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Cisco Certified Network Associate

By

Nikita Kaushal
(0178EC091055)

Industrial Training Completed at the HCL Career


Development Center, Bhopal as a Compulsory
Requirement for the degree of Bachelor of
Engineering (Electronics and Communication
Engineering)
June 01, 2012 to June 30, 2012
Department of Electronics and Communication &
Engineering
Jai Narain College of Technology & Science
Bhopal (M.P.)

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT-2013


Jai Narain College of Technology & Science, Bhopal
1. Name of Student

:Nikita Kaushal

2. University ID Number

:0178EC091055

3. Name of Training Place (Industry


Institution, Govt. Department, etc)

:HCL CDC

4. Address of Training Place with


Telephone No. and Email

5. Name and Designation of Training


Incharge (Under whom training
was completed)

6.

Training Period

7. Training Subject

:143 ZONE 1 MP
NAGAR , BHOPAL
0755 4094852

:AMIT SHRIVASTAV

: June 01 June 30, 2012


: CCNA

DECLARATION
The Industrial Training on Cisco Certified network associate (CCNA) at
the HCL CDC, Bhopal during June 01, 2012 to June 30, 2012 was completed
by the undersigned. During this period, I was taught about the CCNA by an
expert faculty and allowed to practice on computer with other software
related to design. Finally I was given a job for preparing a complete
networking . Thus, I completed the training successfully.

...............
Prof. Amit Sawaskade
Training Incharge

.
Nikita Kaushal
(0178EC091055 )

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I feel profound to attend my major training in CCNA in HCL CDC under the guidance of
Mr. Amit Shrivastav who taught us networking and relevant things. He has also given us a brief
knowledge in the training and also discuss various information to enhance our knowledge.
I would like to thanks my training incharge Prof. Amit Sawaskade for guiding me at the time of
training and boosting up required knowledge for training time to time.
I would greatly indebted to Prof. Ashok Agrawal, Head, Department of Electronics and
Communication Engineering for his keen interest in this work and time to time guidance,
encouragement and providing required facilities for training . We are grateful to Dr. Meghna
Dubey, Principal, JNCTS for his guidance and critical comments which improved the quality of
this report. Thanks are due to Dr. B D Shukla, Director, JNCTS for providing necessary help and
time to time necessary guidance in completion of this task.
Then other faculty members, friends, etc, may be added accordingly in the
acknowledgement to which the students want to acknowledge for their help and guidance in the
training.

Nikita Kaushal

1. INTRODUCTION

As the training arm of HCL Infosystems, HCL Career Development Centre (CDC) carries forth a
legacy of excellence spanning across more than three decades. HCL CDC is an initiative that
enables individuals and organizations to benefit from HCL's deep expertise in the IT space.
Among the fastest growing IT education brands in India, HCL CDC offers a complete spectrum
of quality training programs on software, hardware, networking as well as global certifications in
association with leading IT organizations worldwide.
Empowered with strategic alliances with leading IT organizations in India and abroad, HCL
CDC training solutions cater to diverse consumer profiles including individuals, enterprises,
academic institutions and Government enterprises.
As the fountainhead of the most significant pursuit of human mind (IT), HCL strongly believes,
"Only a Leader can transform you into a Leader". HCL CDC is a formalization of this experience
and credo which has been perfected over three decades.

VISION
"Together we create the enterprises of tomorrow".

MISSION
"To provide world-class information technology solutions and services in order to enable our
customers to serve their customers better".

OBJECTIVE
"To fuel initiative and foster activity by allowing individuals freedom of action and innovation in
attaining defined objectives."

PEOPLE OBJECTIVE
"To help people in HCL Infosystems Ltd. share in the company's successes, which they make
possible; to provide job security based on their performance; to recognize their individual
achievements; and help them gain a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment from their work."

CORE VAUE

We shall uphold the dignity of the individual.


We shall honor all commitments.
We shall be committed to Quality, Innovation and Growth in every endeavour.
We shall be responsible corporate citizens

1
A network is a system that transmits any combination of voice, video and/or databetween
users. The main field on which we were working was networking and the course was CCNA
which includes all the parts of networking.

In a typical LAN, there are various types of network devices available as outlined below.

Hub Repeat signals received on each port by broadcasting to all the other connected
ports.

Repeaters Used to connect two or more Ethernet segments of any media type, and to
provide signal amplification for a segment to be extended. In a network that uses
repeater, all members are contending for transmission of data onto a single network. We
like to call this single network a collision domain. Effectively, every user can only enjoy
a percentage of the available bandwidth. Ethernet is subject to the "5-4-3" rule regarding
repeater placement, meaning we can only have five segments connected using four
repeaters with only three segments capable of accommodating hosts.

Bridge A layer 2 device used to connect different networks types or networks of the same
type. It maps the Ethernet addresses of the nodes residing on each segment and allows
only the necessary traffic to pass through the bridge. Packet destined to the same segment
is dropped. This "store-and-forward" mechanism inspects the whole Ethernet packet
before making a decision. Unfortunately, it cannot filter out broadcast traffic. Also, it
introduces a 20 to 30 percent latency when processing the frame. Only 2 networks can be
linked with a bridge.

Switch Can link up four, six, eight or even more networks. Cut-through switches run
faster because when a packet comes in, it forwards it right after looking at the destination
address only. A store-and-forward switch inspects the entire packet before forwarding.
Most switches cannot stop broadcast traffic. Switches are layer 2 devices.

Routers Can filter out network traffic also. However, they filter based on the protocol
addresses defined in OSI layer 3(the network layer), not based on the Ethernet packet
addresses. Note that protocols must be routable in order to pass through the routers. A
router can determine the most efficient path for a packet to take and send packets around
failed segments.

Brouter Has the best features of both routers and bridges in that it can be configured to
pass the unroutable protocols by imitating a bridge, while not passing broadcast storms
by acting as a router for other protocols.

Gateway Often used as a connection to a mainframe or the internet. Gateways enable


communications between different protocols, data types and environments. This is
achieved via protocol conversion, whereby the gateway strips the protocol stack off of the
packet and adds the appropriate stack for the other side. Gateways operate at all layers of
the OSI model without making any forwarding decisions.

2
Work assigned was:

To design a coaxial cable and twisted cable.

To design a LAN.

To design a WAN.

To design a MAN.

To program router.

To design network.

To break password of router and switches.

A computer network is a connection of two or more computers through a cable or wireless


connection. Computer network enable computer users to share hardware, resources and
information. Aside sharing information, the computer network enables users to share internet
access. The importance of networking two or more computers can not be overemphasized.
Networking in computer is unavoidable. We need networks in most things we do in life.
I wonder what the world of computer will be without computer networks. In computing,
networking is a way of connecting two or more computers together. When you network
computers together, the computers can share information and resources with one another.
Networking is a very vital and delicate area in computing.
We can not really quantify the importance of networking two or more PC. Computer network is
very important for every business, no matter how small a business may be. Computer network
helps in sharing resources. With computer network, so many computers can share one printer,
scanner and some other hardware, which might be expensive for a company to acquire for every
computer user.
It is quite obvious that computer network helps to save cost for an organization. Instead of
buying all hardware for each computer, one can just share one via the computer network In
addition to this, let us just think of additional space that will be occupied by providing printers or
scanners for each of the computers in an organization. Networking two or more computer not
only saves money but also saves space. This in addition makes the user's environment friendly.
Do we ignore the communication aspect? No! Networking enhances effective communication
among members of an organization or a company. With appropriate software, each computer user
can communicate with other members or staff of an organization or company. In addition to this,

Computer network gives users the opportunity to use remote programs and remote databases
either of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources. The importance of
having a computer networks are really numerous.
3.
Thus, it is a necessity for every organization or company. It makes effective communication
possible and helps to eliminate unnecessary waste of time and duplication or resources.
The desire result was obtain in every experiments and work as a result we made a successful
network capable of strong communications. A network engineer handles all of the plumbing
for a companys computers, connecting offices with T1 lines, hooking them up to the Internet,
and configuring all internal systems such as net routers and firewalls. This was very interesting
field and we covered a subject know as Data Communication and Network which we have
studied in 6th sem.

4.

2. TRAINING
Networking are Connection-oriented" and "Connectionless" communications.
. A connection oriented communication has the following characteristics:

A session is guaranteed.

Acknowledgements are issued and received at the transport layer, meaning if the sender
does not receive an acknowledgement before the timer expires, the packet is
retransmitted.

Phrases in a connection-oriented service involves Call Setup, Data transfer and Call
termination.

All traffic must travel along the same static path.

A failure along the static communication path can fail the connection.

A guaranteed rate of throughput occupies resources without the flexibility of dynamic


allocation.

Reliable = SLOW (this is always the case in networking).

In contrast, a connectionless communication has the following characteristics:

Often used for voice and video applications.

NO guarantee nor acknowledgement.

Dynamic path selection.

Dynamic bandwidth allocation.

Unreliable = FAST.

The layer which is important for networking are

2.1 OSI Model:


The OSI model is a layered model and a conceptual standard used for defining standards to
promote multi-vendor integration as well as maintain constant interfaces and isolate changes of
implementation to a single layer. It is NOT application or protocol specific. In order to pass any
Cisco exam, you need to know the OSI model inside and out.
The OSI Model consists of 7 layers as follows:

5.
Layer

Description

Provides network access for applications, flow


control and error recovery. Provides
communications services to applications by
Application identifying and establishing the availability of
other computers as well as to determine if
sufficient resources exist for communication
purposes.

Device

Gateway

Protocol

NCP, SMB,
SMTP, FTP,
SNMP, Telnet,
Appletalk

Presentation

Performs protocol conversion, encryption and


data compression

Gateway and NCP, AFP,


redirectors
TDI

Session

Allows 2 applications to communicate over a


network by opening a session and synchronizing
the involved computers. Handles connection
establishment, data transfer and connection
release

Gateway

NetBios

Transport

Repackages messages into smaller formats,


provides error free delivery and error handling
functions

Gateway

NetBEUI,
TCP, SPX, and
NWLink

Network

Handles addressing, translates logical addresses


and names to physical addresses, routing and
traffic management.

Router and
brouter

IP, IPX,
NWLink,
NetBEUI

Packages raw bits into frames making it


transmitable across a network link and includes a
cyclical redundancy check(CRC). It consists of
the LLC sublayer and the MAC sublayer. The
MAC sublayer is important to remember, as it is
Switch,
responsible for appending the MAC address of
**Data Link the next hop to the frame header. On the contrary, bridge and
brouter

None

LLC sublayer uses Destination Service Access


Points and Source Service Access Points to create
links for the MAC sublayers.

Physical

Physical layer works with the physical media for


transmitting and receiving data bits via certain
encoding schemes. It also includes specifications
for certain mechanical connection features, such
as the adaptor connector.

Multiplexer
and repeater

None

Table 2.1- OSI Model

Here is an easy way to memorize the order of the layers:


All People Seem To Need Data Processing. The first letter of each word corresponds to the first
letter of one of the layers. It is a little corny, but it works.
The table above mentions the term "MAC Address". A MAC address is a 48 bit address for
uniquely identifying devices on the network. Something likes 00-00-12-33-FA-BC, we call this

way of presenting the address a 12 hexadecimal digits format. The first 6 digits specify the
manufacture, while the remainders are for the host itself. The ARP Protocol is used to determine
the IP to MAC mapping. And of course, MAC addresses cannot be duplicated in the network or
problems will occur. For more information about ARP and related protocols, read Guide To ARP,
IARP, RARP, and Proxy ARP.
Data encapsulation takes place in the OSI model. It is the process in which the information in a
protocol is wrapped in the data section of another protocol. The process can be broken down into
the following steps:
User information -> data -> segments -> packets/datagrams -> frames -> bits.

7.

When discussing the OSI model it is important to keep in mind the differences between
"Connection-oriented" and "Connectionless" communications. A connection oriented
communication has the following characteristics:

A session is guaranteed.

Acknowledgements are issued and received at the transport layer, meaning if the sender
does not receive an acknowledgement before the timer expires, the packet is
retransmitted.

Phrases in a connection-oriented service involve Call Setup, Data transfer and Call
termination.

All traffic must travel along the same static path.

A failure along the static communication path can fail the connection.

A guaranteed rate of throughput occupies resources without the flexibility of dynamic


allocation.

Reliable = SLOW (this is always the case in networking).

In contrast, a connectionless communication has the following characteristics:

Often used for voice and video applications.

Neither guarantee nor acknowledgement.

Dynamic path selection.

Dynamic bandwidth allocation.

Unreliable = FAST.

A computer network, or simply a network, is a collection of computers and other hardware


components interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and
information. Where at least one process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at least
one process residing in a remote device, then the two devices are said to be in a network. Simply,
more than one computer interconnected through a communication medium for information
interchange is called a computer network.
Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics, such as the medium
used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, and organizational
scope.
Communications protocols define the rules and data formats for exchanging information in a
computer network, and provide the basis for network programming. Well-known
communications protocols include Ethernet, a hardware and link layer standard that is ubiquitous
in local area networks, and the Internet protocol suite, which defines a set of protocols for
internetworking, i.e. for data communication between multiple networks, as well as host-to-host
data transfer, and application-specific data transmission formats.
8.
2.2 Computer networking
Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of electrical engineering,
telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it
relies upon the theoretical and practical application of these disciplines

2.1.1 Local area network


A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited
geographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory, office building, or closely
positioned group of buildings. Each computer or device on the network is a node. Current wired
LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology, although new standards like ITU-T
G.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing home wires (coaxial cables, phone
lines and power lines)

Fig 2.1- LAN


Typical library network, in a branching tree topology and controlled access to resources. A
sample LAN is depicted in the accompanying diagram. All interconnected devices must
understand the network layer (layer 3), because they are handling multiple subnets (the different
colors). Those inside the library, which have only 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connections to the user
device and a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the central router, could be called "layer 3 switches"
because they only have Ethernet interfaces and must understand IP. It would be more correct to
call them access routers, where the router at the top is a distribution router that connects to the
Internet and academic networks' customer access routers.
9.
The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (Wide Area Networks), include their
higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range and no need for leased telecommunication
lines. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate at data transfer rates up to
10 Gbit/s. IEEE has projects investigating the standardization of 40 and 100 Gbit/s. LANs can be
connected to Wide area network by using routers.

2.2.2 Home area network


A home area network (HAN) is a residential LAN which is used for communication between
digital devices typically deployed in the home, usually a small number of personal computers
and accessories, such as printers and mobile computing devices. An important function is the
sharing of Internet access, often a broadband service through a cable TV or Digital Subscriber
Line (DSL) provider.

2.2.3 Storage area network


A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block
level data storage. SANs are primarily used to make storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape
libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally
attached devices to the operating system. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices
that are generally not accessible through the local area network by other devices. The cost and
complexity of SANs dropped in the early 2000s to levels allowing wider adoption across both
enterprise and small to medium sized business environments.

2.2.4 Campus area network


A campus area network (CAN) is a computer network made up of an interconnection of LANs
within a limited geographical area. The networking equipment (switches, routers) and
transmission media (optical fiber, copper plant, Cat5 cabling etc.) are almost entirely owned (by
the campus tenant / owner: an enterprise, university, government etc.).
In the case of a university campus-based campus network, the network is likely to link a variety
of campus buildings including, for example, academic colleges or departments, the university
library, and student residence halls.

2.2.5 Backbone network


A backbone network is part of a computer network infrastructure that interconnects various
pieces of network, providing a path for the exchange of information between different LANs or
subnetworks. A backbone can tie together diverse networks in the same building, in different
buildings in a campus environment, or over wide areas. Normally, the backbone's capacity is
greater than that of the networks connected to it.

10.

A large corporation which has many locations may have a backbone network that ties all of these
locations together, for example, if a server cluster needs to be accessed by different departments
of a company which are located at different geographical locations. The equipment which ties
these departments together constitute the network backbone. Network performance management
including network congestion are critical parameters taken into account when designing a
network backbone.
A specific case of a backbone network is the Internet backbone, which is the set of wide-area
network connections and core routers that interconnect all networks connected to the Internet.

2.2.6 Metropolitan area network

A Metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a
large campus.
\

Fig 2.2-Sample EPN made of Frame relay WAN connections and


dialup remote access.

11.

Fig2.3-Sample VPN used to interconnect 3 offices and remote users

2.2.7 Wide area network


A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a
city, country, or spans even intercontinental distances, using a communications channel that
combines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and air waves. A WAN often uses
transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN
technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical
layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.

2.2.8 Enterprise private network


An enterprise private network is a network built by an enterprise to interconnect various
company sites, e.g., production sites, head offices, remote offices, shops, in order to share
computer resources.

2.2.9 Virtual private network


A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between
nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the
Internet) instead of by physical wires. The data link layer protocols of the virtual network are
said to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. One common application is
secure communications through the public Internet, but a VPN need not have explicit security
features, such as authentication or content encryption. VPNs, for example, can be used to
separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong
security features.VPN may have best-effort performance, or may have a defined service level
agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. Generally, a VPN
has a topology more complex than point-to-point.
12.

2.2.10 Virtual Network


Not to be confused with a Virtual Private Network, a Virtual Network defines data traffic flows
between virtual machines within a hypervisor in a virtual computing environment. Virtual
Networks may employ virtual security switches, virtual routers, virtual firewalls and other virtual
networking devices to direct and secure data traffic.

2.2.11 Internetwork
An internetwork is the connection of multiple computer networks via a common routing
technology using routers. The Internet is an aggregation of many connected internetworks
spanning the Earth.
2.3 TCP/IP:

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol
Suite. TCP is one of the two original components of the suite, complementing the Internet
Protocol (IP), and therefore the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. TCP provides
reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of octets from a program on one computer to another
program on another computer. TCP is the protocol used by major Internet applications such as
the World Wide Web, email, remote administration and file transfer. Other applications, which do
not require reliable data stream service, may use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which
provides a datagram service that emphasizes reduced latency over reliability.
The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and
similar networks, and generally the most popular protocol stack for wide area networks. It is
commonly known as TCP/IP, because of its most important protocols: Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first networking protocols defined in
this standard. It is occasionally known as the DoD model due to the foundational influence of the
ARPANET in the 1970s (operated by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of
Defense).
TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be formatted, addressed,
transmitted, routed and received at the destination. It has four abstraction layers, each with its
own protocols. From lowest to highest, the layers are:

The link layer (commonly Ethernet) contains communication technologies for a local
network.

The internet layer (IP) connects local networks, thus establishing internetworking.

The transport layer (TCP) handles host-to-host communication.

The application layer (for example HTTP) contains all protocols for specific data
communications services on a process-to-process level (for example how a web browser
communicates with a web server).
13.

The TCP/IP model and related protocols are maintained by the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF).

Fig 2.4- TCP/IP

The term logy used in network for networking are as follows:

14.

2.4 ROUTING
There are 2 main types of routing, which are static and dynamic, the third type of routing is
called Hybrid. Static routing involves the cumbersome process of manually configuring and
maintaining route tables by an administrator. Dynamic routing enables routers to "talk" to each

other and automatically update their routing tables. This process occurs through the use of
broadcasts. Next is an explanation of the various routing protocols.

2.5 RIP:
Routing Information Protocol(RIP) is a distance vector dynamic routing protocol. RIP measures
the distance from source to destination by counting the number of hops(routers or gateways) that
the packets must travel over. RIP sets a maximum of 15 hops and considers any larger number of
hops unreachable. RIP's real advantage is that if there are multiple possible paths to a particular
destination and the appropriate entries exist in the routing table, it will choose the shortest route.
Routers can talk to each other, however, in the real routing world, there are so many different
routing technologies available, that it is not as simple as just enabling Routing Information
Protocol (RIP).

2.5 OSPF:
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link-state routing protocol that converges faster than a
distance vector protocol such as RIP. What is convergence? This is the time required for all
routers to complete building the routing tables. RIP uses ticks and hop counts as measurement,
while OSPF also uses metrics that takes bandwidth and network congestion into making routing
decisions. RIP transmits updates every 30 seconds, while OSPF transmits updates only when
there is a topology change. OSPF builds a complete topology of the whole network, while RIP
uses second handed information from the neighboring routers. To summarize, RIP is easier to
configure, and is suitable for smaller networks. In contrast, OSPF requires high processing
power, and is suitable if scalability is the main concern.
We can tune the network by adjusting various timers. Areas that are tunable include: the rate at
which routing updates are sent, the interval of time after which a route is declared invalid, the
interval during which routing information regarding better paths is suppressed, the amount of
time that must pass before a route is removed from the routing table, and the amount of time for
which routing updates will be postponed. Of course, different setting is needed in different
situation. In any case, we can use the "show ip route" command to display the contents of routing
table as well as how the route was discovered.
15.

2.6 IGRP and EIGRP:

RIP and OSPF are considered "open", while IGRP and EIGRP are Cisco proprietary. Interior
Gateway Routing Protocol(IGRP) is a distance vector routing protocol for the interior networks,
while Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a hybrid that combines distance
vector and link-state technologies. Do not confuse these with NLSP. Link Services Protocol
(NLSP) is a proprietary link-state routing protocol used on Novell NetWare 4.X to replace SAP
and RIP. For IGRP, the metric is a function of bandwidth, reliability, delay and load. One of the
characteristics of IGRP is the deployment of hold down timers. A hold-down timer has a value of
280 seconds. It is used to prevent routing loops while router tables converge by preventing
routers from broadcasting another route to a router which is off-line before all routing tables
converge. For EIGRP, separate routing tables are maintained for IP, IPX and AppleTalk
protocols. However, routing update information is still forwarded with a single protocol.

2.7 Switch
A network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that connects network
segments or network devices. The term commonly refers to a multi-port network bridge that
processes and routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Switches that
additionally process data at the network layer (layer 3) and above are often referred to as layer-3
switches or multilayer switches.
A switch is a telecommunication device which receives a message from any device connected to
it and then transmits the message only to the device for which the message was meant. This
makes the switch a more intelligent device than a hub (which receives a message and then
transmits it to all the other devices on its network). The network switch plays an integral part in
most modern Ethernet local area networks (LANs). Mid-to-large sized LANs contain a number
of linked managed switches. Small office/home office (SOHO) applications typically use a single
switch, or an all-purpose converged device such as a residential gateway to access small
office/home broadband services such as DSL or cable Internet. In most of these cases, the enduser device contains a router and components that interface to the particular physical broadband
technology

16.

Fig 2.4- Showing the Switch IP Address

17.
3. OUTCOME OF TRAINING
WORK ASSIGNMENT -1

Objective
Describe the features and operation of static routing.

Fig 3.1- Router(a)

18.

Fig 3.2-router(b)

19.

Fig 3.3-Static routering

Fig 3.4- Routing Protocol


20.
Static routing is a concept describing one way of configuring path selection of routers in
computer networks. It is the type of routing characterized by the absence of communication
between routers regarding the current topology of the network. This is achieved by manually
adding routes to the routing table. The opposite of static routing is dynamic routing, sometimes
also referred to as adaptive routing.

In these systems, routes through a data network are described by fixed paths (statically). These
routes are usually entered into the router by the system administrator. An entire network can be
configured using static routes, but this type of configuration is not fault tolerant. When there is a
change in the network or a failure occurs between two statically defined nodes, traffic will not be
rerouted. This means that anything that wishes to take an affected path will either have to wait
for the failure to be repaired or the static route to be updated by the administrator before
restarting its journey. Most requests will time out (ultimately failing) before these repairs can be
made. There are, however, times when static routes can improve the performance of a network.
Some of these include stub networks and default routes.

21.
WORK ASSIGNMENT -2

Objective

Start a router and recognize the normal boot sequence.

Fig 3.5-Bootup output from router.

22.

Fig 3.6-Initial configuration dialog

Fig 3.7- Setup Initial Global Parameters


23.

Fig 3.8- Setup Initial Protocol Configurations

Fig 3.9- Setup Script Review and Use

24.

Fig 3.10- login to router

25.
WORK ASSIGNMENT -3

Objective

Complete the initial device configuration, given a functioning router and Configure IP
addresses and IP subnet masks on router interfaces, given a functioning router.

Fig 3.11- Router Module

26.

Fig 3.12- Configuring router identification.

Fig 3.12-Configurating a Router Password


28.

Console line command

Private control session timeout

Configuring a Serial Interface

29.

Enabling and disabling an interface

Introducing IP Addresses

Fig 3.13-IP Addresses

30.

IP Addressing

IP Address classes

31.

Fig 3.14Host addressing

Fig 3.15- Addressing without subnet


32.

Fig 3.16- Addressing with subnet

Fig 3.17- Subnet Addressing

33.

Subnet Mask

34.
WORK ASSIGNMENT -4

Objective
Describe the features and operation of EIGRP

Fig 3.18-EIGRP

Fig 3.19Terminology EIGRP

35.

Configuration EIGPR

Fig 3.20-EIGPR Configuration

36.
WORK ASSIGNMENT -5

Objective
Describe the features and operation of IGRP.

Fig 3.21- IGRP

Configuration IGRP

37.

Fig 3.22-IGRP Configuration

38.
WORK ASSIGNMENT -6

Objective

Describe the features and operation of OSPF.

Fig 3.23- OSPF

39.

Fig3.24-Shortest path algorithm

Configuration OSPF

40.

Fig 3.25- OSPF Configuration

41.
WORK ASSIGNMENT -7

Objective

Describe the features and operation of RIP

Fig 3.26- RIP

42.

IP Routing Configuration Task

Fig 3.27- Routing Configuration.

Dynamic Routing Configuration

RIP Configuration

43.

Fig 3.28- RIP Configuration

44.
The above work done by us under different classes and the following work done in software
were an artificial network was establish.
The work allotted was done successful with desired results and hence , the training was
beneficial.

45.