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Noise pollution, its effects, Noise mitigation and Control

Noise Pollution

Unwanted sound.

The wrong sound in the wrong place at the wrong time.

The degree of unwantedness is a psychological matter,

the effects of noise can range from moderate anger to permanent hear
loss.

It may be rated differently by different observers.

Classifications of Noise

Continuous, without any time delay and having same frequency,

Intermittent, with a short time delay upto a second and a slight change in
frequency,

Impulsive, with a sufficient time delay and higher change in frequency.

The unit of Noise

The unit used to measure the intensity of a sound

On the decibel scale, the smallest audible sound is 0dB

A sound 10 times more powerful is 10 dB.

A sound 100 times more powerful than near total silence is 20 dB.

A sound 1,000 times more powerful than near total silence is 30 dB.

Effects of Noise

The impacts of noise on human being, animal and property are as follows.

Impact of noise on human,

It decreases the efficiency of a man

Lack of Concentration

Fatigue

It causes Blood Pressure

Temporary or Permanent Deafness

Impact of Noise on Vegetation

It is well known to all that plants are similar to human being.

There should be cool & peaceful environment for their better growth.

Noise pollution causes poor quality of crops.

Impact of Noise on Animals

Noise pollution damage the nervous system of animals.

Animal looses the control of its mind.

They become dangerous.

According to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

PERMISSIBLE NOISE EXPOSURES

Duration per day, in hours V/S Sound level dBA

8......................................................... 90

6......................................................... 92

4......................................................... 95

3......................................................... 97

2......................................................... 100

1 1/2 ............................................... 102

1......................................................... 105

1/2 ................................................... 110

1/4 or less........................................ 115

Control of Noise Pollution


The techniques employed for noise control can be broadly classified as
(1) Control at source
(2) Control in the transmission path
(3) Protection at Observer
Noise Control at Source

The noise pollution can be controlled at the source of generation itself by


employing following techniques.

Acoustic treatments to machine surfaces, design changes.

Control over vibrations by using dampers

Low voice speaking

Prohibition on usage of loud speakers

Selection of machinery, like to use four stroke instead of two stroke


engines

Maintenance of machines

Control in the transmission path

The change in the transmission path will increase the length of travel for the wave
and get absorbed/refracted/radiated in the surrounding environment.
The available techniques are:
(a) Installation of barriers
(b) Installation of panels or enclosures
Protection at Observer

Using protection equipment


(a) Job rotation
(b) Exposure reduction
(c) Hearing protection

References

Environmental Engineering by Gerard Keily,

https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?
p_table=standards&p_id=9735