between each other and raise the list of top worst cells candidate for analysis.
From B7, MC703 replaces MC16 of B6.

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4 Description of Global Indicators

Network TCH Availability

(G)
INDICATOR

NETWORK (TCH) AVAILABILITY

DEFINITION
FORMULA

Rate of TCHs able to carry traffic (upon the total number of traffic channels)
(cell (MC250) / #Available TCH)

THRESHOLD
COMMENT
REF NAME

< 95%
#Available TCH : according to channel configuration
TCAVAR

UNIT

Management indicator, maintenance oriented, assessing


Quantity of stability problems
Reaction time to problems

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4 Description of Global Indicators

Exercise

Indicator
1- SDCCH congestion
2- Call drop
3- Call success
4- Efficiency of outgoing HO
5- Network TCH availability
6- TCH assignment failure
7- Call drop
8- SDCCH drop
9- HO cause distribution
(ratio of better cell)
10- Call success
11- SDCCH drop

value
10%
5%
95%
91%
94%
2,4 %
2,3 %
2%
45%

OK ?
NOK

Impact
difficulties to establish call

88%
1%

Time allowed:
15 minutes
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5 Traps and Restrictions of Global


Indicators

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5 Traps and Restrictions of Global Indicators

Objective
l

Beware of traps and restrictions about some global indicators

So as to be able to provide a reliable interpretation

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5 Traps and Restrictions of Global Indicators

Call Set-Up Success Rate / Call Drop Rate


l

CALL SETUP SUCCESS


The radio link establishment failure is not taken into account, because:
most of failures during RLE are due to ghost RACH
the MS is attempting MAX_RETRANS+1 times before giving up
difficult to assess subscriber's impact, anyhow very low

CALL DROP
For BSS, the last stage is considered as established, although it is not the
cause from a user point of view
If a TCH drop occurs during this phase
for the user, it is a setup failure
for the OMC-R indicators, counted as a call drop

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5 Traps and Restrictions of Global Indicators

Call Duration
l

IMPACT OF CALL DURATION


The longest a call is, the highest the risk to have a drop is
If statistics are done on abnormally long or short calls, the result can be less
accurate
Typical case: drive test
Typical call duration: 80/90 seconds in most European countries

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5 Traps and Restrictions of Global Indicators

Mobility
l

IMPACT OF MOBILITY
Most of drop problems are due to mobility
Usually 2/3 of calls are static (no HO will be done)
For example, if 40 drops are observed for 1000 calls

40/1000 = 4% of global call drop


but most of call drops are generated by "moving calls"
40/(1000*1/3) = 40/333 = 12 % of call drop rate for moving call
0 % for static call

Typical trap when comparing drive tests results with OMC-R statistics

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5 Traps and Restrictions of Global Indicators

Exercise

Case
global call drop: 2%
In 1 BSS, some transcoders
are faulty: as soon as TCH
are established on these
TC, they are lost
In 1 network, drive tests
are showing a general call
drop of 7 %.
OMC-R call drop indicator is
giving 2,1 %
In 1 network, global call
setup success is 92 %

conclusion
for 1 call of 20 mns,
risk of drop is 2 %
The call setup success
rate indicator will be
increased due to this
problem

OK ?
N OK

OMC-R indicator is
erroneous (drive test is
the reality)

For moving call, call


setup success will be
about 76 %
In a pedestrian zone, 80 % For taxi, call done in
of call are static measured Taxi in this zone will be
call drop is 1,7 %
dropped at 5,1 %

Time allowed:
15 minutes
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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 146

why
call duration is more
than av e rage

5 Traps and Restrictions of Global Indicators

Steps to Take for Optimization

Flow Chart of Network Optimization

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The Mobile Network is evaluated through Network Statistic (NPO), Drive Test (Agilent, TEMS, etc.) and
Trouble Ticket (Alarms, etc.).
Then the KPI Targets is set based on the consideration from all the data collected.
The Action Plan is proposed based on the studies of the network.
The Action Plan is based on Frequency, Cell Parameters/Configuration and Hardware Changes.
After the Action plan is done, the network statistic and Drive Test is performed again to determine the KPI
achieves the required Target. For the case where the KPI target is not achieved as requirements, the
optimization work is repeated again until the achievement of KPI targets.
An advanced improvement plan may be achieved thanks to the help of Alcatel-Lucent support.

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6 Global Indicators Interpretation

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6 Global Indicators Interpretation

Exercise 1
l

Is this network OK?


Name
Name

Time allowed:
5 minutes

1 1 149

value
value

SDCCH
SDCCHcongestion
congestion
SDCCH
SDCCHdrop
drop

1%
1%
3%
3%

TCH
TCHassignment
assignmentfailure
failurerate
rate
Call
drop
Call drop

2%
2%
1%
1%

Call
Callsetup
setupsuccess
successrate
rate
Call
Callsuccess
successrate
rate

96%
96%
94%
94%

Efficiency
Efficiencyof
ofoutgoing
outgoingHO
HO
Efficiency
Efficiencyof
ofincoming
incomingHO
HO

92%
92%
93%
93%

HO
HOcause
causedistribution
distributionbetter/level/quality
better/level/quality 70/20/10
70/20/10
Network
TCH
availability
98%
Network TCH availability
98%

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6 Global Indicators Interpretation

Exercise 2
l

Can one say that:


all indicators are OK?
the coverage of the network is 95%?
the call success of all the cells is 95% (minimum)?
Name
Name

Time allowed:
5 minutes

value
value

SDCCH
SDCCHcongestion
congestion
SDCCH
SDCCHdrop
drop

5%
5%
2%
2%

TCH
TCHassignment
assignmentfailure
failurerate
rate
Call
Calldrop
drop

1%
1%
1%
1%

Call
Callsetup
setupsuccess
successrate
rate
Call
success
rate
Call success rate

97%
97%
95%
95%

Efficiency
Efficiencyof
ofoutgoing
outgoingHO
HO
Efficiency
Efficiencyof
ofincoming
incomingHO
HO

92%
92%
92%
92%

HO
HOcause
causedistribution
distributionbetter/level/quality
better/level/quality 75/15/10
75/15/10
Network
98%
NetworkTCH
TCHavailability
availability
98%
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6 Global Indicators Interpretation

Exercise 2
l

Results of field tests on a network


Is the network better if QSCDR = 2%?
Name
Name

value
value

SDCCH
SDCCHcongestion
congestion
SDCCH
SDCCHdrop
drop
TCH
TCHassignment
assignmentfailure
failurerate
rate
Call
drop
Call drop
Call
Callsetup
setupsuccess
successrate
rate
Call
Callsuccess
successrate
rate
Time allowed:
5 minutes

Efficiency
Efficiencyof
ofoutgoing
outgoingHO
HO
Efficiency
Efficiencyof
ofincoming
incomingHO
HO
HO
HOcause
causedistribution
distributionbetter/level/quality
better/level/quality
Network
TCH
availability
Network TCH availability

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 151

4.6%
4.6%
92%
92%

Self-assessment on the Objectives


l

Please be reminded to fill in the form


Self-Assessment on the Objectives
for this module
The form can be found in the first part
of this course documentation

1 1 152

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 152

End of Module
Global Indicators

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 153

11

Do not delete this graphic elements in here:

Section 1
GSM QoS Monitoring
Module 3
Detailed Indicators

3JK11045AAAAWBZZA Issue 01

EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem


Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10
3FL10491ADAAZZZZA Issue 01

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Blank Page

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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

YYYY-MM-DD

Last name, first name

First edition

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 155

Module Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
Explain what is a detailed indicator and what are the different classifications
of the detailed indicators provided by the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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Module Objectives [cont.]

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Table of Contents
Switch to notes view!

Page

1 Indicator Reference Name


2 Indicators Classification

7
9

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Table of Contents [cont.]


Switch to notes view!

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1 Indicator Reference Name

1 1 160

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1 Indicator Reference Name

Description
l

Each QOS indicator has a unique REFERENCE NAME of 10 characters.

Family

Unit

Procedure

Type
Prefix

1 1 161

Joker
Sub-type

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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mandatory

optional

2 Indicators Classification

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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2 Indicators Classification

Main Categories
l

Classification
GSM
indicators
Traffic load

Global QoS

Handover
statistics

SDCCH

SDCCH

HO causes

Directed retry

TCH

RTCH

Outgoing HO

Concentric cells

Incoming HO

Multilayer/Multiband
Network

IntracellHO

Multiband

SCCP

Control Channels

Call statistics

Resource
availability

SDCCH /TCH
HO repartition
Couple of cells
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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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Densification
techniques

2 Indicators Classification

SDCCH Traffic
l
l

Traffic Load and Traffic Model


SDCCH traffic

SDCCH Traffic

Traffic
Model
Global
Requests
Normal
Assignment

MS
Penetration Rate

Resource
Occupancy

Traffic
Dual Band

SDCCH
Erlang

Handover
Global
Traffic

Normal
Assignment
Traffic
MT

Handover

Traffic
MO

Loc. Update

LU Follow on

IMSI Detach

SMS

Sup. Service

Call
Re-Estab

Call
Estab

Other

1 1 164

SDCCH Mean
Holding Time

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The Traffic model section includes indicators for:


l

number of SDCCH connection requests and successes (Immediate Assignment, HO).

distribution of SDCCH connection success (MO and MT connections versus all MO+MT connections, type of
MO connections versus all MO connection types).
l

The MS penetration rate section includes the indicator for percentage of multiband MS SDCCH access
(except LU) versus all MS SDCCH accesses.
The Resource occupancy section includes indicators for:
l

SDCCH traffic in Erlang.

average duration in seconds of SDCCH channel usage.

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2 Indicators Classification

TCH Traffic
l
l

Traffic Load and Traffic Model


RTCH Traffic
TCH traffic

Speech Version
&
Channel Type

Resource
Occupancy

Traffic Model

REQUESTS

REQUESTS
Assign / HO / DR

FR, DR, DR/EFR, AMR, DATA

SUCCESS
Assign/ HO/ DR

ALLOCATIONS
FR, HR, EFR, AMR, DATA
SUCCESS
AMR / TFO

HO PER CALL

1 1 165

TCH
Erlang
Full Rate
Erlang

Blocking Peak

Half Rate
Erlang

Full Rate
Allocated

TCH
Multiband
Occupancy

Half Rate
Allocated

Full Rate
Mean TCH
Time

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The Speech Version and Channel Type section includes indicators for:
l

distribution of TCH allocation requests (FR/DR/DR+EFR/AMR/DATA).

distribution of TCH allocation successes (FR/DR/DR+EFR/AMR/DATA).

rate of TCH AMR allocation successes.

rate of TFO calls versus all speech calls.

The Traffic model section includes indicators for:


l

number of TCH connection requests and successes (Normal Assignment, HO, DR).

rate of TCH allocation successes for HO+DR versus all TCH allocations (NA+HO+DR).

number of HOs per call.

The Resource occupancy section includes indicators for:


l

RTCH traffic in Erlang (FR+HR, FR, HR, multiband).

average duration in seconds of RTCH channel usage (FR+HR, FR, HR).

number of TCH FR allocations and number of TCH HR allocations.

rate of TCH HR allocations versus all TCH allocations (FR+HR).

TCH peak of blocking (TCH congestion time).

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 165

Half Rate
Mean TCH
Time
Ratio of
HR Traffic

2 Indicators Classification

QoS SDCCH
l
l

GLOBAL Quality of Service


SDCCH

SDCCH

Assignment Phase
/
Handover

Established
Phase

Congestion
Drop Rate
Unsuccess
Drop Radio

Radio
Failure

BSS Failure
Access Reject

Dynamic Allocation

1 1 166

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 166

Drop HO

Drop BSS

2 Indicators Classification

QoS RTCH
l
l

GLOBAL Quality of service


RTCH
Assignment Phase
/
Handover
Congestion

Global Radio
Congestion Level
Unsuccess

Radio
Failure

1 1 167

BSS
Failure

RTCH

Preemption
Phase

Queuing
Phase

Queue Length

Assign
Queued

Assign
Queuing Fail

PVI =1

Requests

Success

Drop rate
Drop Radio
Drop HO

Queue Full
Assign
Queued
& Reject

PCI =1

Established
Phase

Queued
Success

Allocation
with / without
Preemption

Timeout

Normal
Assign.

Higher
Priority

Directed
Retry
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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 167

Success
Failure

Drop BSS
Preemption

2 Indicators Classification

QoS Call Statistics


l
l

GLOBAL Quality of service


Call statistics
Call Statistics

Call Drop

Call Success

Call Setup
Success Rate

Call Drop Rate

Call Drop
End User Rate

Call
Success Rate
Drop Radio

Drop HO

Drop BSS

Preemption

Cell Quality
Factor Absolute
Cell Quality
Factor Relative

Transcoder

Failure

BSS Internal Failure

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 168

2 Indicators Classification

Handover Causes
l
l

Handover STATISTICS
Handover causes
Handover causes

HO causes per Adjacency

HO causes

All
HO
cause
distribution

Outgoing HO

Incoming HO

HO cause
category
distribution

HO cause
category
distribution

HO standard
cause
distribution

Fast traffic HO taken into account type of counter for dual band HO
1 1 169

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 169

2 Indicators Classification

Outgoing Handovers
l
l

Handover STATISTICS
Outgoing handovers

Outgoing HO

Intra-BSC

External

Intra-BSC & External

Preparation Success Rate

Preparation Success Rate

Success Rate

Efficiency

Efficiency

Efficiency

Call Drop Rate

Call Drop Rate

Call Drop Rate

Failure With Reversion

Failure With Reversion

LAPD counter to analyze the cause of delay in HO procedures


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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 170

2 Indicators Classification

Incoming Handovers
l
l

Handover STATISTICS
Incoming handovers

Incoming HO

Intra-BSC

External

Intra-BSC & External

Efficiency

Efficiency

Efficiency

Congestion

Congestion

Failure Radio

Failure No CIC

Failure BSS

Failure Radio

Incoming external HO 3G - > 2G

Failure BSS

Incoming external HO 2G - > 2G only


1 1 171

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 171

2 Indicators Classification

Incoming Handovers [cont.]


l

More counters for UMTS to GSM handover monitoring. The new counters
were introduced in the MC922 family:
MC922e (type110): NB_INC_EXT_TCH_3G_2G_HO_EMERGENCY_REQ that
indicates the number 3G to 2G external inter-cell TCH (in HR or FR) handover
requests, with emergency cause.
MC922f (type 110): NB_INC_EXT_TCH_3G_2G_HO_REQ that indicates the
number of 3G to 2G external inter-cell TCH (in HR or FR) handover requests.
This counter differs from MC922d by the fact it just counts TCH handovers.
MC922g (type 110): NB_INC_EXT_TCH_3G_2G_HO_PREP_FAIL_3GCONG that
indicates the number of 3G to 2G handover failures in preparation phase due
to 3G high load in target cell.
MC922h (type 110): TIME_3G_HOReject_HL that indicates the cumulative
time (in seconds) during which the cell is in 3G high load state.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 172

2 Indicators Classification

Intracell Handovers
l
l

Handover STATISTICS
Intracell handovers

Intracell HO

Efficiency

Congestion

New B9 counters: HO Cause 30


NB_TCH_HO_REQ_30_ReturnCSZone
=MC480 (Type 110)
NB_TCH_HO_ATPT_30_ReturnCSZone
=MC481 (Type 110)

Call Drop Rate


CDR Radio

CDR BSS

Failure BSS

Failure With Reversion

1 1 173

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 173

2 Indicators Classification

Handover Statistics per Couple of Cells


l
l

Handover STATISTICS
Handover statistics per couple of cell

HO statistics
per Couple of Cell

Preparation Success Rate

Efficiency

Success Rate

HO Success Distribution

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 174

Self-assessment on the Objectives


l

Please be reminded to fill in the form


Self-Assessment on the Objectives
for this module
The form can be found in the first part
of this course documentation

1 1 175

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 175

End of Module
Detailed Indicators

1 1 176

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 176

11

Do not delete this graphic elements in here:

Section 1
GSM QoS Monitoring
Module 4
Handover Indicators

3JK11046AAAAWBZZA Issue 01

EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem


Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10
3FL10491ADAAZZZZA Issue 01

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 177

Blank Page

1 1 178

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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

YYYY-MM-DD

Last name, first name

First edition

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 178

Module Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
Explain what are the main Handover counters and indicators provided by the
Alcatel-Lucent BSS in order to monitor the quality of handovers

1 1 179

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 179

Module Objectives [cont.]

1 1 180

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 180

Table of Contents
Page

Switch to notes view!


1 Intra-Cell Handover Indicators per Cell
2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell
3 External Handover Indicators per Cell
4 Handover Indicators per Couple of Cells

1 1 181

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 181

7
17
31
46

Table of Contents [cont.]


Switch to notes view!

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 182

1 Intra-Cell Handover Indicators per Cell

1 1 183

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 183

1 Intra-Cell Handover Indicators per Cell

Handover Types
l

HO FAIL. CASES > HO Reminder


Intra-Cell: Handover between two
TCHs of the same cell
Internal
between two cells of the same BSC
also called intra BSC
and not using the forced external
handover mode

TCH/(SDCCH) Handover
Synchronous

tunable at OMC-R level

Asynchronous

External
between two cells of different BSCs
also called inter BSC
or between two cells of the same BSC
when using the forced external
handover mode

between 2 cells
sharing the same clocks
collocated
usually 2 sectors of the same BTS

not synchronous for any reason


no dedicated monitoring for
synchronous/asynchronous HO

Incoming
as considering the target cell

Outgoing
as considering the serving cell

1 1 184

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 184

B10

1 Intra-Cell Handover Indicators per Cell

Intracell HO - Success
l

HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO > successful case


MS

BTS
MEAS REPORT
----------------------------->

ASSIGNMENT CMD
<----------------------------SABM
----------------------------->
UA
<----------------------------ASSIGNMENT CMP
----------------------------->

1 1 185

BSC
MEASUREMENT RESULT
-------------------------------------------------------------->
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST (old channel)
<-------------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM (old channel)
-------------------------------------------------------------->
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (new channel)
<-------------------------------------------------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK (new channel)
-------------------------------------------------------------->
ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel)
<--------------------------------------------------------------

MFS

MSC

MC870

MC871
start T3107

ESTABLISH INDICATION (new channel)


-------------------------------------------------------------->
ASSIGNMENT COMPLET(new channel)
-------------------------------------------------------------->

stop T3107
MC662
HANDOVER
PERFORMED
------------------------------------New B10
BSC Shared DTM Information Indication>
------------------>
Case of a DTM capable MS in
RF CHANNEL RELEASE (old channel)
dedicated mode
<-------------------------------------------------------------RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK (old channel)
-------------------------------------------------------------->
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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Both SDCCH and TCH are counted together.


The T3107 timer is also used as the guard timer of the channel change procedure during an intra cell handover.
The default value for T3107 is 14 seconds.
The BSC will send BSC Shared DTM INFO Indication to inform the MFS the successful end of the procedure if
the conditions below are fulfilled:
l

EN_DTM = enabled

The MS is DTM capable

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 185

B10

1 Intra-Cell Handover Indicators per Cell

Intracell HO Success Case of a MS in DTM Mode

HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO > successful case


MS

BTS
MEAS REPORT
----------------------------->

ASSIGNMENT CMD
<----------------------------SABM
----------------------------->
UA
<----------------------------ASSIGNMENT CMP
----------------------------->

1 1 186

BSC
MEASUREMENT RESULT
-------------------------------------------------------------->
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST (old channel)
<-------------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM (old channel)
-------------------------------------------------------------->
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (new channel)
<-------------------------------------------------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK (new channel)
-------------------------------------------------------------->
ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel)
<--------------------------------------------------------------

MFS

MSC

MC870

MC871
start T3107

ESTABLISH INDICATION (new channel)


-------------------------------------------------------------->
ASSIGNMENT COMPLET(new channel)
-------------------------------------------------------------->

stop T3107
MC662
HANDOVER
PERFORMED
------------------------------------->
BSC Shared DTM Information Indication
------------------>
RF CHANNEL RELEASE (old channel)
<-------------------------------------------------------------RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK (old channel)
-------------------------------------------------------------->
MFS Shared DTM Information Indication
<----------------------Case of a DTM capable MS
MFS Shared DTM Information Indication ACK
in DTM mode
------------------>
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

New B10

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Both SDCCH and TCH are counted together.


The T3107 timer is also used as the guard timer of the channel change procedure during an intra cell handover.
The dDefault value for T3107 is 14 seconds.
The BSC will send BSC Shared DTM INFO Indication to inform the MFS the successful end of the procedure if
the conditions below are fulfilled:
l

EN_DTM = enabled

The MS is DTM capable

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 186

1 Intra-Cell Handover Indicators per Cell

Intracell HO - Failures

HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO Failures


Handover Preparation:
congestion
BSS problem (no specific counter)

Handover Execution:
reversion to old channel
drop radio
BSS problem (no specific counter)

1 1 187

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 187

1 Intra-Cell Handover Indicators per Cell

Intracell HO - Congestion

HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO Failure: Congestion

MS

Serving BTS

Serving BSC

MC561TCH+MC101SDCCH
MEAS REPORT
----------------------------->

MSC

MEASUREMENT RESULT
--------------------------------------------------------------> MC870
No free TCH
MC561

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

From B7, MC561 replaces MC61of B6.


As the counting of the Abis-TCH congestion case was in restriction in B8: MC61(B6) = MC561(B7)

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 188

1 Intra-Cell Handover Indicators per Cell

Intracell HO - Radio Failure ROC

HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO failure: Reversion Old Channel


MS

Serving
BTS

Serving
BSC
MC871

MSC

ASSIGNMENT CMD
ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel)
<----------------------------- <----------------------------------------------------------------- start T3107 (= T10)
start T200
SABM (new channel)
----------------------------->
ESTABLISH INDICATION (new channel)
----------------------------------------------------------------->
UA (new channel)
X- - - - - -------------------SABM (new channel)
----------------------------->
UA (new channel)
X- - - - - -------------------SABM (old channel)
----------------------------->
ESTABLISH INDICATION (old channel)
UA (old channel)
----------------------------------------------------------------->
<----------------------------ASSIGNMENT FAIL
ASSIGNMENT FAILURE
-----------------------------> -----------------------------------------------------------------> stop T3107
MC667
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST (new channel)
<----------------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM (new channel)
----------------------------------------------------------------->
RF CHANNEL RELEASE (new channel)
<----------------------------------------------------------------RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK (new channel)
----------------------------------------------------------------->

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 189

1 Intra-Cell Handover Indicators per Cell

Intracell HO - Radio Failure Drop


l

HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO failure: Radio drop


Serving

MS

Serving
BSC
MC871

BTS
MC663=C63TCH
+C103SDCCH

ASSIGNMENT CMD
<-----------------------------

ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel)


<----------------------------------------------------------------- start T3107 (= T10)

Release of old and new channels

1 1 190

MSC

MC663
T3107 expiry

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 190

1 Intra-Cell Handover Indicators per Cell

Intracell HO - BSS Problem


l

HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO failure: BSS drop


no specific counter

MS

Serving
BTS

ASSIGNMENT CMD
<-----------------------------

Serving
BSC
MC871

MSC

ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel)


<----------------------------------------------------------------- start T3107 (= T10)

--------------------------------------- >
CLEAR REQUEST
O&M intervention
Radio interface failure

1 1 191

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Intra cell HO failures due to BSS problems are deduced from other counters.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 191

1 Intra-Cell Handover Indicators per Cell

Intracell HO - Counters
l

HO FAIL. CASES > intracell HO counters


REQUEST

ATTEMPT

SUCCESS

Preparation Failure

CONGESTION

Execution Failure

INTRACELL Handover
Preparation

Execution

BSS PB

Request

MC870

Congestion
BSS Pb

MC561+MC101
MC870-MC871-(MC561+MC101)

Attempt

MC871

Reversion old channel MC667


Drop radio
MC663
BSS Pb
MC871-MC662-MC667-MC663
Success
1 1 192

MC662
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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 192

REVERSION OLD CHANNEL

DROP RADIO
BSS PB

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

1 1 193

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 193

B10

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

Internal HO - Success
l

HO FAIL. CASES > internal HO > success case

MS

serving cell
target cell
BSC
MFS
MEAS REP
----------------------->
MEASUREMENT RESULT
------------------------------------------------------------------------>MC830, MC655A
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
<---------------------------------CHAN ACTIV ACK
---------------------------------->
HO CMD
HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------start T3103
MC831, MC660

MSC

start T3124
HANDOVER ACCESS
------------------------------------------------------------->
------------------------------------------------------------->
HO DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFORMATION
---------------------------------->
<-------------------------------------------------------------start T3105
stop T3124
start T200
------------------------ SABM ---------------------------> stop T3105
<-------------------------- UA ----------------------------- ESTABLISH INDICATION
stop T200
---------------------------------->
HANDOVER COMPLETE
HO CMP

stop T3103

------------------------------------------------------------->----------------------------------> HO PERFORMED
----------------------------->
Release of old TCH
MC652, MC656

BSC Shared DTM Information Indication (old cell)


--------------->
DTM Information (new cell)
BSC Shared DTM Information Indication (new
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008
--------------->
cell)

<------------------------------------------------------------1 1 194

The same inter-cell


handover procedure
leads to an
incrementation of two
sets of counters:
l incoming HO counters
for the target cell:
MC830, MC831, MC652,
etc.
l outgoing HO counters
for the serving cell:
MC655A, MC660, MC656,
etc.
In HO_PERFORMED MESSAGE
>Target cell (CI,LAC)
>"cause" of HO
New B10

Case of a DTM capable MS


in dedicated mode

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Both SDCCH and TCH are counted together.


After the HO PERFORMED is sent to the MSC.
l

if DTM is enabled in the old cell, it sends a BSCGP BSC shared DTM info indication (CS_Flag = 0) to the MFS.

if DTM is enabled in the new cell, it send a BSCGP BSC shared DTM info indication (CS_flag = 1) to the MFS.

The MFS in the old cell deletes the MS context and creates an MS context according to the information
received in the BSCGP BSC shared DTM info indication.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 194

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

Internal HO Success Case of an MS in DTM Mode


l

B10

HO FAIL. CASES > internal HO > success case

MS

serving cell
target cell
BSC
MFS
MEAS REP
----------------------->
MEASUREMENT RESULT
------------------------------------------------------------------------>MC830, MC655A
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
<---------------------------------CHAN ACTIV ACK
---------------------------------->
HO CMD
HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------start T3103
MC831, MC660

MSC

SGSN

.
HANDOVER COMPLETE
HO CMP
------------------------------------------------------------->---------------------------------->

DTM Information

DTM Information

stop T3103
HO PERFORMED
----------------------------->
MC652, MC656

MFS Shared DTM Info Ind


MFS Shared DTM Info Ind ACK
BSC Shared DTM Info Ind (old cell)
BSC Shared DTM Info Ind (new cell)
Release of old TCH
GPRS Information (cell update)
------------------------------------------------------------->
BSCGP DTM GPRS Information UL (cell update)
------------------------------------------------>
1 1 195

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Cell update
Flush LL

New B10

Flush LL ack

Both SDCCH and TCH are counted together.


After the HO PERFORMED is sent to the MSC.
l

if DTM is enabled in the old cell, it sends a BSCGP BSC shared DTM info indication (CS_Flag = 0) to the MFS.

if DTM is enabled in the new cell, it send a BSCGP BSC shared DTM info indication (CS_flag = 1) to the MFS.

The MFS in the old cell deletes the MS context and creates an MS context according to the information
received in the BSCGP BSC shared DTM info indication.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 195

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

Incoming Internal HO - Failures


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal HO failures:


Handover procedure from the target cell point of view
Handover Preparation:
congestion: no RTCH available in the target cell

O does not concern the outgoing side (serving cell point of view)

BSS problem (no specific counter)

Handover Execution:
radio problem: the MS fails to access the new channel

O the reversion/drop discrimination concerns only the serving cell

BSS problem (no specific counter)

1 1 196

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 196

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

Incoming Internal HO - Congestion


HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal HO fail: congestion

l
MS

Serving Cell

Serving BSC

MSC

MEAS REPORT
MC551TCH+MC91SDCCH
----------------------------->
MEASUREMENT RESULT
--------------------------------------------------------------> MC830
No free TCH
MC551

1 1 197

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From B7, MC551 replaces MC51of B6.


As the counting of the Abis-TCH congestion case was in restriction in B8: MC51(B6) = MC551(B7)

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 197

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

Incoming Internal HO - Radio Failure


HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal HO fail: MS access problem

l
MS

Serving cell

Target Cell

BSC

HO CMD
HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
MC660
HANDOVER ACCESS
------------------------------------------------------------->
------------------------------------------------------------->
HO DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFORMATION
---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- start T3105
SABM
-------------------------------------------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA
---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- stop T3105
HANDOVER COMPLETE
----------------------------------------------------- - - - -X
MS
serving cell
target cell
BSC
SABM
MEAS REP
----------------------->
ESTABLISH INDICATION
MEASUREMENT RESULT
UA
------------------------------------------------------------------------> ----------------------->
------------------------------------------------------------------------>
<----------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION
HO FAILURE
HANDOVER FAILURE
<--------------------------------------------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------> MC653
Release of new channel

1 1 198

MSC

CHANNEL ACTIV ACK


---------------------------------->
HO CMD
HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
MC660
SABM
-----------x
T3103 expiry
MC653

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All incoming internal HO failures due to radio problems are counted in the same counter MC653.
Both radio failures with Reversion Old Channel and radio drop are counted together.

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 198

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

Incoming Internal HO - Counters


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal HO counters


REQUEST

ATTEMPT

SUCCESS

Preparation Failure

Execution Failure

CONGESTION

INCOMING INTERNAL Handover


Preparation Request

BSS PB

MC830

Congestion
BSS Pb

MC551+MC91
MC830-MC831-(MC551+MC91)

Attempt

MC831

Radio (MS access problem)


BSS Pb

MC653
MC831-MC652-MC653

Success

MC652

MS ACCESS PB
Execution

1 1 199

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 199

BSS PB

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

Incoming Internal HO - Indicators


HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal HO indicators

HOIBFLBN
HOIBFLRN
HOIBCGN
HOIBSUN
HOIBFLR

1 1 200

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Handover Statistics INDICATORS > Incoming handover > Incoming Intra BSC
l

HOIBEFR: efficiency of the incoming internal HO execution

HOIBCGR: rate of incoming internal HO failures due to congestion

HOIBPFR: rate of incoming internal HO failures due to BSS during the preparation phase

HOIBFLRR: rate of incoming internal HO failures due to radio problems

HOIBFLBR: rate of incoming internal HO failures due to BSS during the execution phase

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 200

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

Outgoing Internal HO - Failures


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal HO failures


Handover procedure from the serving cell point of view
Handover Preparation:
congestion on the target cell (no specific counter on the serving cell)
BSS problem (no specific counter)

Handover Execution:
radio problem: the MS reverts to the old channel
radio problem: the MS drops
BSS problem (no specific counter)

1 1 201

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 201

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

Outgoing Internal HO - Radio Failure ROC


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal HO fail: Reversion old channel


MS

Serving cell

Target Cell

BSC

HO CMD
HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
HANDOVER ACCESS
MC660
------------------------------------------------------------->
------------------------------------------------------------->
HO DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFORMATION
---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- start T3105
SABM
-------------------------------------------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA
---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- stop T3105
HANDOVER COMPLETE
----------------------------------------------------- - - - -X
SABM
----------------------->
ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA
------------------------------------------------------------------------>
<----------------------HO FAILURE
HANDOVER FAILURE
-----------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------> MC657
Release of new channel

1 1 202

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 202

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

Outgoing Internal HO - Radio Failure Drop


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal HO fail: drop


MS

serving cell
target cell
BSC
MSC
MEAS REP
----------------------->
MEASUREMENT RESULT
------------------------------------------------------------------------> MC655A
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
<---------------------------------CHAN ACTIV ACK
---------------------------------->
HO CMD
HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
MC660
SABM
----------x
T3103 expiry
MC658
Clear_request
------------------------>
Clear_command
Release of old and new TCH
<------------------------

clear_request: ask the MSC to release the connection


In case of call drop due to HO, the cause is "radio interface message failure"
(for Alcatel-Lucent)
1 1 203

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 203

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

Outgoing Internal HO - Counters


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal HO counters


REQUEST

ATTEMPT

SUCCESS

Preparation Failure

Execution Failure

CONGESTION

OUTGOING INTERNAL Handover


Preparation

Execution

1 1 204

BSS PB

Request

MC655A

Any preparation failure

MC655A-MC660

Attempt

MC660

Reversion old channel


Drop radio
BSS Pb

MC657
MC658
MC660-MC656-MC657-MC658

Success

MC656

REVERSION OLD CHANNEL


DROP RADIO

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 204

BSS PB

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

Outgoing Internal HO - Indicators


HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal HO indicators

HOOBSUN
HOOBCDRN
HOOBCDBN
HOOBOCN

SUCCESS

HOOBCDR
HOOBOCR

1 1 205

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Handover Statistics INDICATORS > Outgoing handover > Outgoing Intra BSC
l

HOOBRQR: efficiency of the outgoing internal HO preparation

HOOBEFR: efficiency of the outgoing internal HO execution

HOOBOCR: rate of outgoing internal HO failures due to radio problems with Reversion Old Channel

HOOBCDRR: rate of outgoing internal HO failures due to radio problems with drop

HOOBCDR: rate of incoming internal HO failures with drop (radio + BSS)

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 205

2 Internal Handover Indicators per Cell

Intra-Cell HO / Internal HO - Exercise


l

B10

With K1205, find in the PAIB29.REC file:


1) One case of intra-cell failure with reversion
2) One case of Internal handover success
Identify the target cell
Identify the serving cell (in CR for call establishment)

3) One case of Internal handover failure with reversion


4) One case of Internal handover failure without reversion
l

Find in trace 7:
1) The identity of the new TCH assigned while MS in DTM mode
Time allowed:
15 minutes

1 1 206

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 206

New B10

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

1 1 207

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 207

B10

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

External HO - Success
HO FAIL. CASES > External HO > successful case

MS

serving_cell

BSC

MFS

MSC

BSC

target_cell

MS

- MEAS_REPORT ->
------- MEAS_RESULT -------->
MC645A
MC462A

------ HO_REQUIRED ---------->


----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ----->
<--------- CC -----------------------<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK -------(HO_COMMAND)

<------------------------- HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------------MC650 Start T8


MC462B

MC820 MC463A
---- CHANNEL_ACTIVATION ------>
<- CHANNEL_ACT_ACK------------Start T9113
MC821 MC463B
<------ HO_DETECTION--------------

<-- HO_DETECTION --------------

--- PHYSICAL_INFO -->

<----- ESTABLISH_INDICATION ----

New B10

BSC shared DTM info indication

Case of a DTM capable MS


in dedicated mode
MC462C
Release of TCH

1 1 208

<--- HO_COMPLETE ---------------

BSC shared DTM info indication

MC646

<---- HO_ACCESS ----<---- HO_ACCESS -----

<--- SABM ------------------- UA -------------->

<----------- HO_COMPLETE ---------------------------------------Stop T9113


MC642
MC463C

DTM information

<---- CLEAR_COMMAND -----Cause : HO_SUCCESSFUL


Stop T8

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Both SDCCH and TCH are counted together.


From B7, MC645A replaces MC645 of B6.
MC645a is only counting HANDOVER REQUIRED messages that are linked to a handover trial and not those that are linked to
the update of the candidate cell list for handover / directed retry. This is leading to a more accurate computation of the
External outgoing HO success rate.
Only Outgoing inter PLMN HO is allowed.
6 counters provide information for "Inter-PLMN HO" (Incoming and Outgoing) (From B8)
l MC462a (equivalent of MC645A for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH outgoing handovers or directed retry requests:
HANDOVER REQUIRED sent to the MSC for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards a cell belonging to a PLMN
different from the PLMN of the serving cell.
l MC462b (equivalent of MC650 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH outgoing handovers or directed retry attempts:
HANDOVER COMMAND sent to the MS on Abis for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards a cell belonging to a
PLMN different from the PLMN of the serving cell.
l MC462c (equivalent of MC646 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH outgoing handovers or directed retry successes:
CLEAR COMMAND with Cause "Handover successful" received from the MSC for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered
towards a cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the serving cell.
l MC463a (equivalent of MC820 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH incoming handovers or directed retry requests:
HANDOVER REQUEST received from the MSC for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards the target cell from a
serving cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the target cell.
l MC463b (equivalent of MC821 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH incoming handovers or directed retry attempts:
HANDOVER REQUEST ACK sent by the target BSC containing the HANDOVER COMMAND for an external TCH HO or an external
DR triggered towards the target cell from a serving cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the target cell.
l MC463c (equivalent of MC642 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH incoming handovers or directed retry successes:
HANDOVER COMPLETE received from the MS on Abis for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards the target
cell from a serving cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the target cell.
Note than all other (previous) counters related to HO continue to be based on Intra PLMN only.
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008
3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 208

B10

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

External HO Success Case of an MS in DTM Mode


HO FAIL. CASES > External HO > successful case

MS

serving_cell

MFS SGSN

BSC

MSC

BSC

target_cell

MS

- MEAS_REPORT ->
------- MEAS_RESULT -------->
MC645A
MC462A

------ HO_REQUIRED ---------->


----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ----->
<--------- CC -----------------------<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK -------(HO_COMMAND)

<------------------------- HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------------MC650 Start T8


MC462B

MC820 MC463A
---- CHANNEL_ACTIVATION ------>
<- CHANNEL_ACT_ACK------------Start T9113
MC821 MC463B
<------ HO_DETECTION--------------

<-- HO_DETECTION --------------

--- PHYSICAL_INFO -->

<----- ESTABLISH_INDICATION ---<--- HO_COMPLETE ---------------

BSC shared DTM info indication

MFS shared DTM info indication

<---- HO_ACCESS ----<---- HO_ACCESS -----

<--- SABM ------------------- UA -------------->

<----------- HO_COMPLETE ---------------------------------------Stop T9113


MC642
MC463C

DTM information

MFS shared DTM info indication ack


MC462C
Release of TCH

MC646

<---- CLEAR_COMMAND -----Cause : HO_SUCCESSFUL


Stop T8

BSC shared DTM info indication

New B10

1 1 209

BSCGP DTM GPRS Information UL (cell update)


Flush LL
Flush LL ack

GPRS Information (cell update)

Cell update
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Both SDCCH and TCH are counted together.


From B7, MC645A replaces MC645 of B6.
MC645a is only counting HANDOVER REQUIRED messages that are linked to a handover trial and not those that are linked to
the update of the candidate cell list for handover / directed retry. This is leading to a more accurate computation of the
External outgoing HO success rate.
Only Outgoing inter PLMN HO is allowed.
6 counters provide information for "Inter-PLMN HO" (Incoming and Outgoing) (From B8)
l MC462a (equivalent of MC645A for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH outgoing handovers or directed retry requests:
HANDOVER REQUIRED sent to the MSC for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards a cell belonging to a PLMN
different from the PLMN of the serving cell.
l MC462b (equivalent of MC650 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH outgoing handovers or directed retry attempts:
HANDOVER COMMAND sent to the MS on Abis for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards a cell belonging to a
PLMN different from the PLMN of the serving cell.
l MC462c (equivalent of MC646 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH outgoing handovers or directed retry successes:
CLEAR COMMAND with Cause "Handover successful" received from the MSC for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered
towards a cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the serving cell.
l MC463a (equivalent of MC820 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH incoming handovers or directed retry requests:
HANDOVER REQUEST received from the MSC for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards the target cell from a
serving cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the target cell.
l MC463b (equivalent of MC821 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH incoming handovers or directed retry attempts:
HANDOVER REQUEST ACK sent by the target BSC containing the HANDOVER COMMAND for an external TCH HO or an external
DR triggered towards the target cell from a serving cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the target cell.
l MC463c (equivalent of MC642 for intra PLMN external HO)
Number of inter-PLMN TCH incoming handovers or directed retry successes:
HANDOVER COMPLETE received from the MS on Abis for an external TCH HO or an external DR triggered towards the target
cell from a serving cell belonging to a PLMN different from the PLMN of the target cell.
Note than all other (previous) counters related to HO continue to be based on Intra PLMN only.
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008
3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 209

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

External HO - Failures
l

HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO failures


Handover procedure from the target cell point of view
Handover Preparation:
congestion: no RTCH available in the target cell OR no TTCH available on the A
interface

O does not concern the outgoing side (serving cell point of view)

BSS problem (no specific counter)

Handover Execution:
radio problem: the MS fails to access the new channel

O the reversion/drop discrimination concerns only the serving cell

BSS problem (no specific counter)

1 1 210

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 210

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

Incoming External HO - RTCH Congestion


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO fail: Air/Abis cong.


MC541ATCH+MC81SDCCH

MS

serving_cell

BSC

MSC

BSC

target_cell

- MEAS_REPORT ->
------- MEAS_RESULT -------->
MC645A ------ HO_REQUIRED ------->

( <-HO_REQUIRED_REJECT-)

1 1 211

----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ----->

MC820

<----- HO_FAILURE --------------Cause: no radio resource available

MC541A

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

From B7, MC541A replaces MC41A of B6.


As the counting of the Abis-TCH congestion case was in restriction in B8: MC41A(B6) = MC541A(B7)

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 211

MS

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

Incoming External HO - TTCH Congestion


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO fail: A int. cong.

MS

serving_cell

- MEAS_REPORT ->

BSC

MSC

------- MEAS_RESULT -------->


MC645A ------ HO_REQUIRED ------->

( <-HO_REQUIRED_REJECT-)

----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ----->

MC820

<----- HO_FAILURE --------------Cause: terrestrial circuit already allocated


Requested terrestrial resource unaivalable
BSS not equiopoed

MC41B

MC41B

1 1 212

BSC

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 212

target_cell

MS

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

Incoming External HO - Radio Failure


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO fail: MS access problem


MS

serving_cell

BSC

MSC

BSC

target_cell

MS

- MEAS_REPORT ->
------- MEAS_RESULT -------->
MC645A ---- HO_REQUIRED ------->

<-------------------------- HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------Start T8

----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -------------------> MC820


<-------- CC --------------------------------------- - CHANNEL_ACT ---------->
<--- CHA_ACT_ACK -------<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------- Start T9113
(HO-COMMAND) included
MC821
X --- HO_ACCESS ----X ---- HO_ACCESS -----

----- SABM -------->


<--- UA ------------- -- ESTABLISH_INDICATION->

MS ----- HO_FAILURE
serving_cell
(reversion to old channel)
- MEAS_REPORT ->

BSC
------------------------------------------>

------- MEAS_RESULT -------->


MC645A ---- HO_REQUIRED ------->

MSC

BSC

----- CLEAR_COMMAND ---------------------->


Radio interface fail : Reversion to old channel
----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ------------------->
<-------- CC ---------------------------------------

<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------<-------------------------- HO_COMMAND ------------------------------------------------ HO-COMMAND) included


Start T8

target_cell

Release of connection
MC820
- CHANNEL_ACT ---------->
<--- CHA_ACT_ACK -------Start T9113
Start T9113
MC821

----- SABM --- X


----- SABM --- X

T9113 expiry

----- SABM --- X

MC643
Release of connection

1 1 213

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All incoming external HO failures due to radio problems are counted in the same counter MC643.
Both radio failures with Reversion Old Channel and radio drop are counted together.

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 213

MS

MC643

X --- HO_ACCESS ----X ---- HO_ACCESS -----

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

Incoming External HO - Counters


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO counters


Inter PLMN HO

Intra PLMN HO
REQUEST

REQUEST

ATTEMPT

SUCCESS

RATIO

ATTEMPT

SUCCESS

Preparation Failure

Execution Failure

CONGESTION

INCOMING EXTERNAL Handover


Preparation Request

Execution

1 1 214

BSS PB

MC820

Congestion
BSS Pb

MC541+MC81
MC820-MC821-(MC541+MC81)

Attempt

MC821

Radio (MS access problem)


BSS Pb

MC643
MC821-MC642-MC643

Success

MC642
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 214

MS ACCESS PB
BSS PB

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

Incoming External HO - Indicators


HO FAIL. CASES > Incoming external HO indicators

HOIMFLBN
HOIMFLRN
HOIMCGN
HOIMSUN
HOIMFLR

1 1 215

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Handover Statistics INDICATORS > Incoming handover > Incoming Inter BSC
l

HOIMEFR: efficiency of the incoming external HO execution

HOIMCGR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to radio congestion (Air or Abis TCH)

HOIMAMR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to CIC congestion (A TCH)

HOIMPFR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to BSS during the preparation phase

HOIMFLRR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to radio problems

HOIMFLBR: rate of incoming external HO failures due to BSS during the execution phase

Inter PLMN Incoming External HO Indicators (from B8)


An indicator is created for each counter:
l

REQUESTS

ATTEMPTS

SUCCESS

In addition, these indicators show:


l

the success rate of incoming inter-PLMN HOs,

the ratio of incoming inter-PLMN HO to incoming intra-PLMN and inter-PLMN HO.

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 215

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

Outgoing External HO - Failures


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external HO failures


Handover procedure from the serving cell point of view
Handover Preparation:
congestion on the target cell (no specific counter on the serving cell)
BSS problem (no specific counter)

Handover Execution:
radio problem: the MS reverts to the old channel
radio problem: the MS drops
BSS problem (no specific counter)

1 1 216

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 216

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

Outgoing External HO - Radio Failure ROC


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external HO fail: reversion old channel

MS

serving_cell

BSC

MSC

BSC

target_cell

MS

- MEAS_REPORT ->
------- MEAS_RESULT -------->
MC645A ---- HO_REQUIRED ------->
----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ------------------->
<-------- CC --------------------------------------<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------(HO-COMMAND) included

- CHANNEL_ACT ---------->
<--- CHA_ACT_ACK -------Start T9113

<-------------------------- HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------Start T8


MC650
----- SABM -------->
<--- UA ------------- -- ESTABLISH_INDICATION->
----- HO_FAILURE (reversion to old channel) ------------------------------------------>
MC647
----- CLEAR_COMMAND ---------------------->
Radio interface fail : Reversion to old channel

1 1 217

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 217

X --- HO_ACCESS ----X ---- HO_ACCESS -----

Release of connection

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

Outgoing External HO - Radio Failure Drop


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external HO fail: drop

MS

serving_cell

BSC

MSC

BSC

target_cell

MS

- MEAS_REPORT ->
------- MEAS_RESULT -------->
MC645A ---- HO_REQUIRED ------->
----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ------------------->
<-------- CC --------------------------------------<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------(HO-COMMAND) included

- CHANNEL_ACT ---------->
<--- CHA_ACT_ACK -------Start T9113

<-------------------------- HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------Start T8


MC650
----- SABM --- X
----- SABM --- X

X --- HO_ACCESS ----X ---- HO_ACCESS -----

----- SABM --- X


T8 expiry ----- CLEAR_REQUEST ->
MC648 Radio interface message fail

1 1 218

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 218

Release of connection

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

Outgoing External HO - Counters


l

HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external HO counters


Inter PLMN HO

Intra PLMN HO
REQUEST

REQUEST

ATTEMPT

SUCCESS

RATIO

ATTEMPT

SUCCESS

Preparation Failure

Execution Failure
CONGESTION

OUTGOING EXTERNAL Handover


Preparation

Execution

1 1 219

Request

MC645A

Any preparation failure

MC645A-MC650

Attempt

MC650

REVERSION OLD CHANNEL

Reversion old channel


Drop radio
BSS Pb

MC647
MC648
MC650-MC646-MC647-MC648

DROP RADIO

Success

MC646
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 219

BSS PB

BSS PB

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

Outgoing External HO - Indicators


HO FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external HO indicators

HOOMSUN
HOOMCDRN
HOOMCDBN
HOOMOCN
HOOMCDR
HOOMOCR

1 1 220

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS RELEASE:


Handover Statistics INDICATORS > Outgoing handover > Outgoing Inter BSC
l

HOOMRQR: efficiency of the outgoing external HO preparation

HOOMEFR: efficiency of the outgoing external HO execution

HOOMOCR: rate of outgoing external HO failures due to radio problems with Reversion Old Channel

HOOMCDRR: rate of outgoing external HO failures due to radio problems with drop

HOOMCDR: rate of incoming external HO failures with drop (radio + BSS)

Inter PLMN Outgoing External HO Indicators (From B8)


An indicator is created for each counter:
l

REQUESTS

ATTEMPTS

SUCCESS

In addition, these indicators show:


l

the success rate of outgoing inter-PLMN HOs,

the ratio of outgoing inter-PLMN HO to outgoing intra-PLMN and inter-PLMN HO.

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 220

3 External Handover Indicators per Cell

B10

External HO - Exercise
l

In PAIB29.REC, extract (if available):


1)
2)
3)
4)

1
1
1
1

incoming external HO success


outgoing external HO success
incoming external HO failure
outgoing external HO failure

In trace 11, extract (if available):


1) 1 intra BSC inter-cell HO success while in DTM

New B10

Time allowed:
15 minutes

1 1 221

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4 Handover Indicators per Couple of


Cells

1 1 222

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4 Handover Indicators per Couple of Cells

Type 180 Counters

Some handover indicators available per couple of (serving, target)


cells permanently through PM type 180 counters

b
C40i(a,b)

3 counters for each (Serving,Target) adjacency:


- C400(S,T): Incoming handovers requested
to cell T from cell S
- C401(S,T): Incoming handovers attempted
to cell T from cell S
- C402(S,T): Incoming handovers successfully
performed to cell T from cell S

C40i(c,b)

C40i(c,d)

both internal and external inter cell handovers are counted


both SDCCH and TCH handovers are counted

d
e

C40i(f,d)

1 1 223

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According to the definition of C40i counters:


l

C400(Sn,T) = MC820(T) + MC830(T)

C401(Sn,T) = MC821(T) +MC831(T)

C402(Sn,T) = MC642(T) + MC652(T)


l

where
n

Sn are the serving cells considering the incoming adjacencies to cell T.


MC820(T), MC821(T), MC642(T) are the counters relating to the incoming external handovers requested,
attempted and successfully performed to cell T.
MC830(T), MC831(T), MC646(T) are the counters relating to the incoming internal handovers requested,
attempted and successfully performed to cell T.

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4 Handover Indicators per Couple of Cells

Type 180 Indicators


l

The following indicators can be computed from PM Type 180 counters


in order to:
Detect the most important neighboring cells as per their traffic
Distribution of incoming handovers performed to cell T from serving cells Sn =
C402(Sx,T) / C402(Sn,T)

Ease the diagnosis of the bad handover performance of a cell


Global efficiency of incoming handovers to cell T from cell S
n
HOOASUR = C402(S,T) / C400(S,T)
Efficiency of the incoming handover preparation to cell T from cell S
HOOACAR = C401(S,T) / C400(S,T)
Efficiency of the incoming handover execution to cell T from cell S
HOOAEFR = C402(S,T) / C401(S,T)

1 1 224

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Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Handover Statistics > HO Statistics per couple of cells > Indicators with counter type 180
l

These indicators can also be used to check if a recently handover relationship is generating handover as
expected.

They will also allow to identify the handover relationships which should be deleted since no (or very few)
handover is observed.

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4 Handover Indicators per Couple of Cells

Type 26 Counters

Some handover indicators are available per couple of (serving, target)


cells on demand for all outgoing adjacencies of a serving cell through
PM type 26 (40 cells since B8)

Counters for each (Serving,Target x) adjacency:


- C720(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted
from cell S to cell Tx
- C721(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers successfully
performed from cell S to cell Tx
- C722(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers failed from
cell S to cell Tx with Reversion Old Channel
- C723(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers failed from
cell S to cell Tx with drop

Tb
Target a

Tc

C72i(S,Tc)

Serving
C72i(S,Te)

Te

Tf

1 1 225

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Other counters are provided:


l

C724(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted from S to Tx for an emergency cause.

C725(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted from S to Tx for a better cell cause.

C727(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted from S to Tx for a traffic cause.

C728(S,Tx): Outgoing handovers attempted from S to Tx for a forced directed retry cause.

Previously the set of Type 26 counters could be retrieved for only one cell per BSS at once.
40 cells at the same time since B8.

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4 Handover Indicators per Couple of Cells

Type 26 Indicators
l

The following indicators can be computed from PM Type 26 counters


(40 cells since B8) in order to ease the diagnosis of the bad outgoing
handover performance of a cell:
Efficiency of the outgoing handover execution from cell S to cell Tx
HOOXSUR = C721(S,Tx) / C720(S,Tx)

Rate of outgoing ho execution failures due to radio problems from S to


Tx with drop
HOOXCDRR = C723(S,Tx) / C720(S,Tx)

Rate of outgoing ho execution failures due to radio problems from S to


Tx with Reversion Old Channel
HOOXOCR = C722(S,Tx) / C720(S,Tx)

Rate of outgoing ho execution failures due to BSS problems from S to Tx


HOOXCDBR = [C720(S,Tx)-C721(S,Tx)-C722(S,Tx)-C723(S,Tx)] / C720(S,Tx)

1 1 226

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Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Handover Statistics > HO Statistics per couple of cells > Indicators with counter type 26.
From B8, these type 26 counters are available for several cells at once (40 cells).

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4 Handover Indicators per Couple of Cells

Type 27 Counters

Some handover indicators are available per couple of (serving, target)


cells on demand for all incoming adjacencies of a target cell through
PM type 27.

Counters for each (Serving,Target x) adjacency:


- C730(Sx,T): Incoming handovers attempted
to cell T from cell Sx
- C731(Sx,T): Incoming handovers successfully
performed to cell T from cell Sx
- C733(S,Tx): Incoming handovers failed due to
MS radio access problems to cell T from cell Sx

Sb
Serving a

Sc

C73i(Sc,T)

Target
C73i(Se,T)

Se

Sf

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Other counters are provided:


l

C734(Sx,T): Incoming handovers attempted from Sx to T for an emergency cause.

C735(Sx,T): Incoming handovers attempted from Sx to T for a better cell cause.

C737(Sx,T): Incoming handovers attempted from Sx to T for a traffic cause.

C738(Sx,T): Incoming handovers attempted from Sx to T for a forced directed retry cause.

The set of Type 27 counters can be retrieved for only one cell per BSS at once.

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4 Handover Indicators per Couple of Cells

Type 27 Indicators
l

The following indicators can be computed from PM Type 27 counters in


order to ease the diagnosis of the bad incoming handover performance
of a cell:
Efficiency of the incoming handover execution to cell T from cell Sx
HOIXSUR = C731(Sx,T) / C730(Sx,T)

Rate of incoming ho execution failures due to MS radio access problems to


cell T from cell Sx
HOIXCDRR = C733(Sx,T) / C730(Sx,T)

Rate of incoming ho execution failures due to BSS problems to cell T from cell
Sx
HOIXCDBR= [C730(Sx,T)-C731(Sx,T)-C733(Sx,T)] / C730(Sx,T)

1 1 228

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Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Handover Statistics > HO Statistics per couple of cells > Indicators with counter type 27

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4 Handover Indicators per Couple of Cells

Usage of Indicators per Couple of Cells


l

Summary for handover failure analysis using Type 180, 26 and 27

1 1 229

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Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Handover Statistics > HO Statistics per couple of cells > Indicators with counter type 27

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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Self-assessment on the Objectives


l

Please be reminded to fill in the form


Self-Assessment on the Objectives
for this module
The form can be found in the first part
of this course documentation

1 1 230

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End of Module
Handover Indicators

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11

Do not delete this graphic elements in here:

Section 1
GSM QoS Monitoring
Module 5
Directed Retry Indicators

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem


Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10
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01

YYYY-MM-DD

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First edition

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 233

Module Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
Describe the counters and indicators used for monitoring the efficiency of the
directed retry feature

1 1 234

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Module Objectives [cont.]

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Table of Contents
Page

Switch to notes view!


1 Directed Retry Definition

1 1 236

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Table of Contents [cont.]


Switch to notes view!

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1 Directed Retry Definition

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1 Directed Retry Definition

Queuing Is Mandatory
l

When there is no TCH available in a cell for TCH normal assignment

Queuing: TCH request is put in a queue, waiting for a TCH to be


released in this cell

With default BSS tuning: the call establishment fails if no TCH has been
freed after T11 seconds

but an optional mechanism can be activated

1 1 239

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The queuing of TCH requests is also performed for incoming external TCH handovers but not for incoming
internal TCH handovers.

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1 Directed Retry Definition

Normal and Forced Directed Retry


l

Directed Retry (DR): When a TCH request is in queue, the BSC tries to
establish the TCH connection on a neighboring cell if:
the normal handover condition is met (Normal DR)
specific directed retry conditions are met (Forced DR):
the MS receives a sufficient signal level from a neighboring cell
the number of free TCHs in this neighboring cell is sufficient

1 1 240

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1 Directed Retry Definition

Directed Retry Rules


DR FAIL. CASES > DR Reminder
DR as an SDCCH to TCH handover
can be
l Internal
l

between two cells of the same BSC


also called intra BSC
l

between two cells of different


BSCs
also called inter BSC
l

Asynchronous
not synchronous for any reason
no dedicated monitoring for
synchronous/asynchronous HO

Incoming
as considering the target cell

Outgoing
as considering the serving cell

1 1 241

ANNEX 3

between 2 cells
sharing the same clocks
collocated
usually 2 sectors of the same BTS
tunable at OMC-R level

External

Synchronous

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There is no Intracell Directed Retry contrary to HO:


An Intracell Directed is a Call Setup !! !-)
Please refer to Annexes for Directed Retry counters details.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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Self-assessment on the Objectives


l

Please be reminded to fill in the form


Self-Assessment on the Objectives
for this module
The form can be found in the first part
of this course documentation

1 1 242

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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End of Module
Directed Retry Indicators

1 1 243

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 243

11

Do not delete this graphic elements in here:

Section 1
GSM QoS Monitoring

Module 6
Radio Measurement Statistics Indicators

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem


Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10
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Remarks

01

YYYY-MM-DD

Last name, first name

First edition

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 245

Module Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
Describe the RMS indicators used for radio quality assessment of a TRX or cell
and to use them in the detection of some typical radio problems

1 1 246

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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Module Objectives [cont.]

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 247

Table of Contents
Page

Switch to notes view!


1
2
3
4

Radio Measurement Statistics Objectives


RMS Implementation in the BSS
RMS Data
Call Quality Statistics per TRX
4.1 Generalities
4.2 Call Quality Parameters
4.2 Call Quality Counters
Radio Quality Statistics per TRX
5.1 Generalities
5.2 Radio Quality Parameters
5.3 Radio Quality Counters
C/I Statistics
6.1 C/I Generalities
6.2 C/I Parameters
6.3 C/I Counters
Call Drop with Specific Radio Causes
7.1 Generalities
7.2 Thresholds for Detection
7.3 Counters
RMS Indicators Usage
8.1 Suspecting a Voice Quality Problem
8.2 Suspecting a Cell Coverage Problem
8.3 Suspecting a Cell Interference Problem
Additional Information

1 1 248

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7
10
16
18
19
22
24
28
29
32
35
49
50
51
52
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
64
69

Table of Contents [cont.]


Page

Switch to notes view!

1 1 249

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1 Radio Measurement Statistics


Objectives

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1 Radio Measurement Statistics Objectives

RMS Objectives

Assess the quality of cell coverage


Assess the radio link quality of a TRX / a cell
Assess Carrier/Interference ratio of a TRX / a cell
Estimate the voice quality of a TRX / a cell

In order to:

l
l
l

Optimize the neighborhood & frequency planning


Improve the network coverage
Detect faulty hardware components responsible for bad QoS
Help logical parameters fine tuning

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The RMS feature provides statistics on Voice Quality. VQ data are now needed since the Call Drop rate is
not sufficient to have a clear picture of the QoS in a network using Slow Frequency Hopping as a
densification technique.
The RMS feature is a "plus" providing additional information to help radio engineer in their Fault detection
and Network optimization tasks.

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1 Radio Measurement Statistics Objectives

RMS Objectives [cont.]


l

Provide Radio Measurement Statistics


On all the network elements (all TRXs/cells)
Permanently through the PM type 31
RMS results available every day (after a specific period)

In order to reduce the cost of Radio Network Optimization

1 1 252

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Today's solutions for Radio Measurements are limited and very expensive:
l

drive tests: provide a mobile user with the perception of the network but cannot be done on the whole
network and on an every day basis since:
n

they are costly (tool+car+manpower).

they need to be post-processed.

they are limited to part of the network.

they are available on the DownLink path only.

Abis interface traces: provide a complete Uplink and Downlink radio quality assessment of a cell but
cannot be done on the whole network and on an every day basis since:
n

they are costly (protocol analyzer+manpower).

they need to be post-processed.

they are limited to a few cells at once per analyzer.

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2 RMS Implementation in the BSS

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2 RMS Implementation in the BSS

RMS Management
l

RMS results are reported permanently (once a day) by the BSS as a PM


Type 31 counters to the OMC-R

The RMS job is defined and activated on a per BSS basis

RMS job parameters are managed through RMS templates


RMS templates provide means to tune RMS parameters according to Cell
Planning (cell profile, cell class)

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The cell profile can be: micro, indoor, multiband, etc.


The cell class can be: rural, urban, rural rapid (covering express railway), etc.
Templates parameters define the intervals or Received level, Consecutive frame erasure, Radio link
counter, Path balance, C/I for which RMS counters are provided.

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2 RMS Implementation in the BSS

RMS Configuration in the OMC-R


l

RMS with OMC-R only


Templates are defined on the
OMC-R
RMS results are retrieved once
a day from the BSC
Binary files can be exported for
post-processing

Templates
Templates

RMS in binary files

PM

1 1 255

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2 RMS Implementation in the BSS

RMS Configuration in RNO


l

RMS with OMC-R, NPA


& RNO
Templates are defined on
RNO
RMS results are retrieved
once a day from the BSC
Binary files are transferred
to NPA
RMS warnings on NPA
RMS QoS reports on RNO
RMS reports used in RNO
Check
QoS follow-up
Diagnosis
Tuning
The Experience matrix can
be generated for network
planning
Excel export is adapted to
RMS

1 1 256

Benefit to whole RNO

Templates

Compute
experience
matrix

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The cell profile can be: micro, indoor, multiband, etc.


The cell class can be: rural, urban, rural rapid (covering express railway), etc.

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PM

2 RMS Implementation in the BSS

RMS Data Flow


1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

RNO defines and sends


RMS templates to the
OMC-R
The OMC-R activates an
RMS campaign in the BSS
RMS counters are
transferred to
the OMC
RMS counters are stored
in NPA
RMS indicators requested
by RNO
RMS QOS report displayed
RNO calculates and
exports the Experience
matrix to RNP

1 1 257

BSS
3

PM

PM

OMC-R
NPA

QOS

5
1
RNP

6
Template

QOS
Experience matrix

A9156 RNO

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The tuning function of RNO defines a preferred RMS template depending on cell characteristics (type, class,
capacity, etc.).
RNO manages the frequencies to monitor through MAFA jobs depending on the neighborhood and the
frequency bands.
RNO is a reference for RMS templates:
l

16 templates stored in the RNO database,

Reference values for templates available,

Extra editor in the administration tool to modify templates: a given value or a reference one.

NPA
l

NPA stores RMS jobs measurements, at Cell & TRX levels (15 days).

NPA makes some consolidations (voice quality, averages, etc.).

NPA manages some warnings on RMS indicators (path balance).

The Experience Matrix generated by RNO is an interference matrix computed from C/I measurements
provided through RMS counters.

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2 RMS Implementation in the BSS

RMS Data Presentation


l

In all this chapter


System parameters (user tuneable or not) will always be written in BLUE
BOLD FONT
Indicators and counters will be typed
in ITALIC and underline

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3 RMS Data

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B10

2 RMS Implementation in the BSS

RMS Data Presentation


l

The main RMS statistics types:


Call Quality Statistics which qualify calls according to coverage/interference
criteria
based on samples corresponding to measurement results averaged over a number of
SACCH multi-frames

Radio Quality Statistics:

UL/DL level, UL/DL qual


CFE
AMR (Analyze the coded values)
Timing Advance

C/I Statistics on neighboring freq/MAFA freq


last 2 statistics types based on samples corresponding to measurement results

Call Drop with specific radio causes


UL/DL level, UL/DL qual
Too long/short MS-BS distance
Too high interference UL/DL

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B10
Annex 1

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The first RMS Statistics type is based on calls.


The two others are based on TRX/Cell.
Additional information: Measurement results, TRX, BS/MS max power
MAFA = Mobile Assisted Frequency Allocation is a GSM Phase 2+ feature allowing to request a mobile to
measure and report through Extended Measurement Report message a C/I value for each frequency
specified in an Extended Measurement Order message.
CFE: Consecutive Frame Erasure
1 SACCH multi-frame (SACCH mfr) corresponds to 4 consecutive sequences of 26 TDMA frames during which,
in the uplink, a measurement report message is received by the BTS from the MS.

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4.1 Generalities
l

Suspecting a Voice Quality problem


Percentage of Noisy calls

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The fact that FER measurements are more reliable than RXQUAL ones to assess the VQ is even more true
when using Slow Frequency Hopping. In this case RXQUAL values are not anymore correlated to Voice
Quality as perceived by the end user.
FER measurements are available for the uplink path only.
These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX, per Cell:
Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of bad coverage on the uplink path
RMVQULVN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_bad_coverage
l

Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of interference on the uplink path
RMVQUIFN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_interference
l

Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of interference and bad coverage considered together on
the uplink path
RMVQUUKN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_undefined
l

Rate of Noisy calls suffering from problems of interference or/and bad coverage on the uplink path
RMVQUNOR = RMS_call_noisy_UL_rate
l

Note: The 4 indicators above can be provided for Noisy calls suffering from VQ problems on the dowlink
path.
Rate of Noisy calls but with good FER measurements on the uplink path
RMVQFEGR = RMS_call_noisy_good_FER_rate
l

Rate of Noisy calls and also with bad FER measurements on the uplink path
RMVQFEBR = RMS_call_noisy_bad_FER_rate
l

Rate of calls with fair quality measurements but with bad FER measurements on the uplink path
RMVQFEAR = RMS_call_abnormal_bad_FER_rate
l

This last indicator can be used in order to tune the RMS VQ parameters used to characterize a call as Noisy.

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4.1 Generalities [cont.]


l

Call Quality Measurements

SACCH meas.
begin

CQS1

CALL
end

480ms

CQS2 CQS3

CQS4 CQS5 CQS6 CQS7

CQS8

CQS9 CQS10 CQS11 CQS12 CQS CQS CQS CQS


13
14
15
16

CQS375

1 measurement report

1 SACCH mfr

VQ_AVERAGE = 4 SACCH

AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ = (RxlevUL1+RxlevUL2+RxlevUL3+RxlevUL4) / 4
AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ = (RxlevDL1+RxlevDL2+RxlevDL3+RxlevDL4) / 4
AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ = (RxqualUL1+RxqualUL2+RxqualUL3+RxqualUL4) / 4
AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ = (RxqualDL1+RxqualDL2+RxqualDL3+RxqualDL4) / 4
AV_RXFER_UL_VQ = (Nb of speech frames wrongly decoded (BFI=1)
/ Total nb of speech frames of the CQS)

Average level, quality and FER of a Call Quality Sample


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CQS: Call Quality Sample


VQ_AVERAGE = Number of consecutive SACCH measurements from which the reported Level and Quality
notes (UL and DL) are averaged. The resulting averages represent the level and quality of the corresponding
Call Quality Sample, i.e. the portion of the call over which level and quality have been measured.
AV_RXLEV_xx_VQ = Average xx level measured over a Call Quality Sample (VQ_AVERAGE SACCH)
AV_RXQUAL_xx_VQ = Average xx quality measured over a Call Quality Sample (VQ_AVERAGE SACCH)

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4.1 Generalities [cont.]


l

Classification of a CQS and Noisy Call identification


How to qualify the quality of a call? By looking at the repartition of the CQS!
quality
7

bad quality & level

bad coverage CQS

bad quality + good level

interfered CQS
CQS

VQ_RXQUAL

Level (dBm)

0
-110
1 1 264

VQ_RXLEV

-47
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VQ_RXLEV = radio level threshold to classify a CQS as bad coverage CQS.


VQ_RXQUAL = radio quality threshold to classify a CQS as bad coverage CQS.
VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD = Ratio of bad CQS (interference or bad coverage) to classify a Call as Noisy.
A call is classified as:
l

Noisy xx Interference if Ratio of xx interfered CQS > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD

Noisy xx Coverage if Ratio of xx bad coverage CQS > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD

Noisy xx Undefined if Ratio of (xx interfered CQS + xx bad coverage CQS) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD

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4.2 Call Quality Parameters


l

RMS parameters: Call Quality Statistics


Parameters used to determine if a call is noisy (according to RXQUAL)
and of bad voice quality (according to FER)
VQ_AVERAGE: averaging window size on measurement results to obtain Call
Quality Samples (CQSs) (0 SACCH mfr to 128 Smf)
VQ_RXLEV: radio level threshold to specify a bad coverage CQS for noisy call
statistics (-110 to -65 dBm)
VQ_RXQUAL: radio quality threshold to specify a bad quality (RXQUAL) CQS
for noisy call statistics (0 to 7)
VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER: radio quality threshold to specify a bad or a good
quality CQS correlated to bad or good FER measurements for noisy call
statistics (0 to 7)

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All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters:
l

RMSpc = PAR_VQ_AVERAGE

RMSpd = PAR_VQ_RXLEV

RMSpe = PAR_VQ_RXQUAL

RMSpf = PAR_VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER

Call Quality Sample (A CQS) will be qualified as of bad level if the Average RxLevel is lower than
VQ_RXLEV.
A CQS will be qualified as of bad quality if the Average RxQuality is greater than VQ_RXQUAL.
For FER counters, VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER is used instead of VQ_RXQUAL to qualify a CQS as of bad quality
if the Average FER is also checked (compared to VQ_xx_RXFER).
Note: For CQS, the averaging process is non-sliding.

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4.2 Call Quality Parameters [cont.]


l

RMS parameters: Call Quality Statistics


VQ_GOOD_RXFER: Frame Erasure Rate threshold to specify a good FER CQS
for noisy call statistics (0 to 20%)
VQ_BAD_RXFER: FER threshold to specify a bad FER CQS for noisy call
statistics (0 to 20%)
VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD: Call Quality Samples threshold to characterize a call
as noisy (0 to 100%)
VQ_FER_THRESHOLD: Call Quality Samples threshold to characterize a call
as of bad or good voice quality (0 to 100%)

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All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters:
l

RMSpg = PAR_VQ_GOOD_RXFER

RMSph = PAR_VQ_ BAD_RXFER

RMSpi = PAR_VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD

RMSpj = PAR_VQ_FER_THRESHOLD

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4.2 Call Quality Counters


l

RMS counters
VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE = RMS10
Number of calls suffering from interference problem on the uplink path
VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE is incremented whenever a call verifies:
100*(INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD

with
INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times where AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
and AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ>VQ_RXLEV

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Call Quality Statistics counters are related only to speech channels.


Considering:
l

AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXQUAL_UL

AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXLEV_UL

NUM_UL_SAMPLES: total number of averages calculated on UL measurements during the call on the
considered TRX

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4.2 Call Quality Counters [cont.]


l

RMS counters
VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE = RMS10
Number of calls suffering from interference problem on the uplink path
VQ_NOISY_DL_INTERFERENCE = RMS11
Number of calls suffering from interference problem on the downlink path
VQ_NOISY_UL_COVERAGE = RMS12
Number of calls suffering from bad coverage problem on the uplink path
VQ_NOISY_DL_COVERAGE = RMS13
Number of calls suffering from bad coverage problem on the downlink path

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RMS10 = VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE is incremented whenever a call verifies:


100*(INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
with
INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
and AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ>VQ_RXLEV
considering
AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXQUAL_UL
AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXLEV_UL
NUM_UL_SAMPLES: total number of averages calculated on UL measurements during the call on the considered TRX
RMS11 = VQ_NOISY_DL_INTERFERENCE is incremented whenever a call verifies: 100*(INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES /
NUM_DL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
with
INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
and AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ>VQ_RXLEV
considering
AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXQUAL_DL
AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of RXLEV_DL
NUM_DL_SAMPLES: total number of averages calculated on DL measurements during the call on the considered TRX
RMS12 = VQ_NOISY_UL_COVERAGE is incremented whenever a call verifies: 100*(BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES /
NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
with BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and
AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ<=VQ_RXLEV
RMS13 = VQ_NOISY_DL_COVERAGE is incremented whenever a call verifies: 100*(BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES /
NUM_DL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
with BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and
AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ<=VQ_RXLEV

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4.2 Call Quality Counters [cont.]


l

RMS counters
VQ_NOISY_UL_UNDEFINED = RMS14
Number of calls suffering from both problems of interference and bad
coverage on the uplink path
These calls are not counted in VQ_NOISY_UL_COVERAGE or
VQ_NOISY_UL_INTERFERENCE

VQ_NOISY_DL_UNDEFINED = RMS15
Number of calls suffering from both problems of interference and bad
coverage on the downlink path
These calls are not counted in VQ_NOISY_DL_COVERAGE or
VQ_NOISY_DL_INTERFERENCE

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RMS14 = VQ_NOISY_UL_UNDEFINED is incremented whenever a call verifies:


100*(BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) <= VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
and 100*(INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) <= VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
and 100*(BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
with
BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL and
AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ<=VQ_RXLEV
INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
and AV_RXLEV_UL_VQ > VQ_RXLEV
BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES = INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES + BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES
= nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
RMS15 = VQ_NOISY_DL_UNDEFINED is incremented whenever a call verifies:
100*(BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES / NUM_DL_SAMPLES) <= VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
and 100*(INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES / NUM_DL_SAMPLES) <= VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
and 100*(BAD_QUALITY_DL_SAMPLES / NUM_DL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
with
BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
and AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ<=VQ_RXLEV
INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
and AV_RXLEV_DL_VQ > VQ_RXLEV
BAD_QUALITY_DL_SAMPLES = INTERFERED_DL_SAMPLES + BAD_COVERAGE_DL_SAMPLES
= nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_DL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL

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4.2 Call Quality Counters [cont.]


l

RMS counters
VQ_NOISY_UL_BAD_FER = RMS16
Number of calls with bad quality measurements and with bad FER
measurements on the uplink path
Bad quality means bad RXQUAL whatever RXLEV is

VQ_NOISY_UL_GOOD_FER = RMS17
Number of calls with bad quality measurements but with good FER
measurements on the uplink path
VQ_ABNORMAL_BAD_FER = RMS18
Number of calls with fair quality measurements but with bad FER
measurements on the uplink path

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RMS16 = VQ_NOISY_UL_BAD_FER is incremented whenever a call verifies:


100*(BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
and 100*(BAD_QUAL_BAD_FER_UL_SAMPLES / BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_FER_THRESHOLD
with
BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES = INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES + BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES
= nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
BAD_QUAL_BAD_FER_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER and
AV_RXFER_UL_VQ > VQ_BAD_RXFER
considering
AV_RXFER_UL_VQ: average on VQ_AVERAGE measurements of FER
RMS17 = VQ_NOISY_UL_GOOD_FER is incremented whenever a call verifies:
100*(BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES / NUM_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_INTF_THRESHOLD
and 100*(BAD_QUAL_GOOD_FER_UL_SAMPLES / BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_FER_THRESHOLD
with
BAD_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES = INTERFERED_UL_SAMPLES + BAD_COVERAGE_UL_SAMPLES
= nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL
BAD_QUAL_GOOD_FER_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ > VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER
and AV_RXFER_UL_VQ <= VQ_GOOD_RXFER
RMS18 = VQ_ABNORMAL_BAD_FER is incremented whenever a call verifies:
100*(FAIR_QUAL_BAD_FER_UL_SAMPLES / FAIR_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES) > VQ_FER_THRESHOLD
with
FAIR_QUALITY_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ < VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER
FAIR_QUAL_BAD_FER_UL_SAMPLES = nb of times when AV_RXQUAL_UL_VQ<VQ_RXQUAL_VS_RXFER and
AV_RXFER_UL_VQ>VQ_BAD_RXFER

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l

Suspecting a TRX hardware problem


Average path balance

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These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX, per Cell:
l

Vector of the Number of Measurement Results per Path Balance band


RMPBV = RMS_PathBalance_sample

Average Path Balance value


RMPBAN = RMS_PathBalance_avg

A Templates modification is needed to have more details.

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5.1 Generalities [cont.]


l
l

Vector Counter
RMS7a=TPR_PATH_BALANCE

RMS7b=MAX_PATH_BALANCE

The real number of Measurement Results in which Path balance is in


PATH BALANCE band j is equal to:
S(PATH BALANCE band j) x Max / 254
TPR_PATH_BALANCE(j) x MAX_PATH_BALANCE / 254

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The vector counter system is used to provide:


l

Path balance repartition

Radio Link counter (Consecutive Frame Erasure) repartition

C/I repartition

AMR FR/HR/DL/UL usage repartition

TA repartition (improved)

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5.1 Generalities [cont.]


TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL

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TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL

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This counter RMS3a=TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL is a matrix (represented on the left side).


This counter RMS3b=TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL is a vector (represented on the right side).
The real number of Measurement Results in which UL RxQual is equal to i and UL RxLev is in RXLEV
band j, is equal to:
l

S(RXQUAL i, RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254

TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL(i,j) x TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL(j) / 254

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5.2 Radio Quality Parameters


l
l

RMS Parameters
Radio Quality Statistics:
Parameters used to define intervals for RXLEV, Path Balance, Radio Link
Counter and Consecutive Frame Erasure, TA statistics
No parameters needed for AMR measurements (counters, see later)
MEAS_STAT_LEV1 to MEAS_STAT_LEV9:
9 thresholds on the received radio level value defining 10 RXLEV bands
-110 MEAS_STAT_LEV(i+1) MEAS_STAT_LEV(i) < -47 dBm

MEAS_STAT_PATH_BAL1 to MEAS_STAT_PATH_BAL9:
9 thresholds on the radio signal propagation loss difference between UL and
DL defining 10 Path Balance bands
-110< MEAS_STAT_PATHBAL(i) MEAS_STAT_PATHBAL(i+1) +110 dB

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All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters:
l

RMSpt5 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_LEV = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_LEVi

RMSpt4 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_PATH_BALANCE = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_PATH_BALi

The Path Balance is computed by the BTS from each Measurement Result message as the difference
between:
l

Path loss on the uplink: received level by the BTS - MS power level

Path loss on the downlink: received level by the MS - BS power level


n

where the BTS power level is computed as the BTS nominal power minus by the BTS power relative
level.

Therefore the Path balance is computed as follows:


l

Path Balance = (RXLEV_UL - MS_TXPWR) - (RXLEV_DL - [BTS_MAX_OUTPUT_POWER - abs(BS_TXPWR)])


n

where

RXLEV_UL is the received signal levels measured by the BTS on the uplink path (in dBm).
MS_TXPWR is the MS transmitted power converted by the BTS from the MS power level into
dBm value according to the frequency band of the TRX.
BS_TXPWR is the BTS transmitted power offset defined relatively to the maximum absolute
output power of the BTS (negative value in dB).

BTS_MAX_OUTPUT_POWER is the maximum power of the BTS after Combiner (in dBm).

RXLEV_DL is the received signal levels measured by the MS on the downlink path (in dBm).

NOTE: Additional asymetric DL loss (external combiner) or UL gain (TMA) are not taken into account in the
computation, so they must be considered when interpreting the RMS results.

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5.2 Radio Quality Parameters [cont.]


l
l

RMS Parameters
Radio Quality Statistics:
TA_STAT: threshold on the timing advance value defining a priori the range
of the cell (0 to 64 bits)
MEAS_STAT_TA1 to MEAS_STAT_ TA9:
9 thresholds for the timing advance to define 10 TA Bands
MEAS_STAT_S1 to MEAS_STAT_S9:
9 thresholds on the BTS Radio Link Counter S value defining 10 S bands
0

< MEAS_STAT_S(i) MEAS_STAT_S(i+1) 128 SACCH mfr


S: counter managed by the BTS on a per call basis
S = RADIOLINK_TIMEOUT_BS if good radio conditions
S decremented if bad radio conditions
The BSS triggers a call drop when S = 0

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All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters:
l

RMSpt3 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_STAT_S = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_Si

RMSpb = PAR_TA_STAT

RMSpt6 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_STAT_TA = Table of value for 9 parameters: MEAS_STAT_TA1 to TA9


a threshold on Timing Advance measurement to define bands used for RMS

Reminder on the Uplink Radio Link Supervision procedure:


l

For each active dedicated radio channel in a cell, a counter S called Radio Link Counter is:
n

incremented by 2 by the BTS each time a valid SACCH measurement is received from the mobile
(SACCH_BFI=0).

Initial value of S = RADIOLINK_TIMEOUT_BS (cell parameter)


n

decremented by 1 by the BTS each time an SACCH measurement from the mobile cannot be decoded
(SACCH_BFI=1).

if S reaches N_BSTXPWR_M, a radio link recovery is triggered (BTS and MS power increased at their
maximum).
if S reaches 0, a Radio Link Failure is triggered (channel drop).

Therefore the value of S gives a measure of the quality of the radio uplink.

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5.2 Radio Quality Parameters [cont.]


l
l

RMS Parameters
Radio Quality Statistics:
MEAS_STAT_BFI1 to MEAS_STAT_BFI9:
9 thresholds on the number of consecutive speech frames with BFI set to 1
defining 10 BFI bands
0 < MEAS_STAT_BFI(i) MEAS_STAT_BFI(i+1) 25 speech frame
The BTS decodes 24 speech frames (sf) from 1 uplink SACCH multi-frame:
and 1 SACCH frame (or block)
SACCH mfr

TDMA: 4,616ms
T T T T T T T T T T T T
C C C C C C C C C C C C
H H H H H H H H H H H H

Sf 1

Sf 2

Sf 3

S
A
C
C
H

T T T T T T T T T T T T
C C C C C C C C C C C C
H H H H H H H H H H H H

Sf 4

Sf 5

Sf 6

T T T T T T T T T T T T
C C C C C C C C C C C C
H H H H H H H H H H H H

Sf 7

Sf 8

1 1 277

Sf 9

S
A
C
C
H

T T T T T T T T T T T T
C C C C C C C C C C C C
H H H H H H H H H H H H

T T T T T T T T T T T T
C C C C C C C C C C C C
H H H H H H H H H H H H

Sf 10

Sf 13 Sf 14

Sf 11

Sf 12

Sf 15

S
A
C
C
H

T T T T T T T T T T T T
C C C C C C C C C C C C
H H H H H H H H H H H H

T T T T T T T T T T T T
C C C C C C C C C C C C
H H H H H H H H H H H H

Sf 16

Sf 19 Sf 20

Sf 17

Sf 18

Sf 21

S
A
C
C
H

T T T T T T T T T T T T
C C C C C C C C C C C C
H H H H H H H H H H H H

Sf 22

Sf 23

Sf 24

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All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters:
RMSpt2 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_STAT_BFI = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_BFIi
Consecutive Frame Erasure (CFE)
MEAS_STAT_BFIi parameters define 9 intervals of cumulated numbers of consecutive speech frames which
have a Bad Frame Indicator value set to 1 (it means that the speech frame is considered as erroneous by
the BTS).
As the TC will erase speech frames for which a Bad Frame Indicator flag (BFI) has been set to the value 1 by
the BTS, a BFI is used in the RMS counters description whereas the CFE is used in the RMS indicators defined
in the RNO tool.
Note: By default, a BFI relates to a speech frame. When considering SACCH measurement, SACCH_BFI
should be used.

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RMS Counters
Radio Quality Statistics
TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL: matrix of 8x10 elements UL(RXQUAL i, RXLEV
band j), each element is made up of:
Samplesij: norm of number of measurement result samples in which UL RxQual is
equal to i and UL RxLev is reported in RXLEV band j
MS PWR levelij: average value of MS power (in dBm) from pwr levels reported in
these samples
Timing Advanceij: average value of TAs reported in these samples

TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL: vector of 10 elements ULRXQUAL(RXLEV band


j), each element is made up of:
the maximum value of the 8 real numbers of samples in which UL RxQual is equal to i
(i=0 to 7) and UL RxLev is reported in RXLEV band j

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RMS3a=TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL

RMS3b=TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL

The real number of Measurement Results in which UL RxQual is equal to i and UL RxLev is in
RXLEV band j, is equal to:
S(RXQUAL i, RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254
TPR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL(i,j) x TMR_RXQUAL_UL_RXLEV_UL(j) / 254
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RMS Counters
Radio Quality Statistics
TPR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL: matrix of 8x10 elements DL(RXQUAL i, RXLEV
band j), each element is made up of:
Samplesij: norm of number of measurement result samples in which DL RxQual is
equal to i and DL RxLev is reported in RXLEV band j
BS PWR levelij: average value of BS power (in dBm) from pwr levels reported in these
samples
Timing Advanceij: average value of TAs reported in these samples

TMR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL: vector of 10 elements DLRXQUAL(RXLEV band j),


each element is made up of:
the maximum value of the 8 real numbers of samples in which DL RxQual is equal to i
(i=0 to 7) and DL RxLev is reported in RXLEV band j

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RMS4a=TPR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL

RMS4b=TMR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL

The real number of Measurement Results in which DL RxQual is equal to i and DL RxLev is
in RXLEV band j, is equal to:
S(RXQUAL i, RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254
TPR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL(i,j) x TMR_RXQUAL_DL_RXLEV_DL(j) / 254
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RMS Counters
Radio Quality Statistics
TPR_PATH_BALANCE: vector of 10 elements UL/DL(PATH BALANCE band j),
each element is made up of:
the norm of number of measurement result samples for which the computed Path
Balance is in PATH BALANCE band j

MAX_PATH_BALANCE:
the maximum value of the 10 real numbers of samples for which the computed Path
Balance is in PATH BALANCE band j (j=1 to 10)

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RMS7a=TPR_PATH_BALANCE

RMS7b=MAX_PATH_BALANCE

The real number of Measurement Results in which Path balance is in PATH BALANCE
band j, is equal to:
S(PATH BALANCE band j) x Max / 254
TPR_PATH_BALANCE(j) x MAX_PATH_BALANCE / 254

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5.3 Radio Quality Counters [cont.]


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RMS Counters
Radio Quality Statistics
TPR_RADIO_LINK: vector of 10 elements UL(S band j), each element is made
up of:
the norm of number of measurement result samples for which the Uplink Radio Link
Counter is in S band j

MAX_RADIO_LINK:
the maximum value of the 10 real numbers of samples for which the Uplink Radio
Link Counter is in S band j (j=1 to 10)

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RMS6a=TPR_RADIO_LINK

RMS6b=MAX_RADIO_LINK

The real number of Measurement Results in which Uplink Radio Link Counter is in S
band j, is equal to:
S(S band j) x Max / 254
TPR_RADIO_LINK(j) x MAX_RADIO_LINK / 254

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5.3 Radio Quality Counters [cont.]


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RMS Counters
Radio Quality Statistics
TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL: matrix of 10x10 elements UL(BFI i, RXLEV band j), each
element is made up of:
the norm of number of SACCH multi-frames in which the number of consecutive
speech frames with BFIs set to 1 is in BFI band i and UL RxLev reported in the
corresponding measurement results is in RXLEV band j

TMR_BFI_RXLEV_UL: vector of 10 elements ULBFI(RXLEV band j), each


element is made up of:
the maximum value of the 10 real numbers of SACCH multi-frames in which the
number of consecutive speech frames with BFIs set to 1 is in BFI band i (i=0 to 9) and
UL RxLev reported in the corresponding measurement results is in RXLEV band j

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RMS5a=TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL

RMS5b= TPM_BFI_RXLEV_UL

The real number of Measurement Results in which the number of consecutive speech frames
with BFIs set to 1 is in BFI band i and UL RxLev is in RXLEV band j, is equal to:
S(BFI i, RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254
TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL(i,j) x TMR_BFI_RXLEV_UL(j) / 254
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5.3 Radio Quality Counters [cont.]


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RMS Counters
Radio Quality Statistics
The BTS increments the BFI (or CFE) counter as soon as consecutive
speech frames cannot be decoded
isolated speech frames with BFIs set to 1 are not counted
sequences of not decoded speech frames are cumulated

SACCH mfr
0

BFI
1

Sf 1 Sf 2 Sf 3 Sf 4 Sf 5 Sf 6 Sf 7 Sf 8 Sf 9 Sf 10 Sf 11 Sf 12 Sf 13 Sf 14 Sf 15 Sf 16 Sf 17 Sf 18 Sf 19 Sf 20 Sf 21 Sf 22 Sf 23 Sf 24 SACCH f.

CFE
0

RxLev UL
10

11

12

12

11

11

10

Av_RxLev_UL= - 110 + INT[(10+11+9+12+12+11+11+10+3+2+0+8+9+5+3+7+2+1+2+7+3+8+2+3+5)/25]


= -104 dBm
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RMS5a=TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL

RMS5b= TPM_BFI_RXLEV_UL

The real number of Measurement Results in which the number of consecutive speech frames
with BFIs set to 1 is in BFI band i and UL RxLev is in RXLEV band j, is equal to:
S(BFI i, RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254
TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL(i,j) x TMR_BFI_RXLEV_UL(j) / 254
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5.3 Radio Quality Counters [cont.]


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l
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RMS Counters for AMR Monitoring


Radio Quality Statistics
To provide a better tool to dimension the AMR thresholds, B9
introduces a new set of RMS counters to verify the use of different
speech codecs: For Full Rate and Uplink:
AMR_FR_UL_BAD= RMS44a that has 8 cells (1 for each FR codec) with the
relative number of bad speech frames received in uplink.
MAX_AMR_FR_UL_BAD= RMS44b that indicates the maximum number of bad
speech frames received in uplink in one FR codec.
AMR FR codec used in uplink (TRX based)

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RMS5a=TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL

RMS5b= TPM_BFI_RXLEV_UL

The real number of Measurement Results in which the number of consecutive speech frames
with BFIs set to 1 is in BFI band i and UL RxLev is in RXLEV band j, is equal to:
S(BFI i, RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254
TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL(i,j) x TMR_BFI_RXLEV_UL(j) / 254
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5.3 Radio Quality Counters [cont.]


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RMS Counters for AMR Monitoring


Radio Quality Statistics
AMR thresholds; different speech codecs:
For Half Rate and Uplink:
AMR_HR_UL_BAD= RMS45a that has 8 cells (1 for each HR codec) with the
relative number of bad speech frames received in uplink.
MAX_AMR_HR_UL_BAD= RMS45b that indicates the maximum number of bad
speech frames received in uplink in one HR codec.
AMR HR codec used in uplink (TRX based)

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RMS5a=TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL

RMS5b= TPM_BFI_RXLEV_UL

The real number of Measurement Results in which the number of consecutive speech frames
with BFIs set to 1 is in BFI band i and UL RxLev is in RXLEV band j, is equal to:
S(BFI i, RXLEV band j) x Max j / 254
TPR_BFI_RXLEV_UL(i,j) x TMR_BFI_RXLEV_UL(j) / 254
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RMS Counters for AMR Monitoring


Radio Quality Statistics
AMR Table; different speech codecs:
For Full Rate, UL & DL
AMR_FR_UL_RXLEV_UL= RMS46a that has a table (8x10) with relative number
of correct speech frames received in uplink in each AMR FR codec (8 codecs)
and each level band (10 level bands).
MAX_AMR_FR_UL_RXLEV_UL= RMS46b that has the 10 maximum results. Each
cell Ci of the table indicates the greatest value of the Vik for a i given in
RMS46a.
AMR_FR_DL_RXLEV_DL= RMS47a that has a table (8x10) with relative number
of correct speech frames received in downlink in each AMR FR codec (8
codecs) and each level band (10 level bands).
MAX_AMR_FR_DL_RXLEV_DL= RMS47b that has a table of 10 maximum results.
Each cell Ci of the table indicates the greatest value of the Vik for a i given in
RMS47a.

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AMR-FR codec usage compared to RXLEV

RXLEV UL bands are defined as follows:

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5.3 Radio Quality Counters [cont.]


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RMS Counters for AMR Monitoring


Radio Quality Statistics
AMR Table; different speech codecs:
For Half Rate, UL & DL
AMR_HR_UL_RXLEV_UL= RMS48a that has a table (5x10) with relative number
of correct speech frames received in uplink in each AMR HR codec (5 codecs)
and each level band (10 level bands).
MAX_AMR_HR_UL_RXLEV_UL= RMS48b that has a table of 10 maximum
results. Each cell Ci of the table indicates the greatest value of the Vik for a i
given in RMS48a.
AMR_HR_DL_RXLEV_DL= RMS49a that has a table (5x10) with relative number
of correct speech frames received in downlink in each AMR HR codec (5
codecs) and each level band (10 level bands).
MAX_AMR_HR_DL_RXLEV_DL= RMS49b that has a table of 10 maximum
results. Each cell Ci of the table indicates the greatest value of the Vik for a i
given in RMS49a.

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AMR-HR codec usage compared to RXLEV

RXLEV UL bands are defined as follows:

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5.3 Radio Quality Counters [cont.]


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RMS Counters for Timing Advance


Radio Quality Statistics
PERC_TA_GT_TA_STAT:
percentage of measurement results reported with a Timing Advance value > TA_STAT
parameter

MAX_TA:
maximum value of Timing Advance among all TA values reported in the measurement
results used for RMS

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Corresponding RMS counter numbers:


l

RMS36 = PERC_TA_GT_TA_STAT

RMS37 = MAX_TA

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5.3 Radio Quality Counters [cont.]


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RMS Counters for Timing Advance


A new set of RMS counters related with timing advance analysis.
TRX Based. (Rxlev for UL and DL)
TPR_TIMING_ADVANCE= RMS50a that has 10 cells (1 for each timing advance
band) with relative number of measurements in each Timing advance band.
MAX_TIMING_ADVANCE = RMS50b that has the greatest number of
measurements in one Timing advance band.
TPR_UL_RXLEV_TA_BAND= RMS51 that has 10 cells (1 for each timing advance
band) with average of uplink rxlev in corresponding timing advance band.
TPR_DL_RXLEV_TA_BAND= RMS52 that has 10 cells (1 for each timing advance
band) with average of downlink rxlev in corresponding timing advance band.

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The distribution of number of measurement reports for which the value of timing advance is in TA band X is
described below:

There are 10 TA bands which are defined through 9 thresholds parameters, tunable on a cell basis, using
the RMS_parameters_template:
l

TA band 1 is defined by:

TA band 2 is defined by:

0 <= TA < Meas_STAT_TA_1


MEAS_STAT_TA_1 <= TA < MEAS_STAT_TA_2
l

TA band 10 is defined by: MEAS_STAT_TA_9 <= TA < 63

The TRE counts for each TA band the number of measurement results, N1 to N10. To save on the memory
resources, these counters are sent to the BSC in a coded format.

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RMS Counters for Timing Advance


A new set of RMS counters related with timing advance analysis.
Uplink:
TPR_UL_RXQUAL_TA_BAND= RMS53: Table of 10 results
that has 10 cells (1 for each timing advance band) with average of uplink
rxqual in corresponding timing advance band.

Downlink:
TPR_DL_RXQUAL_TA_BAND= RMS54 Table of 10 results
that has 10 cells (1 for each timing advance band) with average of uplink
rxqual in corresponding timing advance band.

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TPR_UL_RXQUAL_TA_BAND= RMS53
Table of 10 results; Each cell (i) of the table contains the average value of UpLink Rxqual of reports in TA
band i.
Averaged Rxqual is given with a precision of 2 digits after the comma (step size for coding = 0.01, 0 coded
0, 0.01 coded 1, ...).
i = 1...10
TA band i is defined by MEAS_STAT_TA_ (i-1)<= Timing Advance < MEAS_STAT_TA_i
MEAS_STAT_TA_0 = 0 bper, MEAS_STAT_LEV_10 = 63 bper.
TPR_DL_RXQUAL_TA_BAND= RMS54
Table of 10 results (same for Downlink).

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RMS Counters for Timing Advance


MAX_POWER_PER_TRX
Maximum GMSK TRX power level applied at the BTS antenna output
connector in dBm.
The power takes into account the different losses
(cables, internal combiners)
TRX Based

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MAX_POWER_PER_TRX= RMSPw3
Maximum GMSK TRX power level applied at the BTS antenna output connector in dBm.
The power takes into account the different losses (cables, internal combiners) and the internal/ external
leveling but it does not take into account the BS-TXPWR-MAX, attenuation required by the OMC_R.
If the feature unbalancing TRX output power per BTS sector" is activated (parameter En-UnbalancedOutput-Power set to 1), the counter is set by the BTS to the power required by the BSC for the
corresponding TRE (i.e. for the TRE on which is mapped that TRX).

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6.1 C/I Generalities


l

Storage and Computation Methods

In order to provide an efficient storage, the "vector method" already


seen for previous RMS statistics will be used for C/I counters

C/I expressed in logarithmic scale (dB)


(C/I)dB

1 1 293

= CdBm - IdBm = 10 log10(CmW) - 10 log10(ImW)


= 10 log10(C/I)mW

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6.2 C/I Parameters


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RMS Parameters
C/I statistics:
parameters defining intervals for C/I statistics
MEAS_STAT_C_I1 to MEAS_STAT_C_I9: 9 thresholds on the
Carrier/Interference ratio defining 10 C/I bands
-63 < MEAS_STAT_C_I(i) MEAS_STAT_C_I(i+1) +63 dB

EN_BALANCED_CI: boolean indicating if the C/I value reported by the BTS is


balanced or not
NEIGB_CELL_ID: (BCCH,BSIC) of the neighboring cell for which the C/I
statistics per neighboring cell are reported
Frequency ARFCN: ARFCN of the frequency for which the C/I statistics per
MAFA frequency are reported

Annex 2

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All these parameters are included in the RMS PM Type 31 result files as RMS counters:
l

RMSpt1 = TAB_PAR_MEAS_STAT_C/I = Table of 9 parameters MEAS_STAT_C_Ii

RMSp80 = NEIGB_CELL_ID

RMSp90 = Frequency ARFCN

For C/I statistics per neighboring cell:


l

The C/I ratio is computed by the BTS from each Measurement Result message as the difference between:
n

the downlink signal level measured by the MS on the serving TCH channel = C (dBm)

the downlink signal level measured by the MS on the neighboring BCCH channel = I (dBm)

Two computation formulae may be used taking into account a corrective factor in case DL Power Control
is used in the serving cell:

If EN_BALANCED_CI = False

then C/I (dB) = RXLEV_DL (dBm) - RXLEV_NCELL (dBm)

else C/I (dB) = RXLEV_DL + abs(BS_TXPWR - BS_TXPWR_MAX) - RXLEV_NCELL


The expression (RXLEV_DL + abs(BS_TXPWR - BS_TXPWR_MAX)) can be seen as a kind of normalized
received power level in case the BTS would always have used the maximum allowed transmit power
level on the TCH channel.

For C/I statistics per MAFA frequency:


The C/I ratio is computed by the BTS from each Extended Measurement Report message in the same way as
the C/I ratio per neighboring cell.

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RMS Counters

C/I statistics per neighboring cell


TPR_CIN: vector of 10 elements C/In(C/I band j), each element is made up
of:
the norm of number of measurement result samples for which the computed
Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j

MR_CIN:
maximum value of the 10 real numbers of samples for which the computed
Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j (j=1 to 10)

TPR_CIN and MR_CIN counters are provided for up to 42 neighboring cells

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RMS8a=TPR_CIN

RMS8b=TMR_CIN

For each reported neighboring cell (BCCH/BSIC):


the Real number of Measurement Results for which the computed Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I
band j, is equal to:
S(C/I band j) x Max / 254
TPR_CIN(j) x TMR_CIN / 254
For each declared/reported neighboring cell, the identification of this cell shall be done as follows:
BCCH_ARFCN and BSIC.
The BCCH ARFCN is deduced in the BTS from the BCCH frequency index and the list of indexed frequencies
(sent by the BSC at the beginning of the RMS job).
The RMS results report shall include all reported neighboring cells. Some of them correspond to known cells
at the BSS level (i.e. their BSIC matches what is expected at the BSC side) but some of them are unknown
(their BSIC does not match). However, the BTS will handle the same for both cases.
The list of frequencies to be monitored by the mobile is limited to 33 but due to resurgence, the same
frequency can be reported several times (each time with a different BSIC). If the number of reported cells
is above the dimensioning limit (maximum 42 CI-vectors are reported), the extra new reported frequencies
are not taken into account anymore. In the result report, the related overflow indicator is set accordingly.
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RMS Counters

C/I statistics per MAFA Frequency


TPR_CIF: vector of 10 elements C/If(C/I band j), each element is made up of:
the norm of number of Extended Measurement Results samples for which the
computed Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j

MR_CIF:
maximum value of the 10 real numbers of samples for which the computed
Carrier/Interference ratio is in C/I band j (j=1 to 10)

TPR_CIF and MR_CIF counters are provided for up to 21 frequencies (serving cell
BCCH + 20 MAFA frequencies)

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RMS9a=TPR_CIF

RMS9b=TMR_CIF

For each reported MAFA frequency (ARFCN):


the Real number of Extended Measurement Results for which the computed Carrier/Interference ratio
is in C/I band j, is equal to:
S(C/I band j) x Max / 254
TPR_CIF(j) x TMR_CIF / 254
For each reported MAFA frequency, the identification of this frequency shall be done as follows: Frequency
ARFCN.
In case of a frequency reported via an Extended Measurement Reporting, no BSIC is required: the frequency
ARFCN is not directly linked to a BCCH frequency. The ARFCN value of the frequency is deduced in the BTS
from the place of the measurement in the EXTENDED_ MEASUREMENT_REPORT and from the ordered
frequency list in the Extended Measurement Order. This list is built by the OMC-R and passed via BSC to BTS
at the beginning of the RMS job.
The maximum number of frequencies in the order (EMO) is the maximum defined in GSM (=21). Hence the
maximum in the report is 21 too. When in exceptional cases, more results are available (future expansion in
GSM), only the first 21 are reported.
The BCCH frequency of the serving cell shall always be part of the EMO-frequency list.
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7 Call Drop with Specific Radio Causes

7.1 Generalities
l
l

The objective is to associate a specific radio cause (too low level, too
bad quality, etc.) to each call drop, in the RMS statistics.
Each time a BSS triggered call release happens, the BSC shall use the
last measurements received for this MS to compute what is the
probable cause of the drop
According to some thresholds
If several causes are eligible, only the one with the highest priority shall be
reported.
Could then be used to increment counters

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RMS9a=TPR_CIF

RMS9b=TMR_CIF

The Real number of Extended Measurement Results for which the computed Carrier/Interference ratio
is in C/I band j, is equal to:
S(C/I band j) x Max / 254
TPR_CIF(j) x TMR_CIF / 254
For each reported MAFA frequency, the identification of this frequency shall be done as follows: Frequency
ARFCN.
In case of a frequency reported via an Extended Measurement Reporting, no BSIC is required: the frequency
ARFCN is not directly linked to a BCCH frequency. The ARFCN value of the frequency is deduced in the BTS
from the place of the measurement in the EXTENDED_ MEASUREMENT_REPORT and from the ordered
frequency list in the Extended Measurement Order. This list is built by the OMC-R and passed via BSC to BTS
at the beginning of the RMS job.
The maximum number of frequencies in the order (EMO) is the maximum defined in GSM (=21). Hence the
maximum in the report is 21 too. When in exceptional cases, more results are available (future expansion in
GSM), only the first 21 are reported.
The BCCH frequency of the serving cell shall always be part of the EMO-frequency list.
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7 Call Drop with Specific Radio Causes

7.2 Thresholds for Detection


l

Condition to trigger a reported HO cause


Condition verified by last MS measurements

AV_RXQUAL_UL_HO > L_RXQUAL_UL_H + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH


And
AV_RXLEV_UL_HO <= RXLEV_UL_IH
AV_RXQUAL_DL_HO > L_RXQUAL_DL_H + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH
And
AV_RXLEV_DL_HO <= RXLEV_DL_IH
AV_RXQUAL_UL_HO <= L_RXQUAL_UL_H + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH
And
AV_RXLEV_UL_HO < L_RXLEV_UL_H
AV_RXQUAL_DL_HO <= L_RXQUAL_DL_H + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH
And
AV_RXLEV_DL_HO < L_RXLEV_DL_H
AV_RANGE_HO > U_TIME_ADVANCE
AV_RANGE_HO L_TIME_ADVANCE
AV_RXQUAL_UL_HO > THR_RXQUAL_CAUSE_15 +
OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH
And
AV_RXLEV_UL_HO > RXLEV_UL_IH
AV_RXQUAL_DL_HO > THR_RXQUAL_CAUSE_16 +
OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH
And
AV_RXLEV_DL_HO > RXLEV_DL_IH
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Cause to be
reported in
counters

Priority

Too low quality in UL

Too low quality in DL

Too low level in UL

Too low level in DL

Too long MS-BS distance


Too short MS-BS
distance
Too high interference in
the uplink

5
6
7

Too high interference in


the downlink

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RMS9a=TPR_CIF

RMS9b=TMR_CIF

For each reported MAFA frequency (ARFCN):


the Real number of Extended Measurement Results for which the computed Carrier/Interference ratio
is in C/I band j, is equal to:
S(C/I band j) x Max / 254
TPR_CIF(j) x TMR_CIF / 254
For each reported MAFA frequency, the identification of this frequency shall be done as follows: Frequency
ARFCN.
In case of a frequency reported via an Extended Measurement Reporting, no BSIC is required: the frequency
ARFCN is not directly linked to a BCCH frequency. The ARFCN value of the frequency is deduced in the BTS
from the place of the measurement in the EXTENDED_ MEASUREMENT_REPORT and from the ordered
frequency list in the Extended Measurement Order. This list is built by the OMC-R and passed via BSC to BTS
at the beginning of the RMS job.
The maximum number of frequencies in the order (EMO) is the maximum defined in GSM (=21). Hence the
maximum in the report is 21 too. When in exceptional cases, more results are available (future expansion in
GSM), only the first 21 are reported.
The BCCH frequency of the serving cell shall always be part of the EMO-frequency list.
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7 Call Drop with Specific Radio Causes

7.3 Counters
l

Counters for each Handover cause detected

Short Name
MC928a
MC928b
MC928c
MC928d
MC928e
MC928f
MC928g
MC928h

MC928i

Name
Definition
NB_TCH_DROP_CAUSE_TOO_LOW_QUALITY_ Number of TCH drops due to Cause 2 (Too low
UL
quality in UL).
Number of TCH drops due to Cause 3 (Too low
NB_TCH_DROP_CAUSE_TOO_LOW_LEVEL_UL level in UL).
NB_TCH_DROP_CAUSE_TOO_LOW_QUALITY_ Number of TCH drops due to Cause 4 (Too low
DL
quality on the downlink).
Number of TCH drops due to Cause 5 (Too low
NB_TCH_DROP_CAUSE_TOO_LOW_LEVEL_DL level in DL).
NB_TCH_DROP_CAUSE_TOO_LONG_MS_BS_D Number of TCH drops due to Cause 6 (Too long
ISTANCE
MS-BS distance).
NB_TCH_DROP_CAUSE_TOO_SHORT_MS_BS_ Number of TCH drops due to Cause 22 (Too short
DISTANCE
MS-BS distance).
NB_TCH_DROP_CAUSE_TOO_HIGH_INTERFER Number of TCH drops due to Cause 15 (Too high
ENCE_UPLINK
interference level on the uplink).
NB_TCH_DROP_CAUSE_TOO_HIGH_INTERFER Number of TCH drops due to Cause 16 (Too high
ENCE_DOWNLINK
interference level on the downlink).
Number of TCH drops due to other causes than
Cause 2 (Too low quality in UL), Cause 3 (Too low
level in UL), Cause 4 (Too low quality on the
downlink), Cause 5 (Too low level in DL), Cause 6
(Too long MS-BS distance), Cause 15 (Too high
interference level
NB_TCH_DROP_OTHER_CAUSES

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RMS9a=TPR_CIF

RMS9b=TMR_CIF

the Real number of Extended Measurement Results for which the computed Carrier/Interference ratio
is in C/I band j, is equal to:
S(C/I band j) x Max / 254
TPR_CIF(j) x TMR_CIF / 254
For each reported MAFA frequency, the identification of this frequency shall be done as follows: Frequency
ARFCN.
In case of a frequency reported via an Extended Measurement Reporting, no BSIC is required: the frequency
ARFCN is not directly linked to a BCCH frequency. The ARFCN value of the frequency is deduced in the BTS
from the place of the measurement in the EXTENDED_ MEASUREMENT_REPORT and from the ordered
frequency list in the Extended Measurement Order. This list is built by the OMC-R and passed via BSC to BTS
at the beginning of the RMS job.
The maximum number of frequencies in the order (EMO) is the maximum defined in GSM (=21). Hence the
maximum in the report is 21 too. When in exceptional cases, more results are available (future expansion in
GSM), only the first 21 are reported.
The BCCH frequency of the serving cell shall always be part of the EMO-frequency list.
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8 RMS Indicators Usage

8.1 Suspecting a Voice Quality Problem


l

Percentage of Noisy calls

Voice Quality indicators


are based on calls
Noisy calls are associated
with a cause of
bad coverage,
interference or with an
undefined cause
l
l

FER is more reliable than RXQUAL to assess VQ


Noisy calls indicators can also be computed from FER measurements
Noisy calls with bad or good FER
Calls not detected as noisy but with bad FER

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The fact that FER measurements are more reliable than RXQUAL ones to assess the VQ is even more true
when using Slow Frequency Hopping. In this case, RXQUAL values are not anymore correlated to Voice
Quality as perceived by the end user.
FER measurements are available for the uplink path only.
These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX, per Cell:
Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of bad coverage on the uplink path
RMVQULVN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_bad_coverage
l

Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of interference on the uplink path
RMVQUIFN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_interference
l

Number of Noisy calls suffering from problem of interference and bad coverage considered together on
the uplink path
RMVQUUKN = RMS_call_noisy_UL_undefined
l

Rate of Noisy calls suffering from problems of interference or/and bad coverage on the uplink path
RMVQUNOR = RMS_call_noisy_UL_rate
l

Note: The 4 indicators above can be provided for Noisy calls suffering of VQ problems on the dowlink path.
Rate of Noisy calls but with good FER measurements on the uplink path
RMVQFEGR = RMS_call_noisy_good_FER_rate
l

Rate of Noisy calls and also with bad FER measurements on the uplink path
RMVQFEBR = RMS_call_noisy_bad_FER_rate
l

Rate of calls with fair quality measurements but with bad FER measurements on the uplink path
RMVQFEAR = RMS_call_abnormal_bad_FER_rate
l

This last indicator can be used in order to tune the RMS VQ parameters used to characterize a call as Noisy.

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8.2 Suspecting a Cell Coverage Problem


l

Distribution of samples per RxQual value and RxLev band

Not acceptable
coverage limit:
Too low level
Too bad quality

Distribution of samples per RxLev band

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A coverage problem is observed when a significant amount of the traffic of a cell is suffering from both low
level and bad quality (RxQual).
To confirm the distribution of samples per RXLEV band, should be also considered to know the proportion of
calls which are experiencing a low signal level.
If a lot of samples of low level and bad quality are observed for only a sub-part of the TRXs (can be one
only) then a BTS hardware problem or a problem on the aerials should be suspected.
If all the TRXs are experiencing a lot of samples of low level and bad quality then a coverage problem shall
be suspected.
These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX, per Cell:
Matrix of Number of Measurement Results per DL RxQual value and per DL RxLev band
RMQLDSAM = RMS_DL_RxQuality_RxLevel_sample
l

Vector of Percentage of Samples per DL RxLev band


RMQLDLVDV = RMS_DL_RxLevel_distrib
l

Vector of Percentage of Samples per DL RxQual band


RMQLDQUDV = RMS_DL_RxQuality_distrib
l

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8 RMS Indicators Usage

8.2 Suspecting a Cell Coverage Problem [cont.]


l

Average TA values per RxQual value and RxLev band

Not acceptable
coverage limit:
Too low level
Too bad quality

Acceptable coverage limit:


Sufficient level and good quality
% of TA value over TA
threshold has also to be
considered

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In order to know if the coverage problem is due to a big amount of traffic at the cell border or rather to
indoor calls, the average TA value per RXQUAL value and RXLEV band as well as the Percentage of TA
values over the TA threshold should be observed.
Matrix of Average TA per UL RxQual value and per UL RxLev band
RMQLUTAM = RMS_UL_RxQuality_RxLevel_TimingAdvance
l

Rate of Measurements Results whose TA is greater than the TA threshold


RMTAGTR = RMS_TimingAdvance_greater_threshold_rate
l

Maximum TA value of all values reported in Measurement Results


RMTAMXN = RMS_TimingAdvance_max
l

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8 RMS Indicators Usage

Exercise 1
l

Give the list of the RMS counters and parameters used in the 3 previous
slides.

Time allowed:
10 minutes

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8 RMS Indicators Usage

Exercise 2
l

Interpret this
graph.

Time allowed:
10 minutes

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8.3 Suspecting a Cell Interference Problem


l

Number of samples per RxQual value and RxLev band

Average DL RxQuality = 0.34

RMS results show no problem


of radio link quality in this cell
Average RxQual value per
RxLev band has also to be
considered
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These RMS indicators are provided on the RNO tool per TRX, per Cell:
Matrix of Number of Measurement Results per DL RxQual value and per DL RxLev band
RMQLDSAM = RMS_DL_RxQuality_RxLevel_sample

Vector of Average DL RxQual per RxLev band


RMQLDQUAV = RMS_DL_RxQuality_avg_per_RxLevel
l

Average DL RxQuality
RMQLDQUAN = RMS_DL_RxQuality_avg
l

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8 RMS Indicators Usage

Exercise 3
l

Interpret this
graph.

Average DL RxQuality =
2.81

Average RxQual value per


RxLev band has also to be
considered
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8 RMS Indicators Usage

Exercise 4
l

Interpret this
graph.

Time allowed:
15 minutes

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8 RMS Indicators Usage

Exercise 5
l

Interpret
this graph.

Time allowed:
10 minutes

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8 RMS Indicators Usage

Exercise 6
l

Compute the RMS counters and indicators in the file.

Time allowed:
10 minutes

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9 Additional Information

RMS Counters
l

Counters used for post-processing the RMS results provided per TRX
TOT_SEIZ_TCH: number of TCH channels successfully seized by the MS
TOT_MEAS: number of Measurement Results used for RMS
TOT_MEAS_L1INFO_NOL3INFO: number of Measurement Results used for RMS
statistics for which Layer 1 info is present but Layer 3 is missing
TOT_MEAS_DTX_UL: number of Measurement Results used for RMS statistics
for which DTX UL was used in the corresponding SACCH mfr
TOT_MEAS_DTX_DL: number of Measurement Results used for RMS statistics
for which DTX DL was used in the corresponding SACCH mfr
TOT_EMR: number of Extended Measurement Results used for RMS statistics

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Corresponding RMS counter numbers:


l

RMS31 = TOT_SEIZ_TCH

RMS32 = TOT_MEAS

RMS33 = TOT_MEAS_L1INFO_NOL3INFO

RMS34 = TOT_MEAS_DTX_UL

RMS35 = TOT_MEAS_DTX_DL

RMS38 = TOT_EMR

Note:
If during an SACCH measurement, DTX is applied on the uplink path (DTX_UL =1), the counters on
consecutive BFIs (RMS5a, RMS5b) shall not be incremented and the corresponding measurement result shall
not be taken into account in these RMS counters.
l

If during an SACCH measurement, DTX is applied on the uplink path (DTX_UL = 1), the FER measurement
does not take place.
l

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9 Additional Information

RMS Counters [cont.]


l

Counters used for interpreting the RMS results provided per TRX:
TRE_BAND: frequency band of the TRX
BS_TX_PWRMAX: effective maximum output power of the BTS on any channel
of the TRX as an offset from the maximum absolute output power (in dB)
MS_TX_PWRMAX: effective maximum output power of the MS using any
channel of the TRX (in dBm)
IND_TRE_OVERLOAD: boolean indicating if the TRE handling the TRX function
has experienced a data loss due to a processor overload during the RMS
campaign
IND_RMS_RESTARTED: boolean indicating if the RMS job has been restarted on
the concerned TRE during the RMS campaign due to a modification of the RMS
parameter values or a TRE reset

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Corresponding RMS counter numbers: RMS20 = TRE_BAND


l

RMSpw1 = BS_TX_PWRMAX

RMSpw2 = MS_TX_PWRMAX

RMS21 = IND_TRE_OVERLOAD

RMS22 = IND_RMS_RESTARTED

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9 Additional Information

RMS Counters [cont.]


l

Counters used for interpreting the C/I RMS results provided per TRX:
IND_CI_PARTIAL_OBSERVATION: made up of 2 booleans indicating that:
C/In computation has been restarted due to the modification of the list of
neighboring cells during the RMS campaign
C/If computation has been restarted due to the modification of the list of MAFA
frequencies during the RMS campaign

IND_CI_OVERFLOW: boolean indicating that the upper limit of 42 C/I sets of


counters has been exceeded (each new reported neighboring cell (BCCH,
BSIC) has not been taken into account in RMS statistics)

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Corresponding RMS counter numbers:


l

RMS23 = IND_CI_PARTIAL_OBSERVATION

RMS24 = IND_CI_OVERFLOW

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Self-assessment on the Objectives


l

Please be reminded to fill in the form


Self-Assessment on the Objectives
for this module
The form can be found in the first part
of this course documentation

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End of Module
Radio Measurement Statistics Indicators

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11

Do not delete this graphic elements in here:

Section 1
GSM QoS Monitoring
Module 7
Traffic Indicators

3JK11049AAAAWBZZA Issue 01

EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem


Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10
3FL10491ADAAZZZZA Issue 01

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Blank Page

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Document History
Edition

Date

Author

Remarks

01

YYYY-MM-DD

Last name, first name

First edition

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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Module Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
Describe BSS traffic indicators used for radio resource dimensioning

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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Module Objectives [cont.]

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Table of Contents
Page

Switch to notes view!


1 Call Mix Definition
2 Basis of Traffic Theory
3 TCH Resource Allocation Indicators
4 Resource Occupancy Indicators
5 Traffic Model Indicators
6 Preemption Indicators

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7
15
29
34
37
40

Table of Contents [cont.]


Switch to notes view!

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1 Call Mix Definition

GSM Transactions
l

In a GSM Network, there are a lot of different transactions:

location update: periodic, new updating, ~imsi_attach, ~imsi_detach


Hand Over (intra-cell, internal, external, etc.)
SMS (Short Message Service, originating or terminating)
SS (Supplementary Service) (i.e: number presentation)
Paging
and also Originating and Terminating calls, etc.
and so on (data, SMS-CB, etc.)

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In a GSM network, telecom procedures involve different kinds of resource in the BSS:
l

Location Update: RACH, AGCH, SDCCH and SCCP

Originated Call: RACH, AGCH, SDCCH, TCH and SCCP

Terminated Call: PCH, RACH, AGCH, SDCCH, TCH and SCCP

Handover: TCH, SCCP

etc.

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1 Call Mix Definition

GSM Transactions [cont.]


l

One can quantify the number of each transaction per hour

For example, for one cell, one can measure:

900 calls (600 TCs, 300 OCs)


3600 LUs (any type)
1350 HOs (900 internal, 450 external)
100 SMSs
5 SSs
6000 pagings
With the following characteristics
mean call duration on TCH: 50 seconds
mean SDCCH duration: 3.2 seconds

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A Call mix can be defined through:


l

data given by the Marketing team.

data measured from the living network.

Before network design, a Call Mix is assessed from Marketing Studies or observations from other networks.
After commercial opening, a Call Mix is measured from the real traffic.
Caution: Call duration means here TCH duration. The duration of a call from call setup to call release is an NSS
notion.

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1 Call Mix Definition

Example
l

Set of such measurements is called "call mix"


sometimes improperly called "traffic model"

Usually presented in the following way:

Calls /hour
LU/call
HO/Call
SMS/Call
SS/call
Paging/hour
mean call duration on TCH
mean SDCCH duration

1 1 327

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

900 (2/3 TC)


4
1.5 (2/3 internal, 1/3 external)
11 %
5%
6000
90 seconds
4.2 seconds

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

After commercial opening, the number of calls per hour will be measured from traffic counters.
Usually the Marketing team will provide:
l

on a per geographical area or morphostructure basis:


n

the traffic per km2 (in Erlang),

the traffic per subscriber (in mErl).

the number of calls per hour.

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1 Call Mix Definition

Variation
l

A call mix is varying a lot:


from a cell to another
TCH traffic (induced by subscribers)
number of LU/call and HO/call (induced by network design)

from one hour to another


by default: busy hour

from one year to another


modification of traffic intensity and distribution

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

On some university campus, an SMS/call is often higher than the average.

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1 Call Mix Definition

Usage
l

Interests of call mix: Input data for dimensioning


Cell and BSC resources dimensioning
RTCH, SDCCH, TTCH, BTS, BSC and MSC CPU processor

Some examples of "risky" call mix

1 1 329

too
too
too
too

many LU/Calls: SDCCH congestion, TCU load, MSC overload


many HO/calls: speech quality, call drop, DTC load
many calls: TCH congestion
many paging: DTC processor load, PCH congestion

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

A Call Mix will be used at Radio Network Design and Radio Network Planning stages in order to define the
capacity of the network (number of sites, TRXs per site, radio configuration, number of Abis-PCM, A-PCM).
When the network is in operation, a Call Mix is used in order to anticipate network extension or redimensioning.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 329

1 Call Mix Definition

Advises
l

Some advises
LU/CALL: 1 is "good", 2 is "bad", 4 and more can be dangerous
beware of the Network or BSC averages which can hide critical cells

HO/Call: less critical (1 is good)


2 or 3 is not a direct problem, but the trend has to be monitored

Call: to be checked with an Erlang table (seen in next session)

1 1 330

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 330

1 Call Mix Definition

Exercise
l

Compute the call mix of a cell according the following information:


256 calls/hour
1300 LUs/hour
450 HOs/hour

l
l

Is it complete?
What are the risks of such a call mix?

Time allowed:
15 minutes

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 331

2 Basis of Traffic Theory

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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2 Basis of Traffic Theory

Erlang Definition
l

ERLANG: unit used to quantify traffic (intensity)


T = (resource usage duration) / (total observation duration) [ERLANG]

Example:
For 1 TCH, observed during 1 hour
one can observe 2 calls: 1 of 80 seconds and 1 of 100 seconds
T = (80+100)/3600 = 0.05 ERLANG

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 333

2 Basis of Traffic Theory

Erlang from Call Mix


l

Call mix example:

350 calls/hour
3 LUs/call
TCH mean call duration: 85 seconds
SDCCH mean duration: 4.5 seconds

Computation of Carried Erlang


TCH = (350*85)/3600: 8.26 ERLANGS
SDCCH = [ (350+350*3) * 4.5 ] / 3600 = 1.75 Erlang

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 334

2 Basis of Traffic Theory

Erlang B Law
l
l

In a Telecom system, the call arrival frequency is ruled by the POISSON


law
Erlang B law: relationship between:
offered traffic
number of resources
blocking rate

1 1 335

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 335

2 Basis of Traffic Theory

Erlang B Law [cont.]


l

The call request arrival rate (and leaving) is not stable


number of resources = average number of requests * mean duration
is sometimes not sufficient => probability of blocking

=> Erlang B law


Pblock: blocking probability
N: number of resources
E: offered traffic [Erlang]

Offered
Rejected

Carried

Telecom system

Good approximation when the blocking rate


is low (< 5 %)
P block =

1 1 336

N
k =0

N!

k!

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The Erlang B law is not fully accurate since it assumes that:


l

the subscriber requests are not queued which is not always the case (TCH queued in the BSC),

the subscriber does not repeat his call request if rejected, which is almost never the case.

Therefore the higher the blocking rate the worse is the approximation of the Erlang B law.
The Erlang C law modelizes better the TCH resource usage of the BSS since it takes into account the queuing.
However the Erlang C law is never used since parameters like size of the queue and time spent into the queue
have to be tuned.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 336

2 Basis of Traffic Theory

Erlang B Formulae
l

There are two different ways to use this law


Using Abacus
Using SW (here Excel)
Pblock = f (T, Nc)
Offered = f (Nc, Pblock)
Channels = f (T, Pblock)

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 337

2 Basis of Traffic Theory

Erlang B Abacus

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 338

2 Basis of Traffic Theory

Erlang B Example
l

Example:
1 cell with 8 TRXs, with 60 TCH channels
Maximum blocking rate: 2 %
Erlang law: 50 Offered Erlang
83 % of TCH resources used to reach 2% of blocking

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 339

2 Basis of Traffic Theory

Non Linearity of Erlang B


l

But be careful, the Erlang B law is not linear:


If we use for example a combined BCCH with a micro BTS.
4 SDCCHs, Pblock = 2% =>
T = 1.1 E
25% resources used to reach 2% blocking

if we decide to provide SMSCB (Cell Broadcast information),


1 SDCCH stolen for CBCH
3 SDCCHs, Pblock = 2%
25% resources less

1 1 340

=>
=>

T = 0.6 E
50% Traffic less!!

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 340

2 Basis of Traffic Theory

Cell Dimensioning
l

Given an Offered traffic, compute the number of TRXs (and SDCCH)


needed to carry it => What is the accepted blocking rate?

Default blocking rate


RTCH: 2 %
SDCCH: 0.5 %
(for BSC TTCH: 0.1%)

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The Erlang B law is less relevant for SDCCH dimensioning since SDCCH traffic cannot be modelized like TCH
traffic. Indeed SDCCH is not only due to subscriber traffic but also to Location Update, SMS, IMSI Detach, etc.
For SDCCH dimensioning, some typical configurations are used according to the number of TRXs in the cell, the
LA plan.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 341

2 Basis of Traffic Theory

Dimensioning "a Priori"


l

Cell dimensioning from call mix (bid, architecture)


to handle an offered traffic of 12 Erlangs (RTCH), compute the number of
channels, then the number of TRXs
Channels (12;2%) = 19
example: 3 TRXs, 21 TCHs, 1 BCCH, 2 SDCCHs/8

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 342

2 Basis of Traffic Theory

Dimensioning "a Posteriori"


l

Cell dimensioning from measurement (re-planning)


one is measuring a traffic of 15 Erlangs, with a blocking rate of 10%
how to dimension the cell?
Offered traffic = 15 / (1-10%) = 16.7 Erlangs!!!!
Channels (16.7;2%) -> 25 TCHs -> 4 TRXs needed

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 343

2 Basis of Traffic Theory

Forecast / Critical Traffic


l

Forecast traffic
traffic forecasting must be computed according to the offered traffic
not directly on the measured traffic

In order to plan the necessary actions soon enough, one must compute
regularly the date when the traffic of a cell will become critical
l

Critical traffic
critical traffic: when the offered traffic will induce 2% of blocking
traffic capacity of a cell = critical traffic of this cell

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 344

2 Basis of Traffic Theory

Exercise
l

Complete the form to get less than 2% of blocking.

cell

call mix info

12, 743

450 call/hour
10,08 Erlang TCH 30 % offered traffic 13,1 Erlang TCH - > 20 TCH
mean TCH call duration : 80
increase
3 TRX
sec
blocking rate TCH : 0.8%

12,675

330 call/hour
mean TCH call duration 129
sec
blocking rate 4%
600 call/hour
mean TCH call duration 96
sec
blocking rate 8 %

12,865

1 1 345

Erlang TCH
Offered traffic

traffic forecast

30 % offered traffic
increase
30 % offered traffic
increase

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 345

proposed config

3 TCH Resource Allocation Indicators

1 1 346

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3 TCH Resource Allocation Indicators

Radio Allocation and Management


l

Radio resource allocation and management (RAM) aims at:


Managing pools of TCH radio resources by:
defining TCH radio timeslots as a function of the cell radio configuration from the
operator
sorting these TCH TSs according to their radio capabilities (FR or DR, frequency band
(G1 or GSM/DCS))

Allocating dedicated TCH radio resources by:


selecting the TCH pool in which the TCH should be chosen according to:

the requested channel rate (FR or HR)


the radio capability of the mobile
the TRE DR capability and the TRE band

selecting the best TCH resource among the available TCH channels of this pool
according to several criteria

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3 TCH Resource Allocation Indicators

MS Access
l

MS access types distribution (NA only)


Accessibility in type 110 since B8
TCH requests from FR only MS
TCNARQMN= MC701A
TCH requests from DR MS
TCNARQBN= MC701B
TCH requests from DR+EFR MS
TCNARQTN= MC701C
TCH requests from AMR MS
TCNA3RQTN= MC701D
TCH requests from Data calls
TCNARQDN= MC701E

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Speech version and Channel type
These indicators can only be computed if PM Type 1 is activated in B7. From B8, the counters needed for these indicators
are added to type 110.
The following indicators are also computed:
Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests from FR mobiles over all TCH normal assignment requests from all mobile types
= TCNARQMTO = MC701A / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E)
l

Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests from DR mobiles over all TCH normal assignment requests from all mobile types
= TCNARQBTO = MC701B / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E)
l

Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests from DR+EFR mobiles over all TCH normal assignment requests from all mobile
types
= TCNARQTTO = MC701C / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E)
l

Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests from AMR mobiles over all TCH normal assignment requests from all mobile
types
= TCNA3RQTTO = MC701D / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E)
l

Ratio of TCH normal assignment requests for Data calls over all TCH normal assignment requests from all mobile types
= TCNARQDTO = MC701E / (MC701A+MC701B+MC701C+MC701D+MC701E)
l

Number of handover intracell attempts with cause 27: "FR to HR channel adaptation due to a good radio quality" on a TCH
channel
= HCSTAMFN = MC448B
l

Number of handover intracell attempts with cause 26: "HR to FR channel adaptation due to a bad radio quality" on a TCH
channel
= HCSTAMHN = MC448A
l

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3 TCH Resource Allocation Indicators

Speech Coding Version


Speech coding Version capabilities distribution (NA only)
Accessibility in type 110 since B8

TCH allocations with FR SV1


TCNACAFN= MC702A
TCH allocations with HR SV1
TCNACAHN= MC702B
TCH allocations with FR SV2 (EFR)
TCNACAEN= MC702C
TCH allocations with FR SV3 (AMR FR)
TCNA3CAFN= MC704A
TCH allocations with HR SV3 (AMR HR)
TCNA3CAHN= MC704B
TCH allocations for data call
TCNACADN= MC705

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Speech version and Channel type
These indicators can only be computed if PM Type 1 is activated in B7. From B8, the counters needed for
these Indicators are added to type 110.
The following indicators are also computed:
Ratio of TCH allocations with FR SV1 over all TCH allocations during normal assignment
= TCNACAFTO = MC702A / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705)

Ratio of TCH allocations with HR SV1 over all TCH allocations during normal assignment
= TCNACAHTO = MC702B / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705)
l

Ratio of TCH allocations with EFR over all TCH allocations during normal assignment
= TCNACAETO = MC702C / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705)
l

Ratio of TCH allocations with AMR FR over all TCH allocations during normal assignment
= TCNA3CAFTO = MC704A / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705)
l

Ratio of TCH allocations with AMR HR over all TCH allocations during normal assignment
= TCNA3CAHTO = MC704A / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705)
l

Ratio of TCH allocations for Data calls over all TCH allocations during normal assignment
= TCNACADTO = MC705 / (MC702A+MC702B+MC702C+MC704A+MC704B+MC705)
l

Rate of successful TCH allocations with AMR SV over all AMR MS requests
= TCNA3SUR = (MC704A+MC704B) / MC701D
l

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3 TCH Resource Allocation Indicators

Distributions

FR/HR calls distribution (NA+HO)

FR TCH allocation ratio


TCAHCAFO = MC370A / (MC370A+MC370B)
HR TCH allocation ratio
TCAHCAHO = MC370B / (MC370A+MC370B)

NA/HO distribution

Normal Assignment TCH allocation ratio


TCNACAO = MC703 / (MC703 + [MC15A+MC15B])
Handover TCH allocation ratio
TCHOCAO = [MC15A+MC15B] / (MC703 + [MC15A+MC15B])

TCH allocation distribution per TRX

Number of TCH allocations for Normal Assignment


TCNACAN = MC703

1 1 350

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Resource occupancy
l
l

l
l
l

MC370A = Number of FR TCH allocations (FR+EFR+AMR FR)


MC370B = Number of HR TCH allocations (HR+AMR HR)
MC703 = Number of TCH allocations for Normal Assignment
MC15A = Number of TCH allocations for Internal Directed Retry
MC15B = Number of TCH allocations for Handover (intra cell, internal, external)

TCNACAN indicator is also available as the MAX value of the day on the A9156 RNO tool.
Some of these indicators are also available for SDCCH:
l SDCCH allocation distribution per TRX through the number of SDCCH allocations
SDAHCAN = MC390
l SDCCH Assignment/HO distribution through the ratio of SDCCH allocations for Assignment
SDNACAO = MC148 / MC390

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4 Resource Occupancy Indicators

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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4 Resource Occupancy Indicators

TCH Resource

TCH resource occupancy

TCH traffic in Erlang


TCTRE= (MC380A+MC380B) / 3600
TCH mean holding time (TCH average duration)
TCTRMHT= (MC380A+MC380B) / (MC370A+MC370B)
FR TCH traffic in Erlang
TCTRE= MC380A / 3600
FR TCH mean holding time
TCTRFMHT= MC380A/ MC370A
HR TCH traffic in Erlang
TCTRE= MC380B / 3600
HR TCH mean holding time
TCTRHMHT= MC380B/ MC370B

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Resource occupancy
l

MC380A = Cumulated FR TCH duration per TRX

MC380B = Cumulated HR TCH duration per TRX

The following indicators can also be computed:


l

TCTRME = Multiband MS TCH traffic in Erlang = MC381 / 3600

TCTRSE = Single band MS TCH traffic in Erlang = ([MC380A+MC380B] - MC381) / 3600

MC381 = Cumulated (FR+HR) TCH duration of Multiband mobiles per TRX


A split of counters (MC380a and MC380b) is added, in B8, to make the distinction between traffic in different
frequency bands: here after the corresponding stored indicators (type 110):
l

TCTRFTTGT = Time (in seconds) during which the TCH radio timeslot or dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in the
GSM frequency band is busy in FR usage = MC380C
l

TCTRHTTGT = Time (in seconds) during which the TCH radio timeslot or dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in the
GSM frequency band is busy in HR usage = MC380D
l

TCTRFTTDT = Time (in seconds) during which the TCH radio timeslot or dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in the
DCS/PCS frequency band is busy in FR usage = MC380E
l

TCTRHTTDT = Time (in seconds) during which the TCH radio timeslot or dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in the
DCS/PCS frequency band is busy in HR usage = MC380F
l

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4 Resource Occupancy Indicators

SDCCH / ACH Resource


SDCCH resource occupancy

SDCCH traffic in Erlang


SDTRE= MC400 / 3600
SDCCH mean holding time (SDCCH average duration)
SDTRMHT= MC400 / MC390

ACH resource occupancy

ACH traffic in Erlang


C750 / 3600
ACH mean holding time (ACH average duration)
QSTRN =C750 / C751

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Traffic Load and Traffic Model > SDCCH traffic > Resource occupancy
l

MC400 = Cumulated SDCCH duration per TRX

MC380 = Number of SDCCH allocations per TRX

C750 and C751 are 2 counters introduced from B7 in type 18. Both are provided per TTCH (A channel):
l

C750 = TIME_A_CHANNEL_BUSY: Time (in seconds) during which the A channel is busy (allocated)

C751 = NB_A_CHANNEL_ALLOC: Number of allocations of the A channel

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5 Traffic Model Indicators

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5 Traffic Model Indicators

SDCCH Establishment
l

SDCCH establishment cause distribution


Ratio of MT calls
TMMTO= MC01 / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
Ratio of MO normal and emergency calls
TMMTO= MC02H / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
Ratio of LU normal (resp. follow-on)
TMMOLUR = MC02A (resp. MC02D) / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
Ratio of IMSI detach
TMMOLUDR= MC02G / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
Ratio of Short Message Service
TMMOSMSR= MC02B / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
Ratio of Supplementary Service
TMMOSSR= MC02C / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS
Ratio of Call re-establishment
TMMOCRR= MC02E / SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


Traffic Load and Traffic Model > SDCCH traffic > Traffic model
SDCCH ASSIGN SUCCESS = Total number of SDCCH establishments for network access = MC01 + MC02
These indicators allow to get call mix data from the network.

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5 Traffic Model Indicators

Mobiles Penetration
E-GSM mobiles penetration

Ratio of E-GSM MS access over all MS accesses (except LU)


TMMSEGR = MC706 / ([MC01+MC02]-[MC02A+MC02D+MC02G])

Multiband mobiles penetration

Ratio of Multiband MS access over all MS accesses (except LU)


TMMSMBR = MC850 / ([MC01+MC02]-[MC02A+MC02D+MC02G])

AMR mobiles penetration

Ratio of TCH allocation for AMR MS over all TCH allocations


TCTR3CATTO = MC704A+ MC704B / MC703

TFO calls ratio

Ratio of successful TFO establishment over all TCH allocations


QSTRCCTR = MC170 / MC703

Handover per Call

Number of Handovers (intra cell, internal, external) per Normal Assignment


TMHOCO = (MC717A+MC717B) / MC718

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


l

Traffic Load and Traffic Model > SDCCH traffic > MS penetration rate

Traffic Load and Traffic Model > TCH traffic > Speech version and Channel type

[MC01+MC02]-[MC02A+MC02D+MC02G] = Total number of initial accesses for call establishment (except


location update)

MC706 = Number of initial accesses for call establishment (except location update) of MS supporting the EGSM band

MC850 = Number of initial accesses for call establishment (except location update) of MS supporting two
frequency bands (ex: GSM900 and DCS1800)

MC703 = Total number of TCH allocations (FR+HR) for Normal Assignment

MC704A = Number of TCH allocations (FR) for Normal Assignment of AMR mobiles only

MC704B = Number of TCH allocations (HR) for Normal Assignment of AMR mobiles only
MC704 (Allocation AMR FR+HR) is removed in B8

MC170 = Number of TCH calls for which a TFO has been successfully established

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6 Preemption Indicators

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6 Preemption Indicators

Preemption Principle
l

Preemption attributes (in Assignment or HO Request):

pci: preemption capability indication


indicates if the call can preempt another call (pci=1) or not
pvi: preemption vulnerability indication
indicates if the call is preemptable (pvi=1) or not
priority level: 1=highest priority / 14=lowest priority

Preemption rules:

A TCH request with pci=1 and priority level=p1 will preempt an on-going
call with pvi=1 and priority level=p2, p2 lower than p1 (whatever pci
value)
the on-going call with the lowest priority level value shall be elected
first and if several calls have the same lowest p2 value, one of them
with pci bit set to 0 is preferred

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On Preemption capable TCH Request occurrence:


1. The TCH is established through Preemption if a lower priority level on-going call is preemptable. In this
case, the on-going call is released and the freed TCH is served to the new request.
2. If no preemption is possible:
n

If queuing is possible: the TCH request is queued and either a Directed Retry or a Fast Traffic HO can be
performed.
If queuing is not possible: the TCH request is rejected and an ASSIGNMENT or HANDOVER FAILURE "no radio
resource available" message is sent to the MSC.

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6 Preemption Indicators

Preemption Counters
l
l
l
l

MC921A = Number of TCH Requests with the capability to preempt


another call with lower priority (pci=1)
MC921B = Number of preemption capable TCH Requests (pci=1) served
with TCH resource (with or without using the preemption feature).
MC921C = Number of preempted calls
MC921D = Number of preemption capable TCH Request (pci=1)
successfully served in a neighboring cell with the help of the directed
retry procedure
MC921E = Number of preemptable calls successfully established (pvi=1)

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Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS> RTCH > Preemption feature

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6 Preemption Indicators

Preemption Feature
l

Preemption capable TCH Request rejection rate


TCPPFLCR = (MC921A-MC921B-MC921D) / MC921A

Ratio of preemption capable TCH Request which led to a successful


Directed Retry
TCPPDSUCR = MC921D / MC921A

Ratio of preemptable calls established over all calls


TCPPSUVO = MC921E / (MC718+MC717A+MC717B)

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Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS:


GLOBAL Quality of service INDICATORS> RTCH > Preemption feature

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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Self-assessment on the Objectives


l

Please be reminded to fill in the form


Self-Assessment on the Objectives
for this module
The form can be found in the first part
of this course documentation

1 1 361

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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End of Module
Traffic Indicators

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Section 1
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Module 8
Case Studies

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 364

Module Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
Analyze with the KPI QoS some typical problems

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Module Objectives [cont.]

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Table of Contents
Page

Switch to notes view!


1 Congestion
2 Sector Problem
3 QSCSSR
4 Quality
5 RMS Level
6 Interference
7 BSS Problem

1 1 367

7
9
11
13
15
17
19

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Table of Contents [cont.]


Switch to notes view!

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1 Congestion

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 369

1 Congestion

Congestion Analysis
l

From this RNO table: What is the worst SDCCH congested cell?

Choose 2 other interesting indicators to continue your analysis:

Call Drop %
SDCCH Assignment Failure %
Outgoing Handover Success %
SDCCH Drop %
Downlink TBF drop %
RTCH assign fail %

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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2 Sector Problem

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2 Sector Problem

Scetor Problem Analysis


l

In this trisectorised site,


give the worst sector.

What can you propose to


do?

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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3 QSCSSR

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3 QSCSSR

QSCSSR Analysis
l

Write the formula using the reference name (MCx) and compute the
CSSR for these 2 cells:
(1 - SDCCH_drop_%) * ( 1 - RTCH_assign_unsuccess_%)
With:
SDCCH_drop_% = SDCCH_drop / SDCCH_assign_success
RTCH_ass_Un_%= RTCH_assign_unsuccess / RTCH_assign_request
Paris_Tower_S1

Paris_City_S3

MC138

Counter

SDCCH drops on SDCCH established phase due to Radio Link Fail.

Definition

MC07

SDCCH drops during any outgoing SDCCH handover

MC137

SDCCH drops in SDCCH established phase due to BSS problem

MC01

SDCCH assign success for Mobile Terminating procedure

43

924

MC02

SDCCH assign success for Mobile Originating procedure

663

1352

MC140a

normal assignment requests for TCH establishment (HR or FR)

88

1455

MC718

TCH normal assignment successes (HR or FR)

84

1430

QSCSSR=?

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4 Quality

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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4 Quality

Quality Analysis
l

Analyze the table below.


Repartition HO Quality
DL_QUAL
% DL_QUAL
UL_QUAL
% UL_QUAL
Nber of HO

l
l

22/01/2003 23/01/2003 24/01/2003 25/01/2003 27/01/2003 28/01/2003 29/01/2003 30/01/2003


64
63
69
58
26
36
32
34
3.12%
2.76%
3.27%
3.22%
1.30%
1.94%
1.69%
2.64%
55
51
433
263
338
466
1053
348
2.68%
2.23%
20.54%
14.59%
16.93%
25.09%
55.68%
27.00%
2054
2286
2108
1802
1996
1857
1891
1289

Does it seem to be a good HO causes repartition?


What can we check to analyze the problem?

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5 RMS Level

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5 RMS Level

RMS Level Analysis


l

Find the 2 worst cells in the table. Try to propose a solution!

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6 Interference

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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6 Interference

Interference Analysis
l
l

Find 1 bad cell with some HO problem.


What can you propose to do?

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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7 BSS Problem

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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7 BSS Problem

BSS Problem Analysis


l
l

What is the worst cell?


Propose some probable solutions.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 382

Self-assessment on the Objectives


l

Please be reminded to fill in the form


Self-Assessment on the Objectives
for this module
The form can be found in the first part
of this course documentation

1 1 383

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 383

End of Module
Case Studies

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11

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Section 1
GSM QoS Monitoring
Module 9
Annexes

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01

YYYY-MM-DD

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First edition

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 386

Module Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:

Describe
List
Explain
Identify ...

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Module Objectives [cont.]

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 388

Table of Contents
Page

Switch to notes view!


1 Radio Measurement Reporting
2 Extended Measurement Reporting (MAFA)
3 Directed Retry Indicators
4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks
5 LCS
6 Counters on Electromagnetic Emission (EME)
7 B8 Improvements
8 B9 Improvements
9 Dynamic SDCCH Allocation
10 Handover Detection for Concentric Cells

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7
11
14
32
42
65
69
71
73
83

Table of Contents [cont.]


Page

Switch to notes view!

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1 Radio Measurement Reporting

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1 Radio Measurement Reporting

Radio Measurement Mechanisms


l
l
l

MS connected (TCH or SDCCH)


The serving cell gives to the MS the list of the neighboring cells to listen
Every SACCH, the MS reports to the serving cell: measurement report
message
Received level of 6 best cells (which can change)
DL level and quality of serving cell

Meast
Report

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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1 Radio Measurement Reporting

Radio Measurement Mechanisms [cont.]


l

For each MS connected to the BTS (TCH or SDCCH)

Meast
Result

Meast
Report

BSC

DL measurements

UL+DL measurements

The UL received level and quality are measured every SACCH


The Timing advance (TA) is computed
The UL information is gathered into a measurement report
This is the message result sent by the BTS to the BSC

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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1 Radio Measurement Reporting

Measurement Result Message

L1 Info

L3 Info
Measurement
Report
From the MS

Back

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Basically, the MEASUREMENT RESULT message is composed of:


l

L1 info: SACCH Layer 1 header containing MS_TXPWR_CONF and TOA.

L3 info: MEASUREMENT REPORT from the MS. This message contains the downlink measurements and
neighboring cell measurements.
l

Uplink measurements performed by the BTS.

BTS power level used.

SUB frames correspond to the use of DTX:


if the mobile is in DTX, the rxlevsub or rxqualsub is used to avoid measuring the TS where there is nothing to
transmit in order not to false measurements.
l

else rxlevfull is used that is to say all TSs are measured.

MS TXPOWER CONF: what is the actual power emitted by the MS.


TOA is the timing advance.
SACCH BFI: bad frame indicator; 2 values 0 or 1; 0 means that the BTS succeeded in decoding the
measurement report from the MS.
How are the neighboring cells coded?
BCCH1 index in BA list /BSIC1; BCCH2 index in BA list/BSIC2. Why? Because when the mobile is connecting to a
new cell, it does not receive LAC/CI (too long) but the list of BCCH frequencies of the neighboring cells (in
Band Allocation: BA list). When it reports the radio measurements, it gives the index of the BCCH frequency in
the BA list instead of BCCH ARFCN due to the length in case of 1800 frequency coding. Besides the mobile may
report a BCCH index / BSIC which does not correspond to a neighboring cell. Of course the BSC will not trigger
any handover except if this BCCH index / BSIC couple corresponds to a neighboring cell.
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2 Extended Measurement Reporting


(MAFA)

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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2 Extended Measurement Reporting (MAFA)

Definition
l

The Extended Measurement Reporting is a feature allowing the BSS to


request an MS to measure and report up to 21 frequencies of the band
that are not included in its BA list
Such phase 2+ mobiles must support the optional Mobile Assisted
Frequency Allocation (MAFA) feature

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 396

2 Extended Measurement Reporting (MAFA)

Extended Measurement Reporting Mechanisms


MS

BTS
BSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)

MSC

< ----------------------------------ASSIGNMENT REQUEST

< -------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST


-------------------------------------------------------- >
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM

--------TCH--------->
ASSIGNT COMPLETE
<------SACCH---------------SACCH------>
<------SACCH---------------SACCH------>
<-------SACCH-------EMO
(MAFA freq. List)
--------SACCH------>
EMR
(MAFA freq. RxLev)
<------SACCH---------------SACCH------>

< -------------------------------------------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH)


(EMO included)
-------------------------------------------------------- >
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE
.
.
TCH establishment.
.
------------------------------------------------------- >
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE

l
----------------------------------- >
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE

The Extended
Measurement Order
includes the MAFA
frequencies the MS is
asked to measure
EMO sent once to the MS
on SACCH after TCH
seizure
Extended Measurement
Results include the
average signal level
measured on each MAFA
frequency over one SACCH
mf duration
EMR received once per call
on SACCH

Back

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When the BTS receives a CHANNEL ACTIVATION with the Extended Measurement Order (EMO) included, it
shall send this information on the SACCH to the corresponding mobile only once.
When the BTS has to send this information, it shall replace the sending of system information 5, 5bis, 5ter or
6 by this information. At the next SACCH multi-frame, the BTS shall resume the sending of this system
information by the replaced one.
The EMO shall be sent after 2 complete sets of SYS_INFO5 and 6, i.e. after the 2nd SYSINFO 6 after the
reception of SABM. This guarantees the MS has received a complete set.
Then, the BTS normally receives from the MS an EXTENDED MEASUREMENT RESULT with the level of the
frequencies to monitor. The BTS shall make the correlation between these levels and the frequencies
contained in the latest EMO information, after having decoded them, according to the order of the ARFCN.
The EXTENDED_MEASUREMENT_RESULT is NOT forwarded to the BSC, instead a MEASUREMENT_RESULT
with indication no_MS_results is sent to the BSC.
In particular, the BTS shall identify the level of the BCCH frequency of the serving cell (which shall always
be part of the frequencies to monitor) and apply it as the RXLEV_DL in the Radio Measurement Statistics.
The other frequencies will be considered in the same way as BCCH frequency of neighboring cells: they will
be linked to the neighboring level and C/I statistics.

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3 Directed Retry Indicators

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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3 Directed Retry Indicators

Internal DR - Success Case


MS

serving cell

target cell

BSC

MSC

TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)


< ----------------------ASSIGNMENT
REQUEST
Queuing allowed

No free TCH
TCH request queued
Start T11 ----------------------- >
QUEUING_INDIC.
MC13A
IDR condition met

HO CMD
<---------------------(SDCCH)

MC153, MC144e,

C145A+C145C

HANDOVER ACCESS
------------------------(TCH)---------------------------->
------------------------------------------------------------->
PHYSICAL INFORMATION
<------------------------------------------------------------stop T3124
start T200
------------------------ SABM -------------------------->
<-------------------------- UA ----------------------------stop T200
HANDOVER COMPLETE
------------------------------------------------------------->

HO DETECTION
---------------------------------->
start T3105

stop T3105
ESTABLISH INDICATION
---------------------------------->
HO CMP
stop T3103
---------------------------------->
ASSIGNMENT
COMPLETE
------------------------>
Release of old SDCCH
MC151,MC717A,
MC142e

DR FAIL. CASES > internal DR >


success case
The same internal DR procedure
leads to an incrementation of
two sets of counters:

CHANNEL ACTIV. (TCH)


<---------------------------------- MC15A
CHAN ACTIV ACK
---------------------------------->
HANDOVER COMMAND
<------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
C154, MC607

start T3124

1 1 399

l
l

incoming DR counters for the


target cell: MC153, MC151,
etc.
outgoing DR counters for the
serving cell: MC144E, MC142E,
etc.

MCx counters belong to


Standard Type 110 reported
permanently
Cx counters belong to Detailed
Type 29 reported on demand
Standard type from B8

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The following DR counters are provided in Type 110


l for the target cell:
n
MC13A: TCH requests for Normal Assignment that are put into the queue,
n
MC153: incoming internal DR requests,
n
MC15A: TCH allocations for incoming internal DR,
n
MC151: incoming internal DR successes per cell,
n
MC717A: incoming internal DR successes per TRX.
l for the serving cell:
n
MC144E: outgoing internal DR requests,
n
MC142E: outgoing internal DR successes,
n
MC607: outgoing internal+external DR attempts.
The following DR counters are provided in Type 29 (this type becomes a standard type in B8)
l for the target cell:
n
C153: incoming internal DR requests,
n
C154: incoming internal DR attempts,
n
C151: incoming internal DR successes.
l for the serving cell:
n
C144A: forced outgoing internal DR requests,
n
C144C: normal outgoing internal DR requests,
n
C145A: forced outgoing internal DR attempts,
n
C145C: normal outgoing internal DR attempts,
n
C142A: forced outgoing internal DR successes,
n
C142C: normal outgoing internal DR successes.
All the counters here and in the next slides concerning directed retry and relative to type 29 can be activated for all cells
of the BSC at once from B8. (Type 29 becomes a standard type in B8):
C142a, C142b, C142c, C142d, C143a, C143b, C143c, C143d, C143e, C143f, C143g, C143h, C144a, C144b, C144c,
C144d, C145a, C145b, C145c, C145d, C151, C152,C153, C154, C555
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Section 1 Module 1 Page 399

3 Directed Retry Indicators

Incoming Internal DR - Failures


l
l

DR FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal DR failures:


Directed Retry procedure from the target cell point of view
DR Preparation:
congestion: no RTCH available in the target cell

O does not concern the outgoing side (serving cell point of view)

BSS problem (no specific counter)

DR Execution:
radio problem: the MS fails to access the new channel

O the reversion/drop discrimination concerns only the serving cell

BSS problem (no specific counter)

1 1 400

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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3 Directed Retry Indicators

Incoming Internal DR - Congestion


l

DR FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal DR fail: congestion


MS

serving cell

MC555=C155
No free TCH
In serving cell

target cell
BSC
MSC
TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC)
< ---------------------------------------------------ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
Queuing allowed
Start T11

--------------------------------------------------- >
QUEUING_INDIC.
MC13A

Standard Type

1 1 401

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C155 is available in Type 29.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 401

IDR condition met

MC153, MC144e,MC607

No free TCH
In target cell

MC555

3 Directed Retry Indicators

Incoming Internal DR - Radio Failure


l

DR FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal DR fail: MS access problem


MS

Serving cell

Target Cell

BSC

HO CMD
HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
HANDOVER ACCESS
C154
------------------------------------------------------------->
------------------------------------------------------------->
HO DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFORMATION
---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- start T3105
SABM
-------------------------------------------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA
---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- stop T3105
HANDOVER COMPLETE
----------------------------------------------------- - - - -X
MS
serving cell
target cell
BSC
MSC
SABM
MEAS REP
----------------------->
ESTABLISH INDICATION
----------------------->
MEASUREMENT RESULT
UA
------------------------------------------------------------------------>
------------------------------------------------------------------------>
<----------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION
HO FAILURE
HANDOVER FAILURE
<--------------------------------------------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------> C152
CHANNEL ACTIV ACK
---------------------------------->
Release of new channel
HO CMD
HANDOVER COMMAND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T3103
C154
SABM
-----------x
T3103 expiry
C152

1 1 402

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All incoming internal DR failures due to radio problems are counted in the same counter C152.
This counter is provided in Type 29
Both radio failures with Reversion Old SDCCH Channel and radio drop are counted together.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 402

3 Directed Retry Indicators

Incoming Internal DR - Counters


l

DR FAIL. CASES > Incoming internal DR counters


REQUEST

ATTEMPT

SUCCESS

Preparation Failure

Execution Failure
CONGESTION

INCOMING INTERNAL Directed Retry


Preparation Request

Execution

BSS PB

MC153, C153

Congestion
BSS Pb

MC555, C155
C153-C154-C155

Attempt

C154

Radio (MS access problem)


BSS Pb

C152
C154-C151-C152

Success

MC151, C151

MS ACCESS PB
BSS PB

1 1 403

Type 29 counters become a standard (PMC)

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


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All MCxxx counters are available in Type 110.


All Cxxx counters are available in Type 29.
Type 29 counter becomes a standard in B8.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 403

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS


l

Specific indicators for densification techniques > Directed Retry > Incoming DR
n

DRIBCAR: efficiency of the incoming internal DR preparation = MC15A/MC153

DRIBCNR: rate of incoming internal DR failures due to congestion = MC155/MC153

DRIBEFR: efficiency of the incoming internal DR execution = MC717A/MC153

Other indicators can be computed:


from Type 110 counters:
n

DRIBSUR: global efficiency of incoming internal DR


= MC717A/MC153 = MC151/MC153

from Type 29 counters


n

rate of incoming internal DR preparation failures due to BSS problems


= (C153-C154-C155)/C153
rate of incoming internal DR execution failures due to BSS problems
= (C154-C151-C152)/C154
rate of incoming internal DR execution failures due to radio access problems
= C152/C154

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3 Directed Retry Indicators

Outgoing Internal DR - Failures


l
l

DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal DR failures


Directed Retry procedure from the serving cell point of view
DR Preparation:
congestion on the target cell (no specific counter on the serving cell)
BSS problem (no specific counter)

DR Execution:
radio problem: the MS reverts to the old channel
radio problem: the MS drops
BSS problem (no specific counter)

1 1 405

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 405

3 Directed Retry Indicators

Outgoing Internal DR - Radio Failure ROC


l

DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal DR fail: reversion old channel


MS

Serving cell

Target Cell

BSC

HO CMD
HANDOVER COMMAND
<-------SDCCH----- <-----------------------------------------------------------------------HANDOVER ACCESS
----------------------TCH-------------------------------->
------------------------------------------------------------->
HO DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFORMATION
---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- start T3105
SABM
-------------------------------------------------------------> ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA
---------------------------------->
<------------------------------------------------------------- stop T3105
HANDOVER COMPLETE
----------------------------------------------------- - - - -X
SABM
----------------------->
ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA
------------------------------------------------------------------------>
<----------------------HO FAILURE
HANDOVER FAILURE
-----------------------> ------------------------------------------------------------------------>
Release of new channel

1 1 406

start T3103
MC144E
C144A or C144C

C143A or C143E

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 406

C144A, C143A:
Forced DR
C144C,C143E:
Normal DR

3 Directed Retry Indicators

Outgoing Internal DR - Radio Failure Drop


l

DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal DR fail: drop

MS

serving cell

target cell

BSC

MSC

HO C M D
HAN DO VER C OM M A ND
<----------------------- <------------------------------------------------------------------------ start T 3103
M C144E
C144A or C 144C

SABM
----------x

T3103 expiry
C143B or C 143F
------------------------>
ASSIG NM E NT
FAILU RE
R adio interface
m essage failure
Release of SDC CH and TC H

1 1 407

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Counters C144A, C143B, C144C, C143F are type 29.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 407

C144A,C143B:
Forced DR
C144C,C143F:
Normal DR

3 Directed Retry Indicators

Outgoing Internal DR - Counters


l

DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing internal DR counters


REQUEST

ATTEMPT

SUCCESS

Preparation Failure

Execution Failure

CONGESTION

OUTGOING INTERNAL Directed Retry


Preparation

BSS PB

Request

MC144E, C144A+C144C

Any preparation failure

(C144A+C144C) - (C145A+C145C)

Attempt

C145A+C145C

DROP RADIO

Reversion old channel


Drop radio
BSS Pb

C143A+C143E
C143B+C143F
(C145A+C145C) - (C143A+C143E+C143B+C143F)

BSS PB

Success

MC142E, C142A+C142C

REVERSION OLD CHANNEL


Execution

1 1 408

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 408

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS


l

Specific indicators for densification techniques > Directed Retry > Outgoing DR
n

DROBSUR: global efficiency of outgoing internal DR = MC142E/MC144E

Other indicators can be computed


from Type 29 counters:
n

efficiency of the outgoing internal DR preparation


= (C145A+C145C)/(C144A+C144C)
efficiency of the outgoing internal DR execution
= (C142A+C142C)/(C145A+C145C)
rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to BSS problems
= [(C145A+C145C) - (C143A+C143E+C143B+C143F)] / (C145A+C145C)
rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to radio problems with reversion old channel
= (C143A+C143E) / (C145A+C145C)
rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to radio problems with drop
= (C143B+C143F) / (C145A+C145C)
type 29 counters are defined:

DRFOSUIN

C142a

NB_OUT_FORCED_IDR_SUCC

DRFOSUEN

C142b

NB_OUT_FORCED_EDR_SUCC

DROBSUIN

C142c

NB_OUT_NOR_IDR_SUCC

DROMSUEN C142d

NB_OUT_NOR_EDR_SUCC

DRFORDIN

C144a

NB_OUT_FORCED_IDR_REQ

DRFORDEN C144b

NB_OUT_FORCED_EDR_REQ

DROBRDIN

C144c

NB_OUT_NOR_IDR_REQ

DROMRDEN C144d

NB_OUT_NOR_EDR_REQ

DROBRQIN

C145c

NB_OUT_NOR_IDR_ATPT

DROMRQEN C145d

NB_OUT_NOR_EDR_ATPT

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 409

3 Directed Retry Indicators

External DR - Success
l

DR FAIL. CASES > External DR > successful case

MS

serving_cell
BSC
MSC
<------ASSIGNT REQUEST------TCH request queued
EDR condition met
------ HO_REQUIRED ---------->
MC144F

BSC

target_cell

----------CR (HO_REQUEST) -----> MC820


<--------- CC ------------------------ ---- CHANNEL_ACTIVATION ------>
<- CHANNEL_ACT_ACK------------<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK -------- Start T9113
(HO_COMMAND)
MC821

<------------------------- HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------------C145B+C145D Start T8

<---- HO_ACCESS ----<---- HO_ACCESS ----<------ HO_DETECTION-------------<-- HO_DETECTION --------------

--- PHYSICAL_INFO -->


<----- ESTABLISH_INDICATION ----

Release of SDCCH

<---- CLEAR_COMMAND -----MC142F Cause : HO_SUCCESSFUL


Stop T8

<--- SABM ------------------- UA -------------->

<----------- HO_COMPLETE ---------------------------------------<--- HO_COMPLETE --------------- Stop T9113


MC642

The same external DR procedure leads to an incrementation of two sets of


counters:
incoming external HO counters for the target cell: MC820, MC821, etc.
outgoing external DR counters for the serving cell: MC144F, MC142F, etc.

1 1 410

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The following DR counters are provided in Type 110 for the serving cell:
l

MC144F: outgoing external DR requests,

MC142F: outgoing external DR successes.

The following DR counters are provided in Type 29 for the serving cell:
l

C144B: forced outgoing external DR requests,

C144D: normal outgoing external DR requests,

C145B: forced outgoing external DR attempts,

C145D: normal outgoing external DR attempts,

C142B: forced outgoing external DR successes,

C142D: normal outgoing external DR successes.

MS

As for internal DR, external DR Counters are available permanently


No counter is provided for the target cell for an external DR since an incoming DR cannot always be
discriminated from an incoming external HO. Therefore incoming external DRs are counted together with
incoming external HOs in the related counters.

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 410

3 Directed Retry Indicators

Outgoing External DR - Failures


l
l

DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external DR failures


Directed Retry procedure from the serving cell point of view
DR Preparation:
congestion on the target cell (no specific counter on the serving cell)
BSS problem (no specific counter)

DR Execution:
radio problem: the MS reverts to the old channel
radio problem: the MS drops
BSS problem (no specific counter)

1 1 411

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 411

3 Directed Retry Indicators

Outgoing External DR - Radio Failure ROC


l

DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external DR fail: reversion old channel

MS

serving_cell

ASSIGNT REQUEST
--------------------->

BSC

MSC

TCH request queued


EDR condition met
---- HO_REQUIRED ------->
MC144F

BSC

----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ------------------->


<-------- CC --------------------------------------<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------(HO-COMMAND) included

C145B,C143C: Forced DR
C145D,C143G: Normal DR

1 1 412

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 412

MS

- CHANNEL_ACT ---------->
<--- CHA_ACT_ACK -------Start T9113

<-------------------------- HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------Start T8


C145B+C145D
----- SABM -------->
<--- UA ------------- -- ESTABLISH_INDICATION->
----- HO_FAILURE (reversion to old channel) ------------------------------------------>
C143C+C143G
----- CLEAR_COMMAND ---------------------->
Radio interface fail : Reversion to old channel

target_cell

X --- HO_ACCESS ----X ---- HO_ACCESS -----

Release of connection

3 Directed Retry Indicators

Outgoing External DR - Radio Failure Drop


l

DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external DR fail: drop

MS

serving_cell

ASSIGNT REQUEST
--------------------->

BSC

MSC

TCH request queued


EDR condition met
---- HO_REQUIRED ------->
MC144F

BSC

----------CR (HO_REQUEST) ------------------->


<-------- CC --------------------------------------<----- HO_REQUEST_ACK----------------------(HO-COMMAND) included

X --- HO_ACCESS ----X ---- HO_ACCESS -----

----- SABM --- X


T8 expiry ----- CLEAR_REQUEST ->
C143D+C143H Radio interface message fail

1 1 413

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 413

MS

- CHANNEL_ACT ---------->
<--- CHA_ACT_ACK -------Start T9113

<-------------------------- HO_COMMAND -----------------------------------------------Start T8


C145B+C145D
----- SABM --- X
----- SABM --- X

C145B,C143D: Forced DR
C145D,C143H: Normal DR

target_cell

Release of connection

3 Directed Retry Indicators

Outgoing External DR - Counters


l

DR FAIL. CASES > Outgoing external DR counters


REQUEST

ATTEMPT

SUCCESS

Preparation Failure

Execution Failure

CONGESTION
BSS PB

OUTGOING EXTERNAL Directed Retry


Preparation

Execution

1 1 414

Request

MC144F, C144B+C144D

Any preparation failure

(C144B+C144D) - (C145B+C145D)

Attempt

C145B+C145D

Reversion old channel


Drop radio
BSS Pb

C143C+C143G
C143D+C143H
(C145+C145D) - (C143C+C143G+C143D+C143H)

Success

MC142F, C142B+C142D

REVERSION OLD CHANNEL


DROP RADIO

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 414

BSS PB

Refer to BSS - DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SERVICE INDICATORS


l

Specific indicators for densification techniques > Directed Retry > Outgoing DR
n

DROMSUR: global efficiency of outgoing external DR = MC142F/MC144F

Other indicators can be computed


from Type 29 counters:
n

efficiency of the outgoing internal DR preparation


= (C145B+C145D)/(C144B+C144D)
efficiency of the outgoing internal DR execution
= (C142B+C142D)/(C145B+C145D)
rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to BSS problems
= [(C145B+C145D) - (C143C+C143G+C143D+C143H)] / (C145B+C145D)
rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to radio problems with reversion old channel
= (C143C+C143G) / (C145B+C145D)
rate of outgoing internal DR execution failures due to radio problems with drop
= (C143D+C143H) / (C145B+C145D)

Interesting indicator:
n

TCQUSUDSR: rate of outgoing internal and external directed retries (forced + normal) successfully
performed over all RTCH requests queued during normal assignment.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 415

4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks

1 1 416

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 416

4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks

Signaling Links

MSC
BSC
BTS
BSC

1 1 417

A-Interface MT-Link signaling #7 System with SCCP

Abis Interface RSL with LAPD Protocol

Air-Interface (CCCH/SACCH/FACCH) with LAPDm Protocol

OML Link with X25 connection LAPB Protocol

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 417

BSC
BTS
MS
OMC-R

4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks

The Reference Model

7 Application
6 Presentation

User of Transport Service

5 Session
4 Transport
3 Network
2 Data Link

Network
Service

1 Physical

1 1 418

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 418

Transport Service

4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks

The Reference Model [cont.]


l

Layer 1
Physical; Responsible for the transparent transmission of information across
the physical medium (HDB3, PCM, AMI)

Layer 2
Data Link; Responsible for providing a reliable transfer between the terminal
and the network (#7, LAPD,etc.)

Layer 3
Network; responsible for setting up and maintaining the connection across a
network (CM, MM, RR, Message routing, etc.)

1 1 419

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 419

4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks

The Reference Model [cont.]


l

Layer 4
Transport; responsible for the control of quality of service (Layer of
information)

Layer 5
Session; Handles the coordination between the user processes (Set up
transfer of information)

Layer 6
Presentation; responsible for ensuring that the information is presented to
the eventual user in a meaningful way (Type format. Ex. ASCII)

Layer 7
Application; provides lower levels with user interface (Operating System)

1 1 420

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 420

4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks

BSS Protocol Stacks

MS

BSC

BTS

Air Intfc

Abis Intfc

MSC

B .. F Intfc

A Intfc

CM

CM

MM

MM

RR

RR

RR

BSSAP

PSTN
ISDN

BSSAP

BSSAP

SCCP

SCCP

MTP

MTP

64 kb/s

64 kb/s

LAYER 3

BTSM

LAPDm

LAPDm LAPD

digit

digit

radio

radio

1 1 421

64 kb/s

LAPD

64 kb/s

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 421

LAYER 2

LAYER 1

4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks

BSS Protocol Stacks [cont.]


l

(detailed)
SS (SMS)

(SMS)
SS
CC

SS (SMS)

CC
(Relay)

(Relay
MM

MM
DTAP

DTAP

BSS
MAP

RR
RR

BSS
MAP

MAP

MAP

SSGT

SSGT

SSCS

SSCS

SSCS

SSCS

SSTM 3

SSTM 3

SSTM 3

SSTM 3

LAPD

SSTM 2

SSTM 2

SSTM 2

SSTM 2

64 kbit/s

PCM TS

PCM TS

PCM TS

3
RR'
2

LAPDm

Phycal
Layer

MS

1 1 422

BTSM

LAPDm

Um

BTSM

LAPD
64 kbit/s

Phycal
Layer

or

BTS

PCM TS

A bis

or

PCM TS

BSC

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 422

PCM TS
(D)

MSC / VLR

NSS

(ex. : HLR)

4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks

Signaling on the A Interface


l

Uses #7 with Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) with a new


Application Base Station Application Part (BSSAP). BSSAP is divided into
Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP) and Base Station Subsystem
Management Application Part (BSSMAP)

BSSAP

DTAP

User Data

BSSMAP
SCCP

Layer 1-3

MTP 1-3

1 1 423

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 423

4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks

GSM BSS Protocols


l

BSSMAP
Contains the messages, which are exchanged between the BSC and the MSC
and which are evaluated from the BSC
In fact all the messages which are exchanged as RR (Radio Resource
Management Services between the MSC, BSC and MS). Also control
Information concerning the MSC and BSC
Example: Paging, HND_CMD, Reset

DTAP
Messages which are exchanged between an NSS and an MS transparent. In this
case, the BSC transfers the messages without evaluation transparent. Mainly
Messages from Mobility Management (MM) and Call Control (CC)

1 1 424

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 424

4 GSM BSS Protocol Stacks

GSM BSS Protocols [cont.]


l

Relationship between DTAP, CC, MM, BSSMAP, RR

Call Control (CC)

MS

Radio Resource (RR)

DTAP

BSS

MSC
BSSMAP

Back

1 1 425

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 425

5 LCS

1 1 426

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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5 LCS

LCS Function
LCS function (linked to MC02i) and other counters
l LCS allows to access the MS location provided by the BSS.
On MS request to know its own location (MC02 impacted, see the previous
slide)
On network request (especially during Emergency calls)
On external request (LCS Client)
l

Positioning methods provided can be:


Cell-ID or Cell-ID + TA (Timing Advance)
Conventional (standalone) GPS
Assisted GPS (with the help of A-GPS server to compute location)
MS based (MB): MS is able to perform a pre-computation
MS assisted (MA): MS sends info, Network computes

1 1 427

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Assisted GPS Method:


l Mobile-based: The MS performs OTD signal measurements and computes its own location estimate. In this
case the network provides the MS with the additional information such as BTS coordinates and the RTD values.
These assistance data can be either broadcast on the CBCH (using SMSCB function) or provided by the BSS in a
point to point connection (either spontaneously or on request from the MS).
l Mobile-assisted: The MS performs and reports OTD signal measurements to the network and the network
computes the MS location estimate.
l With
n OTD: Observed Time Difference: the time interval that is observed by an MS between the receptions of
signals (bursts) from two different BTSs.
n RTD: Real Time Difference: This means the relative synchronization difference in the network between
two BTSs.
Finally, 4 methods are possible for positioning:
l Cell ID+ TA
l Conventional (MS equipped with GPS System)
l A-GPS MS Based
l A-GPS MS Assisted
These 4 Methods induce a set of counters (2 per method) to give the average latitude and longitude of
mobiles in the cell.
These counters are located in the MFS and can be used in RNO (cartographic part).

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 427

5 LCS

LCS Function: Architecture

Where is the accident?

Emergency call
Where am I?
BTS

MSC

Abis

Lg

GMLC

BSC

MS

Abis

BTS

SMLC

SAGI

MFS
1 MS Request
2 Network Request
3 External Request

1 1 428

OSP

GPS
reference
network

Lb

External
LCS client

Where is my son?
3

Lh

A-GPS
server

SMLC function integrated in MFS:


- receives the loc. Request from the GMLC through the
MSC/BSC
- Schedules all the necessary actions to get MS location
- Computes MS location
- Provides the result back to the GMLC

Le

HLR

LCS: Location Services


SMLC: Serving Mobile Location Center
GMLC: Gateway Mobile Location Center
A-GPS: Assisted GPS

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

In case of MS requests for its location, MC02 is impacted:


MC02i = Number of Mobile Originating SDCCH establishments for LCS purposes.
In all cases, some counters related to LCS provide specific information (attempts, success, failures)
See the next slide.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 428

5 LCS

Example
l

Mobile terminated location request failure / success (External request)


BTS

MS

BSC

SMLC

MSC

GMLC

HLR

LCS Client

LCS Service Request


Send_Routing_Info rqst
Send_Routing_Info resp
Provide_Subscriber_Location
Paging
Authentication + Ciphering

MC923a

BSSMAP Perform_Location_Request

BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Request

Adequat positionning method chosen by SMLC

MC923c

Failure

BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response (failure)


BSSMAP Perform_Location_Response (failure)

MC923d

BSSMAP Perform_Location_Abort
BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response

Success

MC923b

BSSMAP Perform_Location_Response

Provide_Subscriber_Location Result

BSSMAP Clear Command and Release

1 1 429

LCS Service Response

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Four counters
l

MC923a

NB_LCS_REQ

Number of location requests received from the MSC in CS domain.

l
l

MC923b

NB_LCS_SUCC

Number of successful location requests performed in a BSS.

MC923c

NB_LCS_FAIL_LB Number of location requests rejected by the SMLC.

MC923d

NB_LCS_ABORT

Number of location aborts received from the MSC in CS domain.

Calculated indicators based on BSC counters:


l

Number of failures on LCS requests due to BSS problem,

Rate of LCS requests aborted,

Rate of successes on LCS requests,

Rate of failures on LCS requests,

Rate of SDCCH seizures for Location Services.

Other counters in SMLC (MFS) provide details by type of positioning (CI+TA, Conventional GPS, MS-Assisted A-GPS,
MS-Based A-GPS) and for different Error causes.
See the next slide.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 429

LCS Counters in MFS:


l QOS FOLLOW UP:
P800: NB_LOC_REQ

Number of received LCS requests for MS positioning received from the


BSC
P801: NB_ASSIST_DATA_REQ
Number of received LCS requests for GPS assistance data (initially
requested by the MS) received from the BSC.
P802: NB_ASSIST_DATA_SUCC
Number of successful GPS assistance data delivery (initially requested
by the MS) responses sent to the BSC.
P803: NB_LOC_TA_SUCC
Number of successful location responses sent to the BSC using TA
positioning method.
P804: NB_LOC_CONV_GPS_SUCC
Number of successful location responses sent to the BSC using
Conventional GPS positioning method.
P805: NB_LOC_MA_AGPS_SUCC
Number of successful location responses sent to the BSC using MSAssisted A-GPS positioning method.
P806: NB_LOC_MB_AGPS_SUCC
Number of successful location response sent to the BSC using MSBased
A-GPS positioning method.
P807: NB_LOC_TA_PCF_REQ
Number of location calculation attempts with TA positioning PCF.
P808: NB_LOC_TA_PCF_SUCC
Number of location calculations successfully performed with TA
positioning PCF.
P809: NB_LOC_CONV_GPS_PCF_REQ
Number of location calculation attempts with Conventional GPS PCF.
P810: NB_LOC_MA_AGPS_PCF_REQ
Number of location calculation attempts with MS-Assisted A-GPS PCF.
P811: NB_LOC_MA_AGPS_PCF_SUCC
Number of location calculations successfully performed with MS
Assisted A-GPS PCF.
P812: NB_LOC_MB_AGPS_PCF_REQ
Number of location calculation attempts with MS-Based A-GPS PCF.
P813: NB_LOC_MB_AGPS_PCF_SUCC
Number of location calculations successfully performed with MSBased
A-GPS.
P814: NB_LCS_PROTOCOL_ERROR
Number of failed LCS procedures due to LCS protocol error.
P815: NB_LCS_INTERRUPTED_INTRA_BSC_HO Number of failed LCS procedures due to intra-BSC handover.
P816: NB_LCS_INTERRUPTED_INTER_BSC_HO Number of failed LCS procedures due to inter-BSC handover.
P817: NB_LCS_FAILURE_RRLP
Number of failed LCS procedures due to RRLP problem.
P818: NB_LCS_FAILURE_TIMER_EXPIRY
Number of failed LCS procedures due to LCS guard timer expiry.
P819: NB_LCS_FAILURE_INTERNAL
Number of failed LCS procedures due internal problem detected by
the MFS/SMLC.
P820: NB_UNKNOWN_LCS_REQ
Number of LCS requests rejected because not supported by the SMLC.
P821: NB_LOC_CONV_GPS_PCF_SUCC
Number of location calculations successfully performed with
Conventional GPS PCF.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 430

PCF: Positioning Calculation Function


l POSITION AVERAGE USED ON RNO: Values are given in minutes
n LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES:
P822: AV_TA_LAT
Average of latitudes for TA Method
P823: AV_TA_LONG
Average of longitudes for TA Method
P824: AV_CONV_GPS_LAT
Average of latitudes for Conventional GPS Method
P825: AV_CONV_GPS_LONG
Average of latitudes for Conventional GPS Method
P826: AV_MA_AGPS_LAT
Average of latitudes for MS-Assisted A-GPS Method
P827: AV_MA_AGPS_LONG
Average of longitudes for MS-Assisted A-GPS Method
P828: AV_MB_AGPS_LAT
Average of latitudes for MS-Assisted A-GPS Method
P829: AV_MB_AGPS_LONG
Average of longitudes for MS-Based A-GPS Method
STANDARD DEVIATION:
standard deviation is a measure of
P830: ST_DEV_TA_LAT
P831: ST_DEV_TA_LONG
P832: ST_DEV_CONV_GPS_LAT
n

P833: ST_DEV_CONV_GPS_LONG
P834: ST_DEV_MA_AGPS_LAT
P835: ST_DEV_MA_AGPS_LONG
P836: ST_DEV_MB_AGPS_LAT
P837: ST_DEV_MB_AGPS_LONG

the dispersion around the average point


Standard deviation of the latitude of MS obtained with TA Method
Standard deviation of the longitude of MS obtained with TA Method
Standard deviation of the latitude of MS obtained with Conventional
GPS Method
Standard deviation of the longitude of MS obtained with
Conventional GPS Method
Standard deviation of the latitude of MS obtained with MS Assisted
A-GPS Method
Standard deviation of the longitude of MS obtained with MS Assisted
A-GPS Method
Standard deviation of the latitude of MS obtained with MS Assisted
A-GPS Method
Standard deviation of the longitude of MS obtained with MS Assisted
A-GPS Method

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 431

5 LCS

Definitions
l

New end-user services which provide the geographical location of an


MS:
On MS request to know its own location
On network request (especially during Emergency calls)
On external request (LCS Client)

Several positioning methods:


Cell-ID or Cell-ID + TA (Timing Advance)
Conventional (standalone) GPS
Assisted GPS (with A-GPS server help to compute location)
MS-based (MB): the MS is able to perform a pre-computation
MS-assisted (MA): the MS sends info, Network computes

1 1 432

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Assisted GPS Method:


l

Mobile-based: The MS performs OTD signal measurements and computes its own location estimate. In this
case, the network provides the MS with the additional information such as BTS coordinates and the RTD
values. These assistance data can be either broadcast on the CBCH (using SMSCB function) or provided by the
BSS in a point-to-point connection (either spontaneously or on request from the MS).

Mobile-assisted: The MS performs and reports OTD signal measurements to the network and the network
computes the MSs location estimate.

With
n

OTD: Observed Time Difference: the time interval that is observed by an MS between the receptions of
signals (bursts) from two different BTSs.
RTD: Real Time Difference: This means the relative synchronization difference in the network between two
BTSs.

Finally, 4 methods are possible for positioning:


l

Cell ID+ TA,


This is the simplest method for determining the location of a mobile. It relies on the hypothesis that the
geographical coverage of a cell corresponds to that predicted by radio coverage studies. When an active
mobile is connected to a base station, the mobile is assumed to be located geographically within the area
predicted to be best served by this base station

Conventional (MS equipped with GPS System),

MS-based Assisted GPS,

MS-Assisted GPS.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
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5 LCS

LCS Architecture
1 MS Request
2 Network Request
3 External Request

Abis

Emergency call

Where
am I?

A-GPS : Assisted GPS


GMLC : Gateway Mobile Location Center
LCS : Location Services
SMLC : Serving Mobile Location Center

BTS

Where is
the accident?

Lg

MSC

BSC

Where is
my son?

OSP

Le

External
LCS client

GMLC

Abis
Lh

BTS

SMLC function integrated in MFS:


- receives the location request from
the GMLC through the MSC/BSC
- schedules all the necessary actions
to get MS location
- computes MS location
- provides the result back to the GMLC

Lb

MFS

HLR

SAGI

SMLC
A-GPS
server

1 1 433

GPS receivers
reference network

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 433

5 LCS

LCS Positioning Procedure

Provide
subscriber location
5

BTS
BSC

BTS

Paging,
authentication,
ciphering,
notification
4

6
Individual
positioning

MSC

Provide
subscriber
location
3

Location report

OSP
GMLC

2
Routing
information

MFS

Location
request
1

8
Location
response

HLR

SMLC

1 1 434

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

If the MS is in idle mode, the MSC first performs a CS paging, authentication and ciphering in order to
establish an SDCCH with the MS. The MS subscriber is not aware of it, i.e. no ringing tone, except towards
GPRS MS in Packet Transfer Mode which may suspend its GPRS traffic in order to answer to the CS Paging
(i.e. not fully transparent for the subscriber).
When the MS is in dedicated mode (after a specific SDCCH establishment for location, or during an on-going
call), the MSC sends the location request to BSC in the existing SCCP connection for the current call, which
forwards it to the SMLC.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 434

5 LCS

LCS Protocol

Signaling Protocols between the MS (CS domain) and the SMLC

SMLC
(MFS)

BSC

Target MS

RRLP
(04.31)

RRLP
(04.31)
Relay
RR
(04.18)

BSSLAP

BSSLAP
(08.71)

BSSAP-LE

BSSAP-LE
(09.31)

RR

L2
(LAPDm)

L2
(LAPDm)

L2-GSL

L2-GSL

L1

L1

L1-GSL

L1-GSL

Um

1 1 435

Lb

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 435

5 LCS

LCS Protocol [cont.]


l

Example: Mobile terminated location request success (External request)


MS

BTS

BSC

SMLC

MSC

GMLC

HLR

LCS client

LCS Service Request


Send_Routing_Info request
Send_Routing_Info response
Provide_Subscriber_Location
Paging
Authentication + Ciphering
BSSMAP Perform_Location_Request

Starts
T_Location
Adequate positioning method
chosen by SMLC with
optional additional scenario

BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Request

BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response
BSSMAP Perform_Location_Response

Stop
T_Location

Provide_Subscriber_Location Result
LCS Service Response

MSSMAP Clear Command and Release

1 1 436

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

T_location_Longer used in case of optional additional scenario (see graph):


Upon receipt of the MS POSITION COMMAND message from the SMLC (optional additional scenario), the BSC stops the
T_Location timer, and starts instead the T_Location_Longer timer. This timer is stopped only at the end of the location
procedure in the BSC, i.e. when an 08.08 PERFORM LOCATION RESPONSE message is sent back to the MSC.
Aborts:
l

Abort by MSC

Depending on the location procedure and its current state of execution, upon PERFORM LOCATION ABORT message
receipt, the BSC sends immediately to the MSC a PERFORM LOCATION RESPONSE message (when no exchange on the Lb
interface is on-going), or to the SMLC either a PERFORM LOCATION ABORT or an ABORT message. The BSC starts the
timer T_Loc_abort to supervise the SMLC response.
l

Abort by BSS

The BSC must send either a PERFORM LOCATION ABORT message or a ABORT message to the SMLC and starts the timer
T_Loc_abort if an ongoing location request is interrupted at the BSC level for the following reasons:
n

by an inter-BSC handover, or

if the main signaling link to the target MS is lost or released, or

the SCCP connection on the A interface is released, or

if the timer T_Location expires.

The useful B8 content of the received PERFORM LOCATION REQUEST message is:
l

Location type,

Classmark information 3,

Requested QoS: provides service requirement concerning geographic positioning and response time
l

accuracy, the response time category (Low Delay or Delay Tolerant),

Current Cell Id + TA information are always provided to the SMLC.

The time of transfer of the assitance data on the SDCCH is estimated about 14s for a 1000 octets information.
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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 436

5 LCS

Positioning Methods: CI+TA Positioning


Principles of CI + TA Positioning Method

LCS_LATITUDE

HA L F P
WR
_

3dB point
given by the azimuth
and the HPBW

BE

AM

LCS_AZIMUTH
(Main Beam Direction
given by the azimuth)

_W
ID

TH

MS
estimated location

TA
LCS_LONGITUDE

g
vin
Ser

553 m

ce
ll
(CI
)

1 1 437

3dB point
given by the azimuth
and the HPBW
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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

With the TA positioning method, no signaling exchange is required between the SMLC and the MS (i.e. RRLP protocol is
not required). The TA positioning method is applicable to all the MSs (supporting LCS or not).
Based on:
l

Cell Identity (CI) of the serving cell.

Timing Advance (TA) value reported by MS:


n

intersection point of a line from the BTS antenna in their main direction with a circle which radius is
corresponding with the propagation delay (timing advance) is the MS estimated position.
Omni-directional cells: MS position = site position.

Parameters:
EN_LCS flag to enable/disable the Location Services per BSS
0 = Enabled; 1= Disabled; Default = 0
IF EN_LCS=1, CI+TA method is enabled in all the BSS cells
l

LCS_LATITUDE: Latitude of the BTS supporting the cell

LCS_LONGITUDE: Longitude of the BTS supporting the cell

LCS_AZIMUTH: Antenna direction orientation for the sector supporting the cell

HALFPWR_BEAM_WIDTH: Antenna half power beamwidth for the sector supporting the cell

Optimization parameters:
l ARC_SIZE_FACTOR: Factor used in the computation of the width in degree of the ellipsoid arc returned by the MFS
when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method.
l MIN_RADIUS_FACTOR: Factor used in the computation of the minimum radius of the ellipsoid arc returned by the MFS
when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method
l MAX_RADIUS_FACTOR :Factor used in the computation of the maximum radius of the ellipsoid arc returned by the MFS
when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method
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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 437

5 LCS

Positioning Methods: Conventional GPS


l

Conventional GPS location procedure


This optional location procedure is chosen by the SMLC (if the MS supports
it) upon reception of a Perform Location Request message from the BSC

MS

BTS

BSC

SMLC
Perform
Location
Request

Location
Request

(X,Y)

(X,Y):
computed position

Measurement Position Request

Measurement Position Response (X,Y)

Location
Response

1 1 438

Perform
Location
Response (X,Y)

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The MS continuously computes its position


The terminal searches for satellites, acquires all the GPS data, computes its own position and finally provides
the location estimation to the SMLC

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 438

5 LCS

Positioning Method: Assisted GPS Positioning


l

Assisted GPS Positioning Method (A-GPS)


Assistance GPS Positioning Method is split into:
MS Based A-GPS method
MS Assisted A-GPS method

Assistance data on request

GPS MS

- GPS acquisition assistance


- Navigation model
(almanac, ephemeris)
- Ionospheric model
- Time integrity

1 1 439

A-GPS
server

GPS receivers
reference network

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Assistance data gathered from a GPS reference network receiver is broadcast to the GPS MS.
Flags/Parameters
l

EN_LCS = 1

EN_MS_BASED_AGPS enables/disables the positioning method MS Based A-GPS per CELL


n

0 = disabled; 1 = enabled; default = 0

EN_MS_ASSISTED_AGPS enables/disables the positioning method MS Assisted A-GPS per CELL


n

0 = disabled; 1 = enabled; default = 0

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 439

5 LCS

Positioning Method: Assisted GPS Positioning [cont.]


l

A-GPS location procedure / MS Based A-GPS


MS

BTS

BSC
Perform
Location
Request

Positioning calculation:
latitude, longitude
and altitude

Position
Request
(X,Y)
Position
Response

Assistance Data
Assistance Data Acknowledge

Measurement Position Request

Measurement Position Response (X,Y)

Location
Response

Perform
Location
Response (X,Y)

(X,Y):
computed position
1 1 440

GPS info
Request
GPS info
Response

Location
Request

Assistance
Data

A-GPS
Server

SMLC

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Using assistance data, the MS computes by itself the position and sends it back to the SMLC.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 440

5 LCS

Positioning Method: Assisted GPS Positioning [cont.]


l

A-GPS location procedure / MS Assisted A-GPS


MS

BTS

BSC
Perform
Location
Request

Pseudo-range
measurements (M)

Assistance Data
Assistance Data Acknowledge

Position
Request

Measurement Position Request

Position
Response

Measurement Position Response (M)

GPS Location
Request (M)

Location
Response
Perform
Location
Response (X,Y)

(X,Y):
computed position
1 1 441

GPS info
Request
GPS info
Response

Location
Request

Assistance
Data

A-GPS
Server

SMLC

GPS Location
Response (X,Y)

(X,Y)

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Using a reduced set of assistance data, the MS makes pseudorange measurements and sends the result to
the A-GPS server, which fixes the position in the end.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 441

5 LCS

LCS Impact on HO
l

HO preparation
Inhibition of better cell handovers
Other HO
MS

BTS

BSC

SMLC

MSC

GMLC

HLR

LCS client

LCS Service Request


Send_Routing_Info request
Send_Routing_Info response
Provide_Subscriber_Location
Paging
Authentication + Ciphering
BSSMAP Perform_Location_Request
BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Request

Starts
T_Location

Emergency
HO
detection

1 1 442

BSSLAP - Reset

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

HO needed during LCS procedure.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 442

5 LCS

LCS Impact on HO [cont.]


l

HO management
Internal HO
MS

BTS

BSC

SMLC

MSC

GMLC

HLR

Intra BSC
HO
on going
BSSMAP Perform_Location_Request
BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response
BSSLAP - Reset

HO
complete

1 1 443

BSSMAP perform location response (cause = "Intra-BSC Handover Complete)

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Mobile in communication

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 443

LCS client

5 LCS

LCS Impact on HO [cont.]


l

HO management
External HO
MS

BTS

Serving BSC

External
BSC HO

SMLC

MSC

BSSMAP HO required

BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Abort
BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response

BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response

1 1 444

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 444

GMLC

HLR

LCS client

5 LCS

BSS Parameters

FLAGS

OPTIMIZATION DATA

Timers

EN_LCS

ARC_SIZE_FACTOR

T_Location

EN_SAGI

MIN_RADIUS_FACTOR

T_Location_longer

MAX_RADIUS_FACTOR

T_Loc_Abort
T_LCS_delay_tolerant
T_LCS_LowDelay
T_RRLP_low_delay
T_RRLP_delay_tolerant

1 1 445

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

BSS PARAMETERS
l EN_LCS (BSC): Flag which enables or disables the LCS feature in the BSS.
l EN_SAGI: Flag indicating whether SAGI is configured or not for this BSS.
l T_Location: BSC timer on a per call basis to guard the response from the SMLC in case of Location Request,
when no RRLP exchange is triggered with the MS.
l T_Location_longer: BSC timer on a per call basis to guard the response from the SMLC in case of Location
Request, when an RRLP exchange is triggered with the MS. Replace T_Location timer in case of
Conventional GPS, MS-Assisted A-GPS, MS-Based A-GPS.
l T_Loc_Abort: BSC timer to guard the response from the SMLC in case of Location Abort.
l T_LCS_LowDelay: SMLC timer to guard the calculation of the MS position (including the RRLP message
exchange with the target MS) in case of a Low Delay Location Request.
l T_LCS_DelayTolerant: SMLC timer to guard the calculation of the MS position (including the RRLP message
exchange with the target MS) in case of a Delay Tolerant Location Request.
l T_LCS_LowDelay: SMLC timer to guard the calculation of the MS position (including the RRLP message
exchange with the target MS) in case of a Low Delay Location Request.
l T_RRLP_Low_delay: Timer to guard the RRLP exchange between the SMLC and the MS .
l T_RRLP_delay_tolerant: Timer to guard the RRLP exchange between the SMLC and the MS.
Optimization data:
l ARC_SIZE_FACTOR: Factor used in the computation of the width in degree of the ellipsoid arc returned by
the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method.
l MIN_RADIUS_FACTOR: Factor used in the computation of the minimum radius of the ellipsoid arc returned
by the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method
l MAX_RADIUS_FACTOR: Factor used in the computation of the maximum radius of the ellipsoid arc returned
by the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 445

5 LCS

Cell Parameters

FLAGS

SITE DATA

EN_CONV_GPS

LCS_LATITUDE

EN_MS_ASSISTED_AGPS

LCS_LONGITUDE

EN_MS_BASED_AGPS

LCS_SIGNIFICANT_GC
LCS_AZIMUTH
HALF_POWER_BANDWIDTH

1 1 446

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

CELL PARAMETERS
l EN_CONV_GPS: Flag to enable/disable the Conventional GPS positioning method.
l

EN_MS_ASSISTED_AGPS: Flag to enable/disable the MS Assisted A-GPS positioning method.

EN_MS_BASED_AGPS: Flag to enable/disable the MS Based A-GPS positioning method.

LCS_LATITUDE: Latitude of the BTS supporting the cell (used by the MFS to compute location estimate based
on TA positioning method).
l

LCS_LONGITUDE: Longitude of the BTS supporting the cell (used by the MFS to compute location estimate
based on TA positioning method).
l

LCS_SIGNIFICANT_GC: Indicates whether latitude and longitude are significant or not

LCS_AZIMUTH: Antenna direction orientation for the sector supporting the cell (used by the MFS to compute
location estimate based on TA positioning method).
l

HALF_POWER_BANDWIDTH: Half power beam width of the antenna for the sector supporting the cell (used by
the MFS to compute location estimate based on TA positioning method).
l

Remark: To have LCS supported for a cell, the operator must activate LCS on the BSS handling this cell but he
must also activate GPRS for this cell (i.e. setting of MAX_PDCH to a value > 0, the cell being kept locked for
GPRS if the operator does not want to have GPRS running on this cell) and configure all the required
transmission resources (Ater and Gb resources) on the GPU(s) connected to this BSC.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 446

5 LCS

Exercise
l
l

Where is implemented the SMLC function?


What are the LCS impacts on cell dimensioning?

Time allowed:
10 minutes

1 1 447

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 447

5 LCS

Positioning Methods: CI+TA Positioning


l

Ellipsoid arc definition:


North

Point (O)

g
vin
Ser

Point (O)= serving BTS site coordinate


= serving cell antenna azimuth - /2
=A*width of serving cell sector in [],
calculated from bisector angles
of co-sited antenna azimuths
r1= inner radius of
TA ring-(B-0.5)*554 in [m]
R2=(B+C)*554 in [m]
A: ARC_SIZE_FACTOR
B: MIN_RADIUS_FACTOR
C: MAX_RADIUS_FACTOR

ce

r1

ll
(CI
)

r2

Back
1 1 448

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

An ellipsoid arc is a shape characterized by the co-ordinates of an ellipsoid point o (the origin), inner radius
r1, uncertainty radius r2, both radii being geodesic distances over the surface of the ellipsoid, the offset
angle () between the first defining radius of the ellipsoid arc and North, and the included angle () being
the angle between the first and second defining radii. The offset angle is within the range of 0 to 359,999
while the included angle is within the range from 0,0001 to 360. This is to be able to describe a full
circle, 0 to 360
For CI+TA method which is default one, the answer is given by description of "ellipsoid arc".
Optimization parameters:
l ARC_SIZE_FACTOR: Factor used in the computation of the width in degree of the ellipsoid arc returned by
the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method.
l MIN_RADIUS_FACTOR: Factor used in the computation of the minimum radius of the ellipsoid arc returned
by the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method.
l MAX_RADIUS_FACTOR: Factor used in the computation of the maximum radius of the ellipsoid arc
returned by the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method.

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 448

6 Counters on Electromagnetic Emission


(EME)

1 1 449

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 449

6 Counters on Electromagnetic Emission (EME)

Characteristics of the Feature


l

The goal of this feature is to make easier evaluating power issues in


BTSs
Recording of power emission of BTS per cell and frequency band

Triggering of warning reports based on threshold fixed by the operator


to get the real emission of antennas (at BTS antenna output port)

Take care of Environmental regulations

OMC-R

BSC

BTS

1 1 450

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 450

6 Counters on Electromagnetic Emission (EME)

Characteristics of the Feature [cont.]


l
l
l
l

GSM antennas are widely in living and working places


Lack of information provided to people on their exposure to EM fields
and the risks they are running
People concerned about their health, risk of complaints
Some European directives/recommendations
are already applicable or will be very soon

1 1 451

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 451

6 Counters on Electromagnetic Emission (EME)

Characteristics of the Feature [cont.]


l

2 new counters (Hourly from NPA for RNO reports)


EME_PWR_GSM (850/900) (Short Name: E01)
EME_PWR_DCS (1800/1900) (Short Name: E02)
Power with 0.1 Watt steps

Performance Measurement type


New Type: Type 33
Permanent type (PMC) with a fixed accumulation period: 1 hour
Counters available in MPM and NPA

Back

1 1 452

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Measurements:
l

Only with Evolium BTS

DL power data are collected by each TRE for each band (2 considered bands: 850/900 and 1800/1900)

Recording of power effectively transmitted to the antenna in Watt

Power control, DTX and unused TS are taken into account

Loss due to stages (Any, AN) and cables between TRE output and BTS antenna output connector taken into
account

Measurements averaged every hour per cell and per frequency band

2 new cell parameters: threshold values


l

EME_PWR_MAX_GSM (frequency band 850/900)

EME_PWR_MAX_DCS (frequency band 1800/1900)

Possible massively updated through an OMC Java script

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 452

7 B8 Improvements

1 1 453

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 453

7 B8 Improvements

Summary
l
l
l

Location Services (LCS)


SDDCH Dynamic allocation
Counters Improvement

Inter PLMN HO
3G to 2G HO (and 2G to 2G only)
Dual band HO (New type: 32)
LapD congestion counter
QOS Follow-up
TCH assignment failure BSS PB now detailed
HO Attempts for Fast Traffic added in type 110
AMR counters added in type 110
MS penetration (per speech version and channel type) was type 1 counters now available in type
110
HO Causes: type 26 extended from 1 to 40 cells
Directed retry: type 29 becomes a standard (for PMC)

1 1 454

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 454

8 B9 Improvements

1 1 455

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All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 455

8 B9 Improvements

Summary
l

Type 31: New RMS counters

For AMR monitoring


For Timing Advance analysis
For BTS Power level

Type 33: Power at the BTS for Electromagnetic Environment


Monitoring (EME) (Annex 6)

Type 110: more counters for UMTS to GSM handover monitoring

The new counters were introduced in MC922 family

2 New counters for HO Cause 30: PS return to CS Zone

1 1 456

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 456

9 Dynamic SDCCH Allocation

1 1 457

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 457

9 Dynamic SDCCH Allocation

Purpose
l

SDCCH/8 time slots can be dynamically allocated on demand on a cellby-cell basis.


Dynamic SDCCH/8 time slots.
Static SDCCH time slots

Allocated
Dynamic SDCCH/8
timeslots

Max

Min

TCH Capacity
Static SDCCH
timeslots

1 1 458

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Definitions
A Static SDCCH timeslot is a physical timeslot fixed allocated on the air interface. It contains 3, 4, 7 or 8
SDCCH sub-channels depending on whether the timeslot is an SDCCH/3, SDCCH/4, SDCCH/7, or SDCCH/8
timeslot.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 458

9 Dynamic SDCCH Allocation

Principle
l

Principles
Too few SDCCH time slots could result in high blocking rate on SDCCH
(Configuration 1)
Too many SDCCH time slots could lead to a lack of TCH resources
(Configuration 2)
Configuration 1

Configuration 2
SDCCH
time slots

SDCCH
time slots

TCH Capacity

TCH Capacity

TCH

C APAC ITY

Low signaling capacity

High signaling capacity

More TCH capacity

Less TCH capacity

1 1 459

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Definition
An SDCCH is a logical SDCCH sub-channel mapped on a Static SDCCH timeslot or a Dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot.
Signaling Load Cases
Timeslot split between signaling and traffic channels depends on the network signaling load. The main cases
are:
Normal signaling load cells: Rural area cells in center of Location Areas (e.g. 1 SDCCH timeslot for a 3-TRX
cell)

High signaling load cells:


n

Urban or suburban area cells in the center of a Location Area

Rural area cells at the border of Location Areas

(e.g. 2 SDCCH time slots for a 3-TRX cell)


l

Very high signaling load cells:


n

Urban or suburban area cells at the border of a Location Area

Cells with high SMS load (more than one SMS per call)

(e.g. 3 SDCCH time slots for a 3-TRX cell)

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 459

9 Dynamic SDCCH Allocation

Principle [cont.]
l

Allocation and de-allocation of Dynamic SDCCH/8 time slots


An additional dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot is allocated by the BSC if there is no
SDCCH sub-channel free in the cell.
A dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot is de-allocated by the BSC after
T_DYN_SDCCH_HOLD (10s) delay if all of its SDCCH sub-channels become free

Allocation of
Dynamic SDCCH/8
times slots

BCC: BCCH
SDC: Static SDCCH
SDD: Dynamic SDCCH

Cell

1 1 460

BCC
BCC

SDC
SDC

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

SDD
TCH

TCH
TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH
SDD
TCH

TCH
TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The location of the Dynamic SDCCH/8 time slots are fixed by O&M configuration.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 460

9 Dynamic SDCCH Allocation

TIMESLOT Types
l

NEW TIMESLOT TYPES

SDCCH
Pure SDCCH or static SDCCH

TCH
Pure TCH

TCH/SDCCH
dynamic SDCCH

TCH/SPDCH
MPDCH

1 1 461

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The OMC-R provides the BSC with the following O&M type of radio timeslots:
l

Main BCCH timeslot (BCC): It is a timeslot carrying FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH.

Main combined BCCH timeslot (CBC): It is a timeslot carrying FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/4 + SACCH/4.

Static SDCCH timeslot (SDC): It is a timeslot carrying SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8.

Dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot (SDD): It is a timeslot carrying TCH + SACCH or SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8

TCH timeslot (TCH): It is a timeslot carrying TCH + SACCH or PDCH

From RAM point of view, a radio timeslot can be defined as:


Pure BCCH timeslot: The BCCH timeslot is the radio timeslot configured as BCC by O&M. Such a timeslot only carries common CS
signalling.

Pure SDCCH timeslot: A pure SDCCH timeslot is a timeslot configured as a CBC or SDC by O&M. Such a timeslot can carry SDCCH
traffic.
l

Pure TCH timeslot: A pure TCH timeslot is a timeslot configured as TCH by O&M. Such a timeslot only carries TCH traffic.

TCH/SDCCH timeslot: A TCH/SDCCH timeslot is a timeslot configured as SDD by O&M. Such a timeslot is dynamically allocated as
TCH or as SDCCH depending on the usage of the timeslot. It can carry TCH traffic or SDCCH traffic.
l

TCH/SPDCH timeslot: A TCH/SPDCH timeslot is a timeslot configured as TCH by O&M. Such a timeslot is dynamically allocated as
TCH or as SPDCH depending on the usage of the timeslot. It can carry TCH traffic or PS traffic.
l

MPDCH timeslot: A MPDCH timeslot is a timeslot configured as TCH by O&M. Such a timeslot can only carry common PS
signalling.

A pure SDCCH timeslot can carry x SDCCH sub-channels where x equal to:
l

4 in case of combined CCCH and when CBCH is not configured on the timeslot,

7 in case of non-combined CCCH and when CBCH is configured on the timeslot,

3 in case of combined CCCH and when CBCH is configured on the timeslot,

8 for a normal SDCCH timeslot.

When allocated as SDCCH, a TCH/SDCCH timeslot can carry up to 8 SDCCH sub-channels.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 461

9 Dynamic SDCCH Allocation

Allocation Algorithm

SDCCH Request
SDCCH mapped on "TCU very high load state" removal

No

Yes

Are they any free SDCCH sub-channel


among Static SDCCH timeslots?
Selection of one
SDCCH sub-channel

No

Yes

Are they any free SDCCH sub-channel


among Dynamic SDCCH/8 already allocated?
Selection one
SDCCH sub-channel

Yes

No

Are they any Dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots


available and free in the cell?
Allocate one Dynamic
SDCCH/8 timeslot

1 1 462

SDCCH Request
rejected!!!

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Principle 1: Preference is given to pure SDCCH timeslots


Principle 2: Balance TCU processor load between different TCUs
In fact before entering in this algorithm (see slide) the first step is: Removal of all the SDCCH
subchannels mapped on TCU in Very High Overload state
Principle 3: FR TRX preference

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 462

9 Dynamic SDCCH Allocation

SDCCH Sub-Channel Selection


l

Pure SDCCH Timeslot


TS with LOWEST TCU LOAD
TS with MAXIMUM FREE SDCCH Sub channels
TS with lowest index on TRX with lowest TRX_ID

TCH/SDCCH TS allocated as SDCCH


TS on FR TRX
TS with lowest index on TRX with lowest TRX_ID

TCH/SDCCH TS allocated as TCH


TS with LOWEST TCU LOAD
TS on FR TRX
TS with lowest index on TRX with lowest TRX_ID

1 1 463

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Note that an SDCCH request can not access the timeslots reserved by NUM_TCH_EGNCY_HO. If all
remaining TCH/SDCCH timeslots are reserved by NUM_TCH_EGNCY_HO, then the SDCCH request shall be
rejected.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 463

9 Dynamic SDCCH Allocation

Deallocation Algorithm
l

GENERAL CASE:
all SDCCH sub-channels of a TCH/SDCCH timeslot become back free.
the T_DYN_SDCCH_HOLD timer (10s, not tunable) is started.
If the timeslot is still free of SDCCH sub-channel when the timer expires, it is
de-allocated (it becomes back TCH).

SPECIAL CASE:
several TCH/SDCCH timeslots are allocated as SDCCH
one of them becomes free of SDCCH sub-channels. Its timer starts.
a subsequent one becomes free of SDCCH sub-channels too before expiration
of the first ones timer (10s).
one of them is immediately de-allocated (the one with lowest priority: see
previous slide in reverse order) and becomes back TCH.
For the last one, its timer is restarted (it will be de-allocated in 10s)

1 1 464

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

The de-allocation algorithm ensures that:


l

TCH/SDCCH timeslots are not allocated too fast to TCH after de-allocating them

TCH/SDCCH timeslots are not re-allocated too frequently to SDCCH

Note: while T_DYN_SDCCH_HOLD is running:


l

the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot marked as HOLD is still considered as allocated to SDCCH (and can
not be allocated to TCH);

if a subsequent dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot (used as SDCCH and in the same cell) becomes free:
a) If this just freed dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot has a higher priority, T_DYN_SDCCH_HOLD is restarted and precedent dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in HOLD state is de-allocated immediately;
b) If this just freed dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot has lower priority, and T_DYN_SDCCH_HOLD is restarted and the just freed dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot is de-allocated immediately.

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 464

9 Dynamic SDCCH Allocation

O&M Configuration
l

Selection of static or dynamic


SDCCH
Timeslot configuration menu

Massive modification by
script
10 templates
Template customization
Template launched through
PRC

10
3
2

BTS

BTS

11

1
BTS

7
9

BTS

12

1 1 465

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Dynamic SDCCH Rules


l

The CBCH must be configured on a static SDCCH/8 or SDCCH/4 timeslot.

Combined SDCCHs (SDCCH/4 + BCCH) are always static.

To avoid incoherent allocation strategy between SDCCH and PDCH, a dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot
cannot have the characteristic of being a PDCH (it cannot carry GPRS traffic).
l

The operator must configure at least one static SDCCH/8 or SDCCH/4 timeslot on BCCH TRX in a cell.

In cells with E-GSM, only the TRX, which does not belong to the G1 band, can support dynamic and
static SDCCHs.
l

In multiband and concentric cells, only the TRX, which belongs to the outer zone, can support
dynamic and static SDCCHs.
l

Up to 24 static/dynamic SDCCH sub-channels can be configured per TRX.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 465

9 Dynamic SDCCH Allocation

O&M configuration [cont.]


l

Default configuration for a cell which has only Full rate TRX
Number of TRX
in the cell

Number of
Static SDCCH

Number of
Dynamic SDCCH

Total number
of SDCCH

Maximum
SDCCH/TRX
ratio

Is BCCH/CCCH
combined with
SDCCH?

12

12.0 (note 1)

Yes

12

6.0

Yes

16

24

12.0

No

3
4

8
8

16
24

24
32

8.0
8.0

No
No

24

32

6.4

No

24

32

5.3

No

16

24

40

5.7

No

16

24

40

5.0

No

16

32

48

5.3

No

10

16

32

48

4.8

No

11
12

16
16

32
40

48
56

4.4
4.7

No
No

13

16

40

56

4.3

No

14

24

40

64

4.6

No

15

24

48

72

4.8

No

16

24

48

72

4.5

No

1 1 466

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

Note1: For one TRX, dynamic SDCCHs are over-dimensioned because of the granularity of 8. According
to the Alcatel-Lucent traffic model, all dynamic SDCCHs will not be used.
Note2: An additional dynamic SDCCH/8 must be provided for each DR TRX (these are expected mainly on
small cells).

Rules
At least one static SDCCH/4 or SDCCH/8 on BCCH TRX:
l

Up to 24 static/dynamic SDCCH sub-channels per TRX.

Up to 32 static/dynamic SDCCH sub-channels per TCU.

Up to 88 static/dynamic SDCCH sub-channels per CELL.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 466

10 Handover Detection for Concentric


Cells

1 1 467

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 467

10 Handover Detection for Concentric Cells

Algorithms
l

Emergency handovers specific to concentric cells


Intracell handovers from inner to outer zone
cause 10: too low level on the uplink in inner zone
cause 11: too low level on the downlink in inner zone

May be triggered
From inner zone of a concentric cell
Towards outer zone, same cell

n
Co

c e n tri c c e
ll

ne

r zon

Oute

1 1 468

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 468

r zo ne

10 Handover Detection for Concentric Cells

Handover Algorithm Cause 10


l

CAUSE 10: too low level on the uplink in the inner zone

and

AV_RXLEV_UL_HO < RXLEV_UL_ZONE


MS_TXPWR = min (P, MS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER)

Averaging window: A_LEV_HO

1 1 469

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 469

10 Handover Detection for Concentric Cells

Handover Algorithm Cause 11


l

CAUSE 11: too low level on the downlink in the inner zone

and

AV_RXLEV_DL_HO < RXLEV_DL_ZONE


BS_TXPWR = BS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER

Averaging window: A_LEV_HO

1 1 470

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 470

10 Handover Detection for Concentric Cells

Handover Algorithms Cause 13


l

CAUSE 13: too high level on UL and DL in the outer zone


Better condition intracell handover
If the cell is a multi-band cell, cause 13 is checked only for multi-band MSs

May be triggered
From outer zone of a concentric cell
Towards inner zone, same cell

n
Co

c e n tri c c e

ne

r zon

Oute

1 1 471

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EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 471

r zo ne

ll

10 Handover Detection for Concentric Cells

Handover Algorithms Cause 13 [cont.]


l

CAUSE 13: too high level on UL and DL in the outer zone


AV_RXLEV_UL_HO > RXLEV_UL_ZONE +
+ ZONE_HO_HYST_UL +
+ (MS_TXPWR - MS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER) +
and

and
and
and

1 1 472

+ PING_PONG_MARGIN(0,call_ref)
AV_RXLEV_DL_HO > RXLEV_DL_ZONE +
+ ZONE_HO_HYST_DL +
+ (BS_TXPWR - BS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER) +
+ PING_PONG_MARGIN(0,call_ref)
AV_RXLEV_NCELL_BIS(n) <= neighbour_RXLEV(0,n)
EN_CAUSE_13 = ENABLE (B7)
EN_BETTER_ZONE_HO = ENABLE
Averaging windows: A_LEV_HO and A_PBGT_HO (for n)

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GSM QoS Monitoring Introduction


EVOLIUM Base Station Subsystem Introduction to Quality of Service and Traffic Load Monitoring - B10

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008


3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 472

10 Handover Detection for Concentric Cells

Handover Algorithms Cause 13 [cont.]


l

ZONE_HO_HYST_UL
UL static hysteresis for interzone HO from outer to inner
In case of multi-band cell, should take into account the difference of
propagation between GSM and DCS
Added to cause 10 threshold RXLEV_UL_ZONE

ZONE_HO_HYST_DL
DL static hysteresis for interzone HO from outer to inner
In case of multi-band cell, should take into account the difference of
propagation between GSM and DCS and the difference of BTS transmission
power in the two bands
Added to cause 11 threshold RXLEV_DL_ZONE

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 473

10 Handover Detection for Concentric Cells

Handover Algorithms Cause 13 [cont.]


PING_PONG_MARGIN(0,call_ref)
Penalty PING_PONG_HCP put on cause 13 if
The immediately preceding zone in which the call
has been is the inner zone of the serving cell
And the last handover was not external intracell
And T_HCP is still running
PING_PONG_MARGIN(0,call_ref) = 0
If the call was not previously in the serving inner
zone
Or T_HCP has expired

n
Co

c e n tri c c e
ll

ne

r zon

Oute
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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 474

r zo ne

10 Handover Detection for Concentric Cells

Handover Algorithms Cause 13 [cont.]


l

neighbour_RXLEV(0,n)
Inner zone
interferer 1

I n n er z o n e

Inner zone
interferer 2

?
Outer zone

C o n c e n t r ic c e l l

Concentric cells are designed to create an INNER zone


protected from external interferers
and creating no interferences on other cells
to be able to face more aggressive frequency reuse in INNER zone
TRXs
neighbour_RXLEV(0,n) tuning enables to avoid handovers if the MS position
will lead to interferences
the condition is checked towards all neighbor cells belonging to the same
layer and band as the serving cell
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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 475

10 Handover Detection for Concentric Cells

Handover Algorithms Cause 13 [cont.]


l

EN_CAUSE_13
Load balance between inner and outer zones may be allowed by setting
EN_LOAD_BALANCE = ENABLE
If EN_LOAD_BALANCE = ENABLE
If INNER zone is less loaded than OUTER,
EN_CAUSE_13 = ENABLE
If INNER zone is more loaded than OUTER,
EN_CAUSE_13 = DISABLE
If EN_LOAD_BALANCE = DISABLE
EN_CAUSE_13 = ENABLE

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 476

10 Handover Detection for Concentric Cells

Outgoing Intercell Handovers from Concentric Cell


l

Outgoing intercell handovers


from concentric cells
As explained here before, the MS
located in a concentric cell can
make intercell, emergency or
better condition HO regardless
their current zone

I n ner z on e

I n n er zo n e

For example, an MS located


in the INNER zone of a
concentric cell can make
directly an HO cause 12
towards another cell,
WITHOUT having to
trigger any cause 10 or 11
to the OUTER zone before

Oute r zone

C o n c e n t r i c c el l
I n ner z on e

Oute r zone

C o n c e n t r ic c e l l

Oute r zone

C o n c e n t r i c c el l
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The only restrictions are linked to EN_MULTI-BAND_PBGT_HO and EN_BI-BAND_MS parameters.

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 477

10 Handover Detection for Concentric Cells

Incoming Intercell Handovers towards Concentric Cell


l

Incoming intercell handovers towards a concentric cell


In case an MS makes an incoming handover towards a concentric cell (due
to outer PBGT measurements,etc.), a TCH may be allocated
either in the INNER or in the OUTER zone, as for call setup
depending on radio conditions
In case of a multi-band cell, if the MS is not multi-band, it will always be
sent to the OUTER zone

I n n e r zo n e

Outer zone

C o n c en t ric c e ll
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C el l

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 478

10 Handover Detection for Concentric Cells

Incoming Intercell Handovers towards Concentric Cell [cont.]


l
l

Use part of Handover cause 13 algorithm on each potential target


IF Cell(n) is external
The MS is directed to the OUTER zone of (n)

ELSE (cell(n) is internal)


IF
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_DL_ZONE + ZONE_HO_HYST_DL +
+ (BS_TXPWR - BS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER)
EN_BETTER_ZONE_HO = ENABLE

and

The MS is directed towards the INNER zone


ELSE
The MS is directed towards the OUTER zone

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 479

Self-assessment on the Objectives


l

Please be reminded to fill in the form


Self-Assessment on the Objectives
for this module
The form can be found in the first part
of this course documentation

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3JK11043AAAAWBZZA Issue 01
Section 1 Module 1 Page 480

End of Module
Annexes

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