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S.Y.B.Com b/i

We feel highly obliged to have had an opportunity to

prepare this project and gain much knowledge from it and would like
to thank Rakhee Ma’am for giving us this golden opportunity to
present this project on “How to Motivate the Indian Army” for the
subject Organisational Behaviour.
Special thanks to Lt. Col. Nirmal Kumar (ENGRS) from
the Indian Army, for providing us with in-depth and authentic
information about Motivation in Indian Army, without which we
would not have succeeded in this endeavor.
Lastly we are also thankful to our parents who allowed
us to participate in this project and gave their full support and to God
who has always generously showered his blessings on us. We all
hope to get more such beneficial opportunities in near future of our
academic years.
"This world rests on the arms of heroes like a son on those of his
sire. He, therefore, that is a hero deserves respect under every
circumstance. There is nothing higher in the three worlds than
heroism. The hero protects and cherishes all, and things depend
upon the hero".

This is what Indian Army is all about. “Supreme Heroism” and “Unconditional
Love” for India defines our Indian Army. Our soldiers are meant to be gallant,
fierce and ever-ready to sacrifice their lives to protect our Mother India.
Who are the Soldiers?

“Soldiers are men...most apt for all manner of services and

best able to support and endure the infinite toils and continual
hazards of war.”

What role do they play?

“People sleep peacefully in their beds at night only because our

soldiers stand ready to do violence on their behalf.”
But, the question that arises is, don’t they ever fail? Don’t our soldiers ever get
tired? What about their anger, frustrations and desires? The important thing to
remember here is our soldiers might be martyrs but are still Human Beings who
have emotions. A soldier gives the country a ray of hope, but what should be
done when a soldier looses hope?

“The soldier, above all other people, prays for peace, for he must suffer and bear
the deepest wounds and scars of war.”

Hence there arises a need to motivate them.

always commanded
respect and
recognition. In
primitive societies the
leadership of the clan
or tribe fell upon the
most brave. The
origin of the state saw
the brave elevated to
kingship. Indra, the
most distinguished of
the brave among the
Indo-Aryans, became
the King and the Commander.

The evolution of regular armies, however, demanded elaboration of the system of

honours and award. In the Vedic Age this was done by granting a share to
soldiers in the booty.

British rule over India came to an end on 14 August 1947 and with it also ended
the old institution of British honours and awards. The new Indian awards could
come into being only with the dawn of the Republic on 26 January 1950.

But on the basis of proposals already by early May 1948, the new awards, known
as Param Vir Chakra, Maha Vir Chakra and Vir Chakra, were finally selected in
June 1948.

Thus on becoming a Republic, decorations and medals were introduced to

honour the deeds of gallantry and valor by members of Indian defence force.
Gradually, with the passage of time the range of awards kept on expanding. A
complete break with the past was, however, not possible because members of
the Indian armed forces still held British honours and awards thus substituted the
British decorations and medals, which could no longer be granted to Indians. A
perusal of the British and Indian awards will show that the Param Vir Chakra to
the Victoria Cross, the Maha Vir Chakra to the Indian Order of Merit and the Vir
Chakra is equivalent to the Military Cross. The other group of awards i.e. the
Ashoka Chakra series, meant for gallantry other than in the face of the enemy,
was probably meant to replace the George Cross, Albert Medal and George

The first batch of decorations introduced on 26 January 1950 was thus made
effective with retrospective effect from 15 August 1947. The Vir Chakra and
Ashoka Chakra series became important institutions of this batch.
The second installment came in March 1953 in the form of the Meritorious
Service Medal and Long Service and Good Conduct Medal, Territorial Army
Decoration and territorial Army Medal. Then followed the highest award of the
land-the Bharat Ratna-and Padma series in 1954. On 26 January 1960, some
more medals were instituted and these included the Vishisht Seva Medal (in the
classes), Sainya Seva Medal, Videsh Seva Medal and Sena, Nao Sena and
Vayu Sena Medals.

As a result of the Indo-Pak conflict of 1965, the Raksha Medal, Samar Seva Star
and some others were introduced. Then came the 1971 war and it led to the
institution of the Sangram Medal, Poorvi Star and Paschimi Star.

In India there also exists the custom of granting 'Battle Honours', 'Theatre
Honours', and 'Honour titles' to various Army units for distinguished performance
on the battlefield. In India, the practice came into vogue in the nineteenth
century. The recipient regiments display a selected number of battle honours on
their colours, standards and kettle drums. These emblazoned battle honours
present an epitome of the history of the regiment.
For the purpose of classification, Indian honours and awards can be divided into two
categories :

(a) Gallantry awards.

(b) Non-gallantry awards.

The gallantry awards are again divisible into tow categories:

(a) Those for gallantry in the face of the enemy.

(b) Those for gallantry other than in the face of the enemy.

The first category of the gallantry awards comprises :

1. Param Vir Chakra

2. Maha Vir Chakra
3. Vir Chakra
4. Sena, Nao Sena and Vayu Sena Medal
5. Mention in Dispatches
6. Chiefs of Staff Commendation Card

The second category of the gallantry awards comprise the following :

1. Ashoka Chakra *
2. Kirti Chakra *
3. Shaurya Chakra *
* These were originally named Ashoka Chakra Class I, Class II, Class III

Among non-gallantry awards, the following can be mentioned :

1. Bharat Ratna
2. Padma Vibhushan
3. Padma Bhushan
4. Param Vishisht Seva Medal
5. Padma Shri
6. Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal
7. Uttam Yudh Seva Medal
8. Ati Vishisht Seva Medal
9. Yudh Seva Medal
10. Vishisht Seva Medal
11. 30 Years Long Seva Medal
12. 20 Years Long Service Medal
13. 9 Years Long Service Medal
14. Meritorious Service Medal
15. Long Service and Good Conduct Medal
16. General Service Medal - 1947
17. Samar Seva Medal
18. Sainya Seva Medal
19. Videsh Seva Medal
20. Commendation Card
21. Raksha Medal
22. Poorvi Star
23. Paschimi Star
24. Sangram Medal
25. Wound Medal
26. 25th Independence Anniversary Medal

Attached to a colorful ribbon, a medal, short of the symbol or motif it bears, is a piece of
metal. Due thought seems to have been given to this aspect when the gallantry awards
were instituted. The superb choice of Vajra (thunderbolt) to serve as the motif for the
Param Vir Chakra amply proves this. Great mythology surrounds this mysterious
weapon of Vedic origin. It was the Amogha Astra (unfailing weapon) used by Indra to
kill vitra, the demon of drought, to release lifegiving waters for the benefit of mankind.
In Puranic literature it is said that this Vajra was made out the the Asthis (bones) of
Dadhici, a sage of high attainments, for the benefit of the word.

The choice of star as a symbol for the Maha Vir Chakra and Vir Chakra as also for
Vishisht Seva Medal series is again meaningful. The star, a heavenly body known for
its firm, steady and fixed position, symbolically denotes everlasting glory. In Indian
mythology, Dhruva, the son of King Uttanapada and Queen Suniti, was given a place in
northern horizon by Lord Vishnu in appreciation of his firm determination and supreme
effort. The polar star is therefore, called Dhruva Tara in Indian mythology.

Another widely used motif on Indian medals is the Ashoka Chakra. This is a twenty-
four-spoked wheel occurring on the National Flag and the Ashoka Chakra series of
medals. This wheel generally symbolised a sense of activity and forward movement. In
4th century BC, the Buddhists adopted this symbol in the service of religion, calling it the
Dharma Chakra. The preaching of the gospel by Lord Buddha was denoted with the
Chakra (wheel) symbol and the act was called Dharma Chakra Parvartana.

The Ashokan Lions form the obverse or the reverse device in most of the medals. This
motif when represented along with the motto 'Satyameva Jayate' represents the National
Emblem. Three lions facing the four directions are again Buddhist in significance. They
symbolise the universal application of the Dharma comprehending all the four directions
i.e. east, west, north and south. In respect of medals, the symbol represents service of a
very high order.

Ribbons are integral to the scheme of medals and decorations. In fact, ribbons when
worn on the chest by a soldier adequately convey stories of heroism associated with him.
It is notable that all ribbons are intended to convey some motif or symbol by means of
A ribbon, generally speaking, is a combination of meaningful colour imprinted on silk,
Saffron, green, blue, red and white are the most commonly used colours in the Indian
ribbons. Of these red stands for courage and bravery, saffron for self-effacement and
dedicated service; green for growth and auspiciousness; white for glory and purity and
blue for devotion and sacrifice. Occasionally red symbolises the Indian Army, dark blue
the Indian Navy and sky blue the Indian Air Force. Stripes on ribbons generally denote
the class of the award. The ribbons are worn by the awardees on their left breast in a
specified sequence, the position and priority being the centre of the chest.

Battle Honour

1. Recognition of gallant performance by grant of Battle Honours, Theatre Honours

and Honour Titles to units, reinforces motivation of soldiers for collective acts of valour
during war. It caters for intrinsic and extrinsic needs of the arms in combat. Units will be
awarded the honours due to them for taking active and creditable part for claiming an
award of Battle Honours.

2. Battle Honours are official commemoration of battles, actions or engagements

and are awarded to Regiments whose units or sub-units have taken active and creditable
part in these operations. Battle Honours may be awarded in the form of “Battle Honour”,
“Theatre Honour” or “Honour Title” to:

(a) Mechanised Forces: A unit will consist of one complete Armoured

Regiment/Mechanised Infantry Battalion or one or more Armoured Squadrons/
Mechanised Infantry Companies integral to that Armourd Regiment/Mechanised Infantry

(b) Artillery & Air Defence Artillery: A unit will consist of one complete
regiment or one or more Batteries integral to that regiment of the Regular Army or
embodied Regiment of the Territorial Army.

(c) Engineers: A unit will consist of an Engineer Regiment or one or more

Field/Field Park Companies integral to the Regiment or an Independent Engineer unit
when not forming part of an Engineer Regiment.

(d) Infantry: A unit will consist of Battalion of the Regular Army or embodied
Battalion of Territorial Army.

(e) Army Aviation Corps: A unit will consist of a Squadron or one or more Flights
when not forming part of a squadron.

(f) Signals: A unit will consist of a Regiment or one or more companies when not
forming part of a Regiment.

4. Battle/Theatre Honours and Honour Titles so awarded will be included in the title
of a unit. Details of the award will be published at the appropriate place in the Army List
from time to time.

5. The policy regarding emblazonment of Battle Honours on Colonelours has been

laid down in Government of India. Ministry of Defence Office Memorandum No
F3/17/68/D(Ceremonials) dated 24 October 68 reproduced in AO 429/69.
6. Only the Mechanised Forces, the Corps of Engineers and the Infantry including
embodied Units of the Territorial Army are eligible to the award of Battle Honours and
Theatre Honours. Honour Titles can be claimed only by Artillery units including
embodied units of the Territorial Army, Air Defence Artillery Units and Army Aviation
Corps Units.

7. Signal Regiments/Signal Units whose collective performance in war merits due

recognition will be eligible for award of Unit Citation by COAS. The Unit Citation will
be claimed in the same manner as is being done in peace time. A separate committee will
examine these claims at the Army Headquarters as is being done presently.

8. Battle Honours. Conditions for claiming Battle Honours are as under : -

(a) The Units must have been committed to battle, action or engagement listed in the
tabulated list which will be issued separately by Army Headquarters within the time limit
laid down therein, and have been actively engaged with enemy troops.

(b) There is no question of an honour being awarded merely because a unit was
present at a battle. It must have taken active part in it and fought creditably with
distinction in the operation. It is emphasized that heavy casualties, although they may
indicate heavy fighting, will not be considered as the sole reason for award of this

(c) As a general rule, the Headquarters and 50 percent of an unit must have been
present in the battle. Three particular extensions of this general rule will, however, be
permitted : -

(i) Infantry Battalions which on occasions had to fight on a company basis

independently, claims may be submitted where 50 percent of such sub units were
engaged in an operation. Where a battalion had sub-units committed simultaneously to
different operations at the same time, only one claim per unit may be submitted to cover
any one period of time.

(ii) Where for operational reasons, a part of one unit was combined with another unit
to continue the fight as one unit, the claims may be submitted by both units as under:

(aa) by the unit providing the HQ and its remnants.

(bb) by the unit combining with the above provided its strength was minimum
of 50 percent.

(iii) In very exceptional cases a squadron/company or equivalent sub unit may be

considered as a unit, if it took part in certain operations independently of its parent unit
and the strength of the squadron/company concerned consisted of least 50 percent of its
9. Theatre Honour. Units qualifying for the Battle Honour in a theatre will
automatically qualify for Theatre Honour, .They may submit for theatre honour provided
that a minimum of Headquarters and 50 percent of unit was present in the Theatre for at
least one day and creditably performed an allotted task, such as guarding airfield or
communication zone and the like. The Theatre Honour will not be emblazoned on
Regimental Colonelours.

10. Honour Titles. Artillery, Air Defence Artillery and Army Aviation Corps
units which have distinguished themselves in a battle by rendering creditable service will
be entitled to The Honour Titles in commemoration of that service, provided that a
minimum of the Headquarters and 50 percent of the unit was present in the battle.
Batteries may submit claims only where they did not form an integral part of an Artillery
Regiment. However, in respect of Air Defence Artillery Units Honour Titles may be
awarded for creditable and distinguished service in defence of VAs/VPs; for this purpose
the stipulation of 50 % of unit strength will not apply. Units of Artillery, Air Defence
Artillery and Army Aviation Corps granted The Honour Titles will be entitled to write it
with their names.
Why and how is motivation required?

In spite of these awards and felicitation there is still further more need for

Today’s knowledge-based youth seeks not just superior salaries, but the freedom
to retain mobility in the career market. Its marriage dynamic demands an
environment for husband–wife working opportunities. It also seeks a corporate
culture which values people and does not treat them as disposable inventory or
cannon fodder.

• The challenge of the military is not of marketing with high pay scales, nor
in selling adventure and excitement like tourism ads.

• The challenge lies in restructuring, to attract young officers to fill the

11,000 vacancies. This is best done by expanding the infrastructure to
train officers for short service, by accepting a marginally lower standard at
entry, and paying a truly rewarding retirement package after five years’
service. This must include not only a monetary but an additional
educational package, in the form of assured entry into management,
medical or technical colleges for a second career. The highest entry
standards should be retained for permanent service officers who will hold
higher ranks.

The Indian army portrays the issues of recruitment and retention as a

recent problem unique to this country, while it is a worldwide
phenomenon. The shortage of officers in the Indian army has been there
for over three decades. To blame it on the poor compensation vis-a-vis the
corporate world, is only obfuscating the real issues– internal problems
besetting the Army that make it unattractive. There are larger social
factors at play with the opening of the economy. The private sector, with
its humongous compensation packages, is facing a similar talent crunch
as well. The government needs to look at social remedies — of education
and training — to redress these anomalies. It cannot be achieved by
throwing a few more crumbs at the soldiers.

• Army as an institution does not treat the women officers at par with their
male counterparts. Notwithstanding the validity of the reasons for this
differential treatment, it enhances the unattractiveness of a military career
for working couples. Constant relocation for the officers also ensures that
the spouses cannot afford to pursue successful civil careers, while
balancing it with a healthy family life.
How do we motivate our soldiers?

To motivate our army, their needs should be well taken care of; i.e.,
• Physiological needs
• Social needs
• Spiritual needs

To meet these needs certain steps can be taken, like:

 Awards, Felicitations, Recognition and Fame should be given to the

deserving ones.

 Efficient training should be provided to them.

 Good quality tools and weapons should be used.

 Proper protection for their families should be provided.

 Facilities like housing and medical needs should be taken care of.

 Regular stress breaks should be given to our soldiers.

 Renowned speakers should be invited to give motivational

 Entertainment for our army men should also be provided.

 Programmes should be held to increase team spirit.

 Every one involved with the army should have a proper incentive
and goal to work towards.

 First and foremost, more and more youngsters should be encouraged to

join the Indian Army to fill up the threatening vacancies. They should be
explained the feeling of patriotism and how important the security of the
country is.

Increasing job satisfaction is one way to make a career in the forces an

attractive option. However, as the shortage of officers is in the junior
ranks, other steps are required to attract youngsters to fill this gap. To
begin with, short- service commissions should be made more attractive.
Among possible measures is to sponsor seats in top colleges — for MBA,
engineering, media studies, perhaps even medical colleges — and offer
them to former service members. This could be viewed as a reward to
those who serve. Another approach could be to tie up with private sector
enterprises, and find ethical ways to encourage those who do, to
accommodate suitable former military personnel.

 Then the cadets should soon be motivated to achieve their goals and rise
in their paths. For this their emotional needs, physiological needs, etc
should be fulfilled.
Officer disgruntlement and, indirectly, shortage also feeds off the stifling
organisational culture of the military whose ethos, to a large extent, curbs
initiative and discourages self-criticism. The Indian army’s institutional
culture is traditionally risk averse, top-down and discourages initiative in
junior ranks. This ‘passing the buck’ culture is harmful to the development
of junior officers and has completely destroyed any independent,
leadership roles for JCOs and NCOs. This problem is compounded by the
manner in which self-critical analysis is sacrificed for the sake of career
advancement. Changing this organisational DNA is undoubtedly a long
drawn out process but it requires urgent attention from the current
generation of senior officers, if they wish to attract idealistic and
enterprising youth.

 While the soldier expects hardships in operational areas, in peace stations

he rarely lives the life advertised in slick media campaigns. The quality
and availability of accommodation for both officers and men in cantonment
towns are abysmal, with sub-standard construction, poor furniture and
other faults. Similarly, the quality of rations, electricity and water supply
and elements of ‘modernity’, like Internet accessibility, are either sub-par
or non-existent. Senior officers, with a few exceptions, are rarely affected,
or bothered, as they live walled-off in their palatial bungalows with their
numerous sahayaks. Compounding the problem is the near monopoly that
the Military Engineering Services has on this sector, which, as economists
will point out, usually leads to inefficiency and a lack of responsiveness to
the customer. One solution, then, suggests exploring public-private
partnerships to deliver the ‘goods’ to military personnel.

 Understandably, the hierarchical and pyramid structure of promotions

within the military lends itself to having the largest number of superceded
officers amongst all UPSC commissioned officers, with a corresponding
loss of motivation and morale. But the problem is further compounded by
an archaic system of career planning, placement and human resources
development within the services, especially the army. Instead of
encouraging officers to follow their interests, thus enriching human capital
and creating opportunities, the services follow a rigid and old-fashioned
approach to career planning resulting in disgruntled officers who, in turn,
discourage others from joining. To reduce officer attrition and increase job
satisfaction the services need to think up of imaginative solutions. It
should create parallel job streams for personnel to shift towards cyber,
nano and space technologies (the frontiers of future warfare), develop a
cadre of trained area specialists to take advantage of the country’s
growing global aspirations, enhance intellectual capital by encouraging
historical research (if the records are ever de-classified), strategic and
doctrinal studies and other academic fields. Measures like these can also
encourage officers to make a smooth transition to a second career.
The steps taken to motivate the Indian Army
(In Brief)

• First and foremost their basic needs are:

1. Food
2. Clothes
3. Shelter
These needs have to be fulfilled to bring the first stage of
satisfaction and willingness in the soldiers.

• Secondly, the army never forces any one to fight for the country. The
soldiers are explained a very important thing:

“You fight, firstly, for the honour of YOUR FAMILY

Then you fight for the honour of YOUR UNIT
Thirdly you fight for the honour of INDIAN ARMY
And lastly you fight for the honour of INDIA”

• Each and every soldier needs a break from the rigorous routine. They,
being human have many personal responsibilities to take care of. Hence
the Army cannot bind a soldier when he wants to take leave. Hence the
Army follows this motto:

“Give the soldier leave when HE wants and not just when the
Army wants”

• Monetary motive is a very important factor of motivation as their job

involves the most risks. Hence in the army salary is given on the last day
of the month for the next month’s work. Normally in any organizations
salary is paid after a month for that month’s work done; but Indian Army
follows the system of “Advance of Pay” to increase their eagerness
towards their job.

• During a war the fresh Jawans are never sent to fight from the frontline.
Instead the senior officers are the ones who lead them. They are the ones
to fight first and die if necessary and then do they allow the Jawans to go
ahead in the danger zone. Personal examples of Leaders inspire the

• India is an agricultural country. So most of the soldiers come from a

farmer’s community. Hence high quality of training is given to each fresh
cadet to change their psychological mind-set so that he is ready for the
harsh conditions a soldier has to face. The fitness levels of the soldiers
are very high. They are always kept active.

• Then comes the Socio-Economic factor. Now-a-days there are less

number of joint-families. Hence the small families of the soldiers have to
stay on their own. In such a case the soldiers constantly worry about
them. So to reduce their problems, earlier the Government would provide
family housing facilities to 30% of the soldiers but now they are targeting
100%. Also their children’s education is almost free.

Soldiers posted at the Siachen Glaciers (21,147ft):

The unit that has been posted at the Siachen Glaciers

faces the most physical hardships and mental trauma. The temperature
there is almost -53 degree Celsius.
The factors of motivation used there are:

• The recruits sent there are not raw recruits. They are well-
trained officers who have a higher morale and
• The soldiers are paid an extra pay of Rs. 8,000.
• Food, clothes and amenities are supplied by the helicopter
• Satellite telephone is provided free of cost for them to
contact their families.
• No recruit is allowed to stay there for more than 89 days.
Higher officers can stay for maximum 3yrs.
• 1 Doctor and medical staff are available 24hrsx7 for each
unit of 25 soldiers to take care of any health hazards.
• All types of entertainment possible are provided. Dish TV
and free liquor are given to the soldiers.
• Daily newspaper satisfies their intellectual need.

One problem that Govt. has not yet been successful in solving is that lesser and
lesser number of young generations is joining the army. Hence there is a huge
gap of vacancies forming. Once Shri Abdul Kalam had once said in his speech
“There should be compulsory training of NCC for each boy and girl in the
school level in India.”

The Govt. in an attempt to solve this problem has introduced the 6th Pay
Commission wherein the salary has had an approximately 1.5 times increase.
Still it needs a 10 times increment to lure the youngsters. The Govt. is still trying
to find a solution through better recognition, honour, salary, etc.
In this manner if one after the other all the
needs of a soldier has been taken care of,
then no-one can ever stop him from going
to the borders n fighting for the country’s
security with a brave heart.

“I am a soldier. I fight where I am told to and I win when I


This should be the chant on every Indian Soldier’s