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GSAT-16

GSAT-16, an advanced communication satellite, weighing


3181.6 kg at lift-off, is being inducted into the INSAT-GSAT system. GSAT-16 is
configured to carry a total of 48 communication transponders, the largest number of
transponders carried by a communication satellite developed by ISRO so far, in normal
C-band, upper extended C-band and Ku-band. GSAT-16 carries a Ku-band beacon as
well to help accurately point ground antennas towards the satellite.
The designed on-orbit operational life of GSAT-16 is 12 years. The communication
transponders on-board GSAT-16 together ensure continuity of various services currently
provided by INSAT-GSAT system and serve as on-orbit spares to meet contingency
requirements or for the augmentation of such services.
GSAT-16 is launched into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) by Ariane-5 VA-221
launch vehicle from Kourou, French Guiana. After its injection into GTO, ISROs Master
Control Facility (MCF) at Hassan takes control of the satellite and performs the initial
orbit raising manoeuvres using the satellites on-board Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM),
finally placing it in the vicinity of circular Geostationary Orbit. After this, the deployment
of appendages such as the solar panels, antennas and three axis stabilization of the
satellite were performed.

GSAT-16 is positioned at 55 deg East longitude in the

Geostationary orbit and co-located with GSAT-8, IRNSS-1A and IRNSS-1B satellites.

PAYLOADS OF GSAT-16

12 Ku-band transponders each with 36 MHz usable bandwidth with footprint


covering Indian mainland and Andaman & Nicobar islands

24 C-band transponders each with 36 MHz usable bandwidth with footprint


covering Indian mainland and island territories

12 Upper Extended C-band transponders each with 36 MHz usable bandwidth


with footprint covering Indian mainland and island territories

Launch Mass:
3181.6 kg
Dimension:
2.0 m x 1.77 m x 3.1 m cuboid
Launch Date:
Sunday, December 7, 2014
Mission Life:
12 Years
Power:
Solar array providing 6000 Watts and two 180 AH Lithium lon batteries
Ariane-5 VA-221
Type of Satellite:
Communication
Manufacturer:
ISRO
Owner:
ISRO
Application:
Communication
Orbit Type:
GSO

PSLV-C26/IRNSS-1C Mission
IRNSS-1C will be the third out of seven in the Indian Regional Navigational Satellite
System (IRNSS) series of satellites after IRNSS-1A and IRNSS-1B. The satellite is one
among the seven of the IRNSS constellation of satellites slated to be launched to
provide

navigational

geosynchronous orbit.

services

to

the

region.

The

satellite

will

be

placed

in

Satellite
The satellite will help augmenting the satellite based navigation system of India which is
currently under development. The navigational system so developed will be a regional
one targeted towards South Asia. The satellite will provide navigation, tracking and
mapping services.
IRNSS-1C satellite will have two payloads: a navigation payload and CDMA ranging
payload in addition with a laser retro-reflector. The payload generates navigation signals
at L5 and S-band. The design of the payload makes the IRNSS system inter-operable
and compatible with Global Positioning System (GPS) and Galileo. The satellite is
powered by two solar arrays, which generate power up to 1,660 watts, and has a lifetime of ten years.

PSLV-C23

PSLV-C23, launched SPOT-7 a French earth observation satellite, into an 655 km SunSynchronous Orbit (SSO). It is the tenth flight of PSLV in 'core-alone' configuration
(without use of solid strap-on motors).
Along with SPOT-7, there were four co-passenger satellites viz. AISAT from DLR
Germany, NLS7.1 and NLS7.2 from UTIAS/SFL Canada and VELOX-1 from NTU
Singapore.

PSLV- C23 Stages at a Glance


STAGE-1

STAGE-2

STAGE-3

STAGE-4

Nomenclature

PS1

PS2

PS3

PS4

Propellant

Solid
(HTPB
Based)

Liquid
(UH25 +
NO)

Solid
(HTPB
Based)

Liquid
(MMH + MON3)

Mass (Tonne)

138

41

7.6

2.5

Max Thrust (kN)

4787

804

242

7.3 X 2

Burn Time (sec)

102

148

110

526

Stage Dia (m)

2.8

2.8

2.0

2.8

Stage Length
(m)

20

12.8

3.6

3.0

PSLV-C27/IRNSS-1D Mission

The fourth satellite of IRNSS Constellation, IRNSS-1D was launched onboard PSLV-C27.
The satellite is one among the seven of the IRNSS constellation of satellites slated to be
launched to provide navigational services to the region. The satellite is placed in
geosynchronous orbit.

Satellite
The satellite will help augmenting the satellite based navigation system of India which is
currently under development. The navigational system so developed will be a regional
one targeted towards South Asia. The satellite will provide navigation, tracking and
mapping services.

MARS ORBITER MISSION


Marking India's first venture into the interplanetary space, MOM will explore and
observe Mars surface features, morphology, mineralogy and the Martian atmosphere.
Further, a specific search for methane in the Martian atmosphere will provide
information about the possibility or the past existence of life on the planet.
The enormous distances involved in interplanetary missions present a demanding
challenge; developing and mastering the technologies essential for these missions will
open endless possibilities for space exploration. After leaving Earth, the Orbiter will
have to endure the Interplanetary space for 300 days before Mars capture. Apart from
deep space communications and navigation-guidance-control capabilities, the mission
will require autonomy at the spacecraft end to handle contingencies.
Once India decided to go to Mars, ISRO had no time to lose as the nearest launch
window was only a few months away and it could not afford to lose the chance, given
the next launch would present itself after over 780 days, in 2016. Thus, mission
planning, manufacturing the spacecraft and the launch vehicle and readying the support
systems took place swiftly.
Connect with Mars Orbiter

Launch Vehicle

MOM was launched aboard PSLV C-25, which was an XL variant of the PSLV, one of
world's most reliable launch vehicles. The XL variant was earlier used to launch
Chandrayaan (2008), GSAT-12 (2011) and RISAT-1 (2012).
Read More

Spacecraft

Based on the I-1-K satellite bus of ISRO that has proved its reliability over the years in
Chandrayaan-1 and the IRS and INSAT series of satellites, the MOM spacecraft carries
850 kg of fuel and 5 science payloads.
Read More

Ground Segment

The Orbiter is being tracked by the Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN), located outside
Bangalore. IDSN's 32 m and 18 m diameter antennas are being complemented by NASA
- JPL's Deep Space Network.
Read More

Mission profile

The Mars Mission was envisaged as a rendezvous problem, wherein the Mars orbiter is
manoeuvred into a departure hyperbolic trajectory, escapes the SOI of Earth and
thereafter enters the SOI of Mars.
Read More

Scientific & Exploration


Indian space programme encompasses research in areas like astronomy, astrophysics,
planetary and earth sciences, atmospheric sciences and theoretical physics. Balloons,
sounding rockets, space platforms and ground-based facilities support these research
efforts. A series of sounding rockets are available for atmospheric experiments. Several
scientific instruments have been flown on satellites especially to direct celestial X-ray
and gamma-ray bursts.

Mars Orbiter Mission


Mars Orbiter Mission is ISROs first interplanetary mission to planet Mars with an orbiter
craft designed to orbit Mars in an elliptical orbit of 372 km by 80,000 km. Mars Orbiter
mission can be termed as a challenging technological mission and a science mission
considering the critical mission operations and stringent requirements on propulsion,
communications and other bus systems of the spacecraft. The primary driving
technological objective of the mission is to design and realize a spacecraft with a
capability to perform Earth Bound Manoeuvre (EBM), Martian Transfer Trajectory (MTT)
and Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) phases and the related deep space mission planning and
communication management at a distance of nearly 400 million Km. Autonomous fault
detection and recovery also becomes vital for the mission.

Chandrayaan-1
Chandrayaan-1, India's first mission to Moon, was launched successfully on October 22,
2008 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. The spacecraft was orbiting around the Moon at a
height of 100 km from the lunar surface for chemical, mineralogical and photo-geologic
mapping of the Moon. The spacecraft carried 11 scientific instruments built in India,
USA, UK, Germany, Sweden and Bulgaria.

Chandrayaan-2
Chandrayaan-2 will be an advanced version of the previous Chandrayaan-1 mission to
Moon.Chandrayaan-2 is configured as a two module system comprising of an Orbiter
Craft module (OC) and a Lander Craft module (LC) carrying the Rover developed by
ISRO.

Communication Satellites

The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system is one of the largest domestic
communication

satellite

systems

in

Asia-Pacific

region

with

nine

operational

communication satellites placed in Geo-stationary orbit. Established in 1983 with


commissioning of INSAT-1B, it initiated a major revolution in Indias communications
sector and sustained the same later. Currently operational communication satellites are
INSAT-3A, INSAT-3C, INSAT-3E, INSAT-4A, INSAT-4B, INSAT-4CR, GSAT-8, GSAT-10 and
GSAT-12.
The system with a total of 195 transponders in the C, Extended C and Ku-bands
provides services to telecommunications, television broadcasting, satellite news
gathering, societal applications, weather forecasting, disaster warning and Search and
Rescue operations.

Earth Observation Satellites


Starting with IRS-1A in 1988, ISRO has launched many operational remote sensing
satellites. Today, India has one of the largest constellations of remote sensing satellites
in operation. Currently, eleven operational satellites are in orbit RESOURCESAT-1 and
2, CARTOSAT-1, 2, 2A, 2B, RISAT-1 and 2, OCEANSAT-2, Megha-Tropiques and SARAL.
Varieties of instruments have been flown onboard these satellites to provide necessary

data in a diversified spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions to cater to different user
requirements in the country and for global usage. The data from these satellites are
used for several applications covering agriculture, water resources, urban planning,
rural development, mineral prospecting, environment, forestry, ocean resources and
disaster management.

Satellite Navigation
Satellite Navigation service is an emerging satellite based system with commercial and
strategic applications. ISRO is committed to provide the satellite based Navigation
services to meet the emerging demands of the Civil Aviation requirements and to meet
the user requirements of the positioning, navigation and timing based on the
independent satellite navigation system. To meet the Civil Aviation requirements, ISRO
is working jointly with Airport Authority of India (AAI) in establishing the GPS Aided Geo
Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) system. To meet the user requirements of the
positioning, navigation and timing services based on the indigenous system, ISRO is
establishing a regional satellite navigation system called Indian Regional Navigation
Satellite System (IRNSS).

(a) GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN):


This is a Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) implemented jointly with Airport
Authority of India (AAI). The main objectives of GAGAN are to provide Satellite-based
Navigation services with accuracy and integrity required for civil aviation applications
and to provide better Air Traffic Management over Indian Airspace. The system will be
interoperable with other international SBAS systems and provide seamless navigation
across regional boundaries. The GAGAN Signal-In-Space (SIS) is available through GSAT8 and GSAT-10.

(b) Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS)


This is an independent Indian Satellite based positioning system for critical National
applications. The main objective is to provide Reliable Position, Navigation and Timing
services over India and its neighbourhood, to provide fairly good accuracy to the user.
The IRNSS will provide basically two types of services
1.

Standard Positioning Service (SPS)

2.

Restricted Service (RS)

Space Segment consists of seven satellites, three satellites in GEO stationary orbit
(GEO) and four satellites in Geo Synchronous Orbit (GSO) orbit with inclination of 29 to
the equatorial plane. All the satellites will be visible at all times in the Indian region. The
first satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2013 and the total seven satellite
constellation is scheduled to be in place by 2016. Ground Segment is responsible for the
maintenance and operation of the IRNSS constellation. It provides the monitoring of the
constellation status, computation of the orbital and clock parameters and navigation
data uploading. The Ground segment comprises of TTC & Uplinking Stations, Spacecraft
Control Centre, IRNSS Timing Centre, CDMA Ranging Stations, Navigation Control Centre
and Data Communication Links. Space segment is compatible with single frequency
receiver for Standard Positioning Service (SPS), dual frequency receiver for both SPS &
RS service and a multi mode receiver compatible with other GNSS providers.

Experimental Satellites
ISRO has launched many small satellites mainly for the experimental
purposes. This experiment include Remote Sensing, Atmospheric Studies,
Payload Development, Orbit Controls, recovery technology etc.
Launch Date

Launch Mass

Power

Launch Vehicle

Orbit Type

SRE 1

Jan 10, 2007

550 kg

Apple

Jun 19, 1981

670 kg

210

Ariane -1(V-3)

GSO

RS-1

Jul 18, 1980

35 kg

16 Watts

RTP

Aug 10, 1979

35 kg

Aryabhata

Apr 19, 1975

360 kg

46 Watts

Small Satellites

The small satellite project is envisaged to provide platform for stand-alone payloads for
earth imaging and science missions within a quick turn around time. For making the
versatile platform for different kinds of payloads, two kinds of buses have been
configured and developed.

Indian Mini Satellite -1 (IMS-1)


IMS-1 bus has been developed as a versatile bus of 100 kg class which includes a
payload capability of around 30 kg. The bus has been developed using various
miniaturization techniques. The first mission of the IMS-1 series was launched
successfully on April 28th 2008 as a co-passenger along with Cartosat 2A. Youthsat is
second mission in this series and was launched successfully along with Resourcesat 2
on 20th April 2011.

Indian Mini Satellite -2 (IMS-2) Bus

IMS-2 Bus is evolved as a standard bus of 400 kg class which includes a payload
capability of around 200kg. IMS-2 development is an important milestone as it is
envisaged to be a work horse for different types of remote sensing applications. The
first mission of IMS-2 is SARAL. SARAL is a co-operative mission between ISRO and
CNES with payloads from CNES and spacecraft bus from ISRO.

Student satellites
ISRO has influenced educational institutions by its activities like making satellites for
communication, remote sensing and astronomy. The launch of Chandrayaan-1 increased
the interest of universities and institutions towards making experimental student
satellites. Capable Universities and institution can venture into space technology onorbit with guidance and support from ISRO in following ways.

Development of Payload (by Universities/Institutions)


Every satellite carries a payload that performs the intended function to achieve
the mission goal and the main bus that supports the payload function. The Development
of payloads may comprise of detectors, electronics and associated algorithms, which
can be an experimental piggy back payload on the ISROs on-going (Small or
operational) satellite projects.
Design and development of detectors, payload electronics, and associated algorithm /
experiments that enhance the application of space services to mankind is a continuing
R&D activity in several educational institutions all over the world. Educational
institutions can propose the payloads developed by them to be flown on ISROs small
satellites.
Under this option, payload only is developed by the Universities or Institutions
and launched with ISROs satellite missions which has other ISROs payloads. Data
Handing and data transmission is done by ISRO as the part of satellite bus.
After launch ISRO will acquire payload data and disseminate it to
Universities/ institutions further processing and analysis.

Satellite Design & Fabrication by Universities/Institutions


Under this option Universities have to design, fabricate, test the satellite Bus & Payload
and deliver the integrated spacecraft for launch. Technical guidance in designing,
fabrication and testing will be provided by ISRO. Some critical materials for the
space mission also will be provided by ISRO.
The designs and test results will be reviewed by ISRO team.

SLV

Satellite Launch Vehicle-3 (SLV-3) was India's first experimental


satellite launch vehicle, which was an all solid, four stage vehicle
weighing 17 tonnes with a height of 22m and capable of placing 40
kg class payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO).

SLV-3 was successfully


launched on July 18, 1980 from Sriharikota Range (SHAR), when Rohini satellite, RS-1,

was placed in orbit, thereby making India the sixth member of an exclusive club of
space-faring nations . SLV-3 employed an open loop guidance (with stored pitch
programme) to steer the vehicle in flight along a pre-determined trajectory. The first
experimental flight of SLV-3, in August 1979, was only partially successful. Apart from
the July 1980 launch, there were two more launches held in May 1981 and April 1983,
orbiting

Rohini

satellites

carrying

remote

sensing

sensors.

The successful culmination of the SLV-3 project showed the way to advanced launch
vehicle projects such as the Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV), Polar Satellite
Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).

Under this option more than one University/Institution may participate. One
among them will be the focal point for the ISRO. After launch, the collected data will be
archived and disseminated by university/Institution(s).

ASLV
With a lift off weight of 40 tonnes, the 24 m tall ASLV was configured
as a five stage, all-solid propellant vehicle, with a mission of orbiting
150 kg class satellites into 400 km circular orbits.

The

Augmented

Satellite

Launch

Vehicle

(ASLV)

Programme was designed to augment the payload capacity to 150 kg, thrice that of SLV3, for Low Earth Orbits (LEO). While building upon the experience gained from the SLV-3
missions, ASLV proved to be a low cost intermediate vehicle to demonstrate and
validate critical technologies, that would be needed for the future launch vehicles like
strap-on technology, inertial navigation, bulbous heat shield, vertical integration and
closed

loop

guidance.

Under the ASLV programme four developmental flights were conducted. The first
developmental flight took place on March 24, 1987 and the second on July 13, 1988.
The third developmental flight, ASLV-D3 was successfully launched on May 20, 1992,
when SROSS-C (106 kg) was put into an orbit of 255 x 430 km. ASLV-D4, launched on
May 4, 1994, orbited SROSS-C2 weighing 106 kg. It had two payloads, Gamma Ray
Burst (GRB) Experiment and Retarding Potentio Analyser (RPA) and functioned for seven
years.

POLAR SATELLITE LAUNCH


VEHICLE
About the Launch Vehicle
The PSLV is one of world's most reliable launch vehicles. It has been in service for over
twenty years and has launched various satellites for historic missions like Chandrayaan1, Mars Orbiter Mission, Space Capsule Recovery Experiment, Indian Regional
Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) etc. PSLV remains a favourite among various
organisations as a launch service provider and has launched over 40 satellites for 19
countries. In 2008 it created a record for most number of satellites placed in orbit in one
launch by launching 10 satellites into various Low Earth Orbits.

Vehicle Specifications
Height

: 44 m

Diameter

: 2.8 m

Number of Stages

:4

Lift Off Mass

: 320 tonnes (XL)

Variants

: 3 (PSLV-G, PSLV - CA, PSLV - XL)

First Flight

: September 20, 1993

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Payload to SSPO: 1,750 kg


PSLV earned its title 'the Workhorse of ISRO' through consistently delivering various
satellites to Low Earth Orbits, particularly the IRS series of satellites. It can take up to
1,750 kg of payload to Sun-Synchronous Polar Orbits of 600 km altitude.

Payload to Sub GTO: 1,425 kg


Due to its unmatched reliability, PSLV has also been used to launch various satellites
into Geosynchronous and Geostationary orbits, like satellites from the IRNSS
constellation.

Fourth Stage: PS4


The PS4 is the uppermost stage of PSLV, comprising of two Earth storable liquid engines.

Engine

: 2 x PS-4

Fuel

: MMH + MON

Max. Thrust

: 7.6 x 2 kN

Third Stage: PS3


The third stage of PSLV is a solid rocket motor that provides the upper stages high thrust
after the atmospheric phase of the launch.

Fuel

: HTPB

Max. Thrust

: 240 kN

Second Stage: PS2


PSLV uses an Earth storable liquid rocket engine for its second stage, know as the Vikas
engine, developed by Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre.

Engine

: Vikas

Fuel

: UDMH + N2O4

Max. Thrust

: 799 kN

First Stage: PS1


PSLV uses the S139 solid rocket motor that is augmented by 6 solid strap-on boosters.

Engine

: S139

Fuel

: HTPB

Max. Thrust

: 4800 kN

Strap-on Motors
PSLV uses 6 solid rocket strap-on motors to augment the thrust provided by the first
stage in its PSLV-G and PSLV-XL variants. However, strap-ons are not used in the core
alone version (PSLV-CA).

Fuel

: HTPB

Max. Thrust

: 719 kN

PSLV Launches Till Date


Title

Launch Date

Launcher Type

Orbit

PSLV-C27

Mar 28, 2015

PSLV-XL

GSO

PSLV-C26

Oct 16, 2014

PSLV-XL

GTO

Payload

IRNSS 1C

Title

Launch Date

Launcher Type

Orbit

PSLV-C23

Jun 30, 2014

PSLV-CA

GTO

PSLV-C24

Apr 04, 2014

PSLV-XL

GTO

IRNSS-1B

PSLV-C25

Nov 05, 2013

PSLV-XL

HEO

Mars Orbiter Mission Space

PSLV-C22

Jul 01, 2013

PSLV-XL

GTO

IRNSS-1A

PSLV-C20

Feb 25, 2013

PSLV-CA

SSPO

SARAL

PSLV-C21

Sep 09, 2012

PSLV-CA

SSPO

PSLV-C19

Apr 26, 2012

PSLV-XL

SSPO

RISAT-1

PSLV-C18

Oct 12, 2011

PSLV-CA

SSPO

Megha-Tropiques

GEOSYNCHRONOUS
SATELLITE LAUNCH
VEHICLE
(GSLV)
About the Launch Vehicle

Payload

The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle was primarily developed to launch INSAT
class of satellites into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits. GSLV is being used for launching
GSAT series of satellites. GSLV is a three stage launcher that uses one solid rocket motor
stage, one Earth storable liquid stage and one cryogenic stage. The most recent flight of
GSLV, the GSLV-D5, placed GSAT-6 into its planned orbit and marked the first successful
flight of the indigenous cryogenic stage. Earlier, GSLV had launched various
communication satellites among which EDUSAT is notable, being India's first satellite
built exclusively to serve the educational sector through satellite based distance
education.

Vehicle Specifications
Height

: 49.13 m

Number of Stages

:3

Lift Off Mass

: 414.75 tonnes

First Flight

: April 18, 2001

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Payload to GTO: 2,500 kg


GSLV's primary payloads are INSAT class of communication satellites that operate from
Geostationary orbits and hence are placed in Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits by GSLV.

Payload to LEO: 5,000 kg


Further, GSLV's capability of placing up to 5 tonnes in Low Earth Orbits broadens the
scope of payloads from heavy satellites to multiple smaller satellites.

Third Stage: CUS


Developed under the Cryogenic Upper Stage Project (CUSP), the CE-7.5 is India's first
cryogenic engine, developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre. CE-7.5 has a
staged combustion operating cycle.

Fuel

: LOX + LH2

Max. Thrust

: 75 kN

Burn-time

: 720 sec

Second Stage: GS2


One Vikas engine is used in the second stage of GSLV. The stage was derived from the
PS2 of PSLV where the Vikas engine has proved its reliability.

Engine

: Vikas

Fuel

: UDMH + N2O4

Max. Thrust

: 800 kN

Burntime

: 150 sec

First Stage: GS1


The first stage of GSLV was also derived from the PSLV's PS1. The 138 tonne solid rocket
motor is augmented by 4 liquid strap-ons.

Engine

: S139

Fuel

: HTPB

Max. Thrust

: 4700 kN

Burntime

: 100 sec

Strap-on Motors
The four liquid engine strap-ons used in GSLV are heavier derivatives of PSLV's PS2, and
use one Vikas engine each.

Fuel

: UDMH + N2O4

Max. Thrust

: 680 kN

Burntime

: 160 sec

GSLV Launches Till Date


Title

Launch Date

Launcher Type

Orbit

Paylo

GSLV-D5

Jan 05, 2014

GSLV-MK-II

GSAT

GSLV-F06

Dec 25, 2010

GSLV-MK-II

GSAT

GSLV-D3

Apr 15, 2010

GSLV-MK-II

GSAT

GSLV-F04

Sep 02, 2007

GSLV-MK-II

INSAT

Title

Launch Date

Launcher Type

Orbit

Paylo

GSLV-F02

Jul 10, 2006

GSLV-MK-II

GTO

INSAT

GSLV-F01

Sep 20, 2004

GSLV-MK-II

EDUS

GSLV-D2

May 08, 2003

GSLV-MK-II

GSAT

GSLV-D1

Apr 18, 2001

GSLV-MK-II

GSAT

Sounding Rockets

Sounding rockets are one or two stage solid propellant rockets used for probing the
upper atmospheric regions and for space research. They also serve as easily affordable
platforms to test or prove prototypes of new components or subsystems intended for
use in launch vehicles and satellites. With the establishment of the Thumba Equatorial
Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) in 1963 at Thumba, a location close to the magnetic
equator, there was a quantum jump in the scope for aeronomy and atmospheric
sciences in India. The launch of the first sounding rocket from Thumba near

Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala on 21 November 1963, marked the beginning of the Indian


Space Programme . Sounding rockets made it possible to probe the atmosphere in situ
using rocket-borne instrumentation. The first rockets were two-stage rockets imported
from Russia (M-100) and France (Centaure). While the M-100 could carry a payload of 70
kg to an altitude of 85 km, the Centaure was capable of reaching 150 km with a payload
of approximately 30 kg.

1963 :: ISRO launches Nike-Apache rocket . The First Rocket to be launched from India
ISRO started launching indigenously made sounding rockets from 1965 and experience
gained was of immense value in the mastering of solid propellant technology. In 1975,
all sounding rocket activities were consolidated under the Rohini Sounding Rocket (RSR)

Programme. RH-75, with a diameter of 75mm was the first truly Indian sounding rocket,
which was followed by RH-100 and RH-125 rockets. The sounding rocket programme
was the bedrock on which the edifice of launch vehicle technology in ISRO could be
built. It is possible to conduct coordinated campaigns by simultaneously launching
sounding rockets from different locations. It is also possible to launch several sounding
rockets in a single day.

Operational sounding Rockets


Currently, three versions are offered as operational sounding rockets , which cover a
payload range of 8-100 Kg and an apogee range of 80-475 km.

Vehicle

RH-200

RH-300-Mk-II

RH-560

Payload (in kg)

10

60

100

Altitude (in km)

80

160

470

Purpose

Meterology

Aeronomy

Aeronom

Launch Pad

Thumba Balasore

SDSC-SHAR

SDSC-S

Several scientific missions with national and international participation have


been conducted using the Rohini sounding rockets.

LVM3

About the Launch Vehicle


LVM 3 is a heavy launch capability launcher being developed by ISRO. It will allow India
to achieve complete self reliance in launching satellites as it will be capable of placing 4
tonne class Geosynchronous satellites into orbit. The LVM3 will have an India built
cryogenic stage with higher capacity than GSLV. The first experimental flight of LVM3,
the LVM3-X/CARE mission lifted off from Sriharikota on December 18, 2014 and
successfully tested the atmospheric phase of flight. Crew module Atmospheric Reentry
Experiment was also carried out in this flight. The module reentered, deployed its
parachutes as planned and splashed down in the Bay of Bengal.

Vehicle Specifications
Height

: 43.43 m

Vehicle Diameter

: 4.0 m

Heat Shield Diameter

: 5.0 m

Number of Stages

:3

Lift Off Mass

: 640 tonnes

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Payload to GTO: 4,000 kg


LVM3 will be capable of placing the 4 tonne class satellites of the GSAT series into
Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits.

Payload to LEO: 8,000 kg


The powerful cryogenic stage of LVM3 enables it to place heavy payloads into Low Earth
Orbits of 600 km altitude.

Cryogenic Upper Stage : C25


The C25 is powered by CE-20, India's largest cryogenic engine, designed and developed
by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre of ISRO located at Thiruvananthapuram.

Cryo Stage Height

: 13.5 m

Cryo Stage Diameter

: 4.0 m

Engine

: CE-20

Fuel

: 27 tonnes of LOX + LH2

Thrust

: 186 kN

Solid Rocket Boosters : S200


LVM3 uses two S200 solid rocket boosters to provide the huge amount of thrust required
for lift off. The S200 was developed at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre.

Booster Height

: 25 m

Booster Diameter

: 3.2 m

Fuel

: 207 tonnes of HTPB (nominal)

Thrust

: 9316 kN

Vacuum Isp

: 274.5 sec

Burntime

: 130 sec

Core Stage : L110 Liquid Stage


The L110 liquid stage is powered by two Vikas engines designed and developed at the
Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre.

Stage Height

: 17 m

Stage Diameter

:4m

Engine

: 2 x Vikas

Fuel

: 110 tonnes of UDMH + N2O4

Thrust

: 1598 kN

Vacuum Isp

: 293 sec

Burntime

: 200 sec

Launchers