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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business


When you talk about the best full-scale family restaurant in Batangas
City, you can only get one trusted name that spells highly-satisfying dining
experience its none other than the F. Baylosis Restaurant. It is the pride of
Batangas as the home of the best crispy pata and chicken.
All I know is that they started crispy pata delivery service from their
residence somewhere in Arce subdivision (Hilltop, Kumintang Ibaba) around
year 2000 with a few food menu selection in their garage. Chances are, you
must have heard their early-days radio ad at Spirit FM. Eventually, by way of
word-of-mouth from their loyal satisfied customers, F. Baylosis has become a
trusted household name for great family dining experience.
In 2010, they transferred to their new cozy home at G.C. Berberabe
Subdivision in Pallocan West. Since then, they gained rapid growth, getting
more and more famous year after year. In Oct. 2013, they opened their Lipa
City branch in Sabang, Lipa City. And September this year, they opened their
Bauan branch in Brgy. Balayong, Bauan.
For some reason this restaurant has established itself over time
gaining popularity and prestige among Batanguenyos and over its
competitors. Based on our observations, these are the reasons why people
love F. Baylosis.
Their staff are courteous and very prompt to dining customers. Warm
smile welcomes guests right at the lounge. They are well-trained to attend to
their guests needs with all sincerity and dedication to their job. Theyre like
your bestfriend in the restaurant, always there when you need them most.
The restaurant is themed like a cross between modern Italian and
Spanish architecture design. Its interiors radiate a warm cozy ambience
perfect for family dining.
Although their main food offering is crispy pata (and chicken), they
also offer a wide range of mix European, American and Pinoy (inspired by
food from different provinces) delicacies expertly cooked by their wellpampered chefs. That is, happy cooks spell delicious food. Their customers
love the way their food are prepared and served, the unique F. Baylosis way
that makes them coming back regularly.
This is how F. Baylosis came to be loved not just by the Batangas City
folks, but together with the rest of Batangas (as proven by their Lipa and
Bauan branch). Their food, the restaurant building itself and the people who

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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

works there, together they compose this magic equation/recipe that brings
exceptional delight to both their Batanguenyo and non-Batanguenyo patrons.

Filipinos are fan of foods and one of these is crispy pata, which gave an
idea of creating Filipino cuisine restaurant that offers not only crispy pata but
any food that most of the people love to eat. People can hear a commercial in
local FM station describing them as home of crispy pata and chicken in town
(Batangas City). The restaurant is named as F. baylosis. F. baylosis can be
found in different places in Batangas.
Aside from crispy pata, F. baylosis was also known for its pork sisig,
sinigang na hipon, and original recipes of Tricia Baylosis. Tricia Baylosis was
known for being part of junior master chef. After that reality show, she
continue to be known by creating original recipes for their own restaurant,
like fish fillet in mango sauce, sukiyaki beef tepanyaki and rolled beef
tepanyaki which made it more like a Asian restaurant.
As its became famous, the more branches had been built and this
year, 2015 a branch of F. baylosis was built in Alangilan, Batangas. Even in its
early months, people are kept coming to taste their best sellers while
listening in a live band. They also offer a rooms for KTV which adds to the
pleasure of eating.

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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business


This chapter presents the ingredients used and the process flow in
making their best seller dishes and drinks.

Crispy Pata
Crispy Pata is a famous Filipino pork dish that uses a whole pigs leg.
The leg (or pata) is made tender by simmering in water along with other
spices. It is then rubbed with seasonings and deep-fried until the texture
becomes very crunchy. This dish can be eaten as a main dish along with
pickled green papaya (atchara) and a dipping sauce made from soy sauce,
vinegar, brown sugar, and chopped onions. It can also be served as beer food
or pulutan which is what Crispy Pata is popularly known for.


pigs leg (pata) cleaned

bay leaves
ground pepper and peppercorn
star anise
garlic/ garlic powder
cooking oil
special seasonings

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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

Process Flow:

Pour water in a cooking pot then let boil.

Put-in dried bay leaves, whole peppercorn, star anise, and salt.

Add the whole pigs legs in the cooking pot then simmer until the leg
becomes tender.

Remove the tender leg from the cooking pot and set aside until the
temperature goes down.

Rub the leg with garlic powder, ground black pepper, salt, and the
special seasoning. Let stand for 15 minutes to absorb the rub.

Heat a clean large cooking pot and pour-in cooking oil.

When the oil becomes hot, deep fry the rubbed pork leg. Continue
cooking in medium heat until one side becomes crispy, and then
cautiously flip the leg to crisp the other side.

Turn-off the heat; remove the crispy pork leg; and transfer it to a
wide serving plate.

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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

Pork Sisig
Pork Sisig is a popular appetizer that originated from the culinary
capital of the Philippines. Pork sisig is composed of chopped pigs face and
ears. The spiciness was just right and bearable. It was really to crave for and
it was sizzling appetizing. It can also be served as beer food or pulutan.


pig ears and belly

onion, minced
soy sauce
ground pepper
ginger, minced
chili flakes
garlic powder
chicken liver

Process Flow:
1 Pour the water in a pan and bring to a boil.
2 Add salt and pepper.
3 Put-in the pigs ears and pork belly then simmer.
4 Remove the boiled ingredients from the pot then drain excess water.
5 Grill the boiled pig ears and pork belly.
6 Chop the pig ears and pork belly into fine pieces.
7 In a wide pan, melt the butter and add onions and ginger.

Add the chicken liver. Crush the chicken liver while cooking it in the

9 Add the chopped pig ears and pork belly.

10 Put-in the soy sauce, garlic powder, and chili.
11 Add salt and pepper to taste.
12 Put-in the mayonnaise and mix with the other ingredients.
Sinigang na Hipon

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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

Sinigang na Hipon is a Filipino sour soup dish, with shrimp as the main
ingredient. Sinigang pertains to a method of cooking soups that incorporates
souring agents.

kangkong, cut
sitaw, cut
radish, cut
eggplant, cut
tomatoes, quartered
white onion, quartered
fish sauce
tamarind soup base mix

Process Flow:

Pour the water in a large cooking pot and bring

to a boil.

Add onions and tomatoes and cook.

Put-in the tamarind soup base mix and simmer.

Add the vegetables and simmer.

Add the shrimps and fish sauce then simmer.

Fish Fillet in Mango Sauce

Fish Fillet in Mango Sauce is an original dish by Tricia Baylosis which
creates a sweet and sour taste in fish fillet.

fish fillet
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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

mid to full ripe mango, peel and cut

bread crumbs with mixture of seasonings
cooking oil
carrots, cut

Process Flow

Roll fish fillet in bread crumbs with mixture of seasonings.


Heat cooking oil then cook the fish fillet.


Dry the fish fillet.


Cook the mango and carrots, then add water, sugar and salt.

Then add the fish fillet.


Fruit shakes (Green Mango Shake)

Fruit shakes or smoothies which fruits and ice crushed, and mixed.
These green mango shake is one of their best seller in terms of

unripe mango
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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business


Process Flow:

Peel the mango, then remove

the seed.

Crush the ice and mango.

Put in a glass.

General Considerations
While preparing food and cooking, there is a high level of exposure in
contamination for the foods which must take into considerations as a food
chain. Here as follows are the parameters considered that could risk the
safety of the consumers when potential hazards are not considered in the
preparation of foods.
1. Examination for food borne pathogens in meals to food safety.
The symptoms of food poisoning vary from nausea and vomiting
caused by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin, through diarrhea, and
dehydration caused by Salmonellas pp. and Campylobacter spp. to
severe conditions such as septicaemia, meningitis, paralysis and death
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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

caused by invasive Listeria monocytogenes. The infective doses of
different foodborne pathogens vary from less than ten to more than 108
2. Some Specific Microbiological Parameters
a. Coliform bacteria are normally not present in natural mineral water
sources. And it can originate from faecal contamination or from the
environment. They are considered as an indicator of contamination
of the water at source or during the transportation, storage and
preparation. Coliform bacteria should be absent immediately after
disinfection, and the presence of these organisms in water indicates
inadequate treatment.
b. Enterococci as compared to E. coli and coliforms, they tend to
survive longer in the water environment. Therefore, it is used as an
additional indicator of faecal contamination.
c. The spores of spore-forming sulphite-reducing anaerobes are very
resistant towards various kinds of environmental stresses. These
bacteria can originate from faecal contamination and due to the
length of their survival in unfavorable environments, they are
usually used as an indicator of faecal contamination.
d. Pseudomonas
microorganism. It can be found in faeces, soil, water and sewage. It
is not a normal component of the natural flora of natural mineral
waters. Its presence is considered as an indicator of contamination
of the water at source or during transportation, storage and
e. Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacterspp.) is a pathogen that
generally causes disease only in people with weakened immune
systems. The bacterium can cause invasive infections like sepsis or
meningitis in infant.

Hazard Identification
For microbial agents, the purpose of hazard identification is to identify the
microorganisms or the microbial toxins of concern with food. Hazard
identification will predominately be a qualitative process. Hazards can be
identified from relevant data sources. Information on hazards can be obtained
from scientific literature, from databases such as those in the food industry,
government agencies, and relevant international organizations and through
solicitation of opinions of experts. Relevant information includes data in areas
such as: clinical studies, epidemiological studies and surveillance, laboratory
animal studies, investigations of the characteristics of microorganisms, the
interaction between microorganisms and their environment through the food

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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

chain from primary production up to and including consumption, and studies
on analogous microorganisms and situations.
The hazards of concern may come from a variety of sources including:

Raw materials

Methods of production

Use of the food

Any restaurant should aim to reduce the risk of these hazards in its food
preparation and service, ensuring the food is safe to consume. A food safety
program outlines the systems in place to keep food safe and procedures
which reduce the risk of the hazards which may occur in the food production
and service business.
Physical hazards
Physical hazards which can be found in food include:

Objects naturally present in the food

Objects occurring in agriculture
Objects added during processing

Reducing physical hazards is simple in many restaurants as they

are physically visible in the food. They are normally controlled by
policies such as a visual inspection of food and good kitchen
procedures such as a no wood or no glass policy, and keeping the food
Chemical hazards
Chemical hazards which can be found in food include:

Naturally occurring poisonous chemicals

Chemicals added via water Agricultural chemicals from soils,
plants and animals
Chemicals added during food processing

Some people have an allergic reaction to certain ingredients or

parts of food. Common allergens include:

milk and milk products

egg and egg products
peanuts and their products
seafood products

Chemical hazards in foods can be controlled by:

purchasing from an approved supplier

covering food and protecting it from contamination having an
allergen awareness, and strategies to prevent cross
contamination from allergens separate chemical storage
area, away from food use of food safe chemicals within the
food preparation areas correct cleaning procedures.
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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

Biological hazards

Hazards which live within food can occur from multiple sources.
These microorganisms, germs, are pathogenic, and so small they can
only be seen under a microscope. Pathogens are the microorganisms
which cause harm to humans, when they reach a high level in food.
Some examples are:

Bacteria e.g. salmonella, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus

Viruses e.g. hepatitis A, influenza
Protozoa e.g. Guardia

Most food poisoning occurs due to the continued growth to

dangerous levels of microorganisms, particularly bacteria, in food. Food
handlers should know about food poisoning bacteria and the conditions
they require for growth, to ensure food borne illness is avoided.
It is important to be aware of the different types of food safety
hazards which may pose a significant risk to the safety of your
customers. Situations when food safety hazards are likely to pose a
significant risk are handling potentially hazardous foods which are
susceptible to microorganisms contamination and growth. These are
low acid, high protein foods such as meat, eggs, poultry, seafood and
dairy items, and handling raw food and fresh foods handling food with
your hands, rather than using equipment cooking food (food needs to
be cooked thoroughly to kill microorganisms chilling food) food needs
to be chilled quickly to reduce the growth of microorganisms defrosting
foods reheating foods displaying food on buffets or self-service
preparing food in temperatures in which microorganisms grow rapidly
(5C- 60C).
Food safety procedures aim to prevent hazards in food, such as
stock receipt and stock rotation, food storage, temperature control.

Exposure Assessments

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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

Exposure assessment includes an assessment of the extent of actual or
anticipated human exposure. For microbiological agents, exposure
assessments might be based on the potential extent of food contamination
by a particular agent or its toxins, and on dietary information. Exposure
assessment should specify the unit of food that is of interest, i.e., the portion
size in most/all cases of acute illness.
Factors that must be considered for exposure assessment include the
frequency of contamination of foods by the pathogenic agent and its level in
those foods over time. For example, these factors are influenced by the
characteristics of the pathogenic agent, the microbiological ecology of the
food, the initial contamination of the raw material including considerations of
regional differences and seasonality of production, the level of sanitation and
process controls, the methods of processing, packaging, distribution and
storage of the foods, as well as any preparation steps such as cooking and
holding. Another factor that must be considered in the assessment is patterns
of consumption. This relates to socio-economic and cultural backgrounds,
ethnicity, seasonality, age differences (population demographics), regional
differences, and consumer preferences and behavior. Other factors to be
considered include: the role of the food handler as a source of contamination,
the amount of hand contact with the product, and the potential impact of
abusive environmental time/temperature relationships.
Microbial pathogen levels can be dynamic and while they may be kept low,
for example, by proper time/temperature controls during food processing,
they can substantially increase with abuse conditions (for example, improper
food storage temperatures or cross contamination from other foods).
Therefore, the exposure assessment should describe the pathway from
production to consumption. Scenarios can be constructed to predict the range
of possible exposures. The scenarios might reflect effects of processing, such
as hygienic design, cleaning and disinfection, as well as the time/temperature
and other conditions of the food history, food handling and consumption
patterns, regulatory controls, and surveillance systems.
Exposure assessment estimates the level, within various levels of
uncertainty, of microbiological pathogens or microbiological toxins, and the
likelihood of their occurrence in foods at the time of consumption.
Qualitatively foods can be categorized according to the likelihood that the
foodstuff will or will not be contaminated at its source; whether or not the
food can support the growth of the pathogen of concern; whether there is
substantial potential for abusive handling of the food; or whether the food will
be subjected to a heat process. The presence, growth, survival, or death of
microorganisms, including pathogens in foods, are influenced by processing
and packaging, the storage environment, including the temperature of
storage, the relative humidity of the environment, and the gaseous
composition of the atmosphere. Other relevant factors include pH, moisture
content or water activity (a w), nutrient content, the presence of antimicrobial
substances, and competing microflora. Predictive microbiology can be a
useful tool in an exposure assessment.
Here we must take into account a number of potential paths or routes of
contamination and the impact of various processing steps on microbiological
levels.The following are important:
The microbiology of the raw material e.g. raw meat will have certain
pathogens associated with it.

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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

Initial contamination levels of raw materials.
The effects of production, processing, handling etc on the levels of
pathogens in the final product
Potential for re-contamination after a specific control point e.g. cooking
Characteristics of the food being produced
Product usage and instructions
Eliminating all hazard is the best way. This is not always possible, but
people must lessen the dangerous effects of hazards by looking at the
following options in order from most effective to least effective:

o Sometimes a less hazardous thing, substance or work practice
can be used. (e.g. Use a disposable utensils instead of washable
utensils to lessen cross-contamination from one costumer to

o Separate the hazard from people, by marking the hazardous
area, fitting screens or putting up safety barriers. (e.g. Garbage
bins with cover to serve as a barrier and/or boundary that
separate areas like kitchen and dining from waste.)

o Safeguards can be added by modifying tools or equipment, or
fitting guards to machinery. These must never be removed or
disabled by workers using the equipment. Instructing workers in
the safest way to do something - This means developing and
enforcing safe work procedures. Students on work experience
must be given information and instruction and must follow
agreed procedures to ensure their safety.
Using personal protective equipment and clothing (PPE)

If risks remain after the options have been tried, it may be

necessary to use gloves, hairnet and apron. PPE can protect you
from hazards associated with jobs such as dirty environment.

Sometimes, it will require more than one of the risk control measures
above to effectively reduce exposure to hazards. Safe steps in food handling,
cooking, and storage are essential to prevent foodborne illness. You can't see,
smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. In every step of food
preparation, follow the four steps of the Food Safe Families campaign to keep
food safe:

Clean (Wash hands and surfaces often)

Separate (Don't cross-contaminate)
Cook (Cook to the right temperature)
Chill (Refrigerate promptly)
Purchase refrigerated or frozen items after selecting your nonperishables.
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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

Never choose meat or poultry in packaging that is torn or leaking.

Do not buy food past "Sell-By,""Use-By," or other expiration dates.

1. Storage
Always refrigerate perishable food within 2 hours1 hour when the
temperature is above 90 F (32.2 C). Check the temperature of your
refrigerator and freezer with an appliance thermometer. The refrigerator
should be at 40 F (4.4 C) or below and the freezer at 0 F (-17.7 C) or
below. Cook or freeze fresh poultry, fish, ground meats, and variety meats
within 2 days; other beef, veal, lamb, or pork, within 3 to 5 days. Perishable
food such as meat and poultry should be wrapped securely to maintain
quality and to prevent meat juices from getting onto other food. To maintain
quality when freezing meat and poultry in its original package, wrap the
package again with foil or plastic wrap that is recommended for the freezer.
Canned foods are safe indefinitely as long as they are not exposed to freezing
temperatures, or temperatures above 90 F. If the cans look ok, they are safe
to use. Discard cans that are dented, rusted, or swollen. High-acid canned
food (tomatoes, fruits) will keep their best quality for 12 to 18 months; lowacid canned food (meats, vegetables) for 2 to 5 years.

2. Preparation
Always wash hands with warm water and soap for 20 seconds before
and after handling food. Don't cross-contaminate. Keep raw meat, poultry,
fish, and their juices away from other food. After cutting raw meats, wash
cutting board, utensils, and countertops with hot, soapy water. Cutting
boards, utensils, and countertops can be sanitized by using a solution of 1
tablespoon of unscented, liquid chlorine bleach in 1 gallon of water. Marinate
meat and poultry in a covered dish in the refrigerator.
3. Thawing
Refrigerator: The refrigerator allows slow, safe thawing. Make sure
thawing meat and poultry juices do not drip onto other food. Cold Water: For
faster thawing, place food in a leak-proof plastic bag. Submerge in cold tap
water. Change the water every 30 minutes. Cook immediately after thawing.
4. Microwave
Cook meat and poultry immediately after microwave thawing.
5. Cooking
Cook all raw beef, pork, lamb and veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a
minimum internal temperature of 145 F (62.8 C) as measured with a food
thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and
quality, allow meat to rest for at least three minutes before carving or
consuming. For reasons of personal preference, consumers may choose to
cook meat to higher temperatures. Ground meats: Cook all raw ground beef,
pork, lamb, and veal to an internal temperature of 160 F (71.1 C) as
measured with a food thermometer.

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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

6. Poultry
Cook all poultry to an internal temperature of 165 F (73.9 C) as
measured with a food thermometer.

7. Serving
Hot food should be held at 140 F (60 C) or warmer. Cold food should
be held at 40 F (4.4 C) or colder. When serving food at a buffet, keep food
hot with chafing dishes, slow cookers, and warming trays. Keep food cold by
nesting dishes in bowls of ice or use small serving trays and replace them
often. Perishable food should not be left out more than 2 hours at room
temperature1 hour when the temperature is above 90 F (32.2 C). 8.

8. Refreezing
Meat and poultry defrosted in the refrigerator may be refrozen before
or after cooking. If thawed by other methods, cook before refreezing.

9. Cold Storage Chart

These short, but safe, time limits will help keep refrigerated food from
spoiling or becoming dangerous to eat. Because freezing keeps food safe
indefinitely, recommended storage times are for quality only.

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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

Hazard Characterization
This step provides a qualitative or quantitative description of the severity and
duration of adverse effects that may result from the ingestion of a
microorganism or its toxin in food. A dose-response assessment should be
performed if the data are obtainable.
There are several important factors that need to be considered in hazard
characterization. These are related to both the microorganism, and the
human host. In relation to the microorganism the following are important:
microorganisms are capable of replicating; the virulence and infectivity of
microorganisms can change depending on their interaction with the host and
the environment; genetic material can be transferred between
microorganisms leading to the transfer of characteristics such as antibiotic
resistance and virulence factors; microorganisms can be spread through
secondary and tertiary transmission; the onset of clinical symptoms can be
substantially delayed following exposure; microorganisms can persist in
certain individuals leading to continued excretion of the microorganism and
continued risk of spread of infection; low doses of some microorganisms can
in some cases cause a severe effect; and the attributes of a food that may
alter the microbial pathogenicity, e.g., High fat content of a food vehicle.
In relation to the host the following may be important: genetic factors such as
human leucocyte antigen (HLA) type; increased susceptibility due to
breakdowns of physiological barriers; individual host susceptibility
characteristics such as age, pregnancy, nutrition, health and medication
status, concurrent infections, immune status and previous exposure history;
population characteristics such as population immunity, access to and use of
medical care, and persistence of the organism in the population.
A desirable feature of hazard characterization is ideally establishing a doseresponse relationship. When establishing a dose-response relationship, the
different end points, such as infection or illness, should be taken into
consideration. In the absence of a known dose-response relationship, risk
assessment tools such as expert elicitations could be used to consider
various factors, such as infectivity, necessary to describe hazard
characterizations. Additionally, experts may be able to devise ranking
systems so that they can be used to characterize severity and/or duration of
We are trying to answer a number of questions in order to develop a true
understanding of the character of the hazard. These questions include;
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What is the disease caused by the pathogen?
What are the symptoms and how long before their onset?
What are the range and likelihood of adverse outcomes e.g. death?
What is the minimum dose required to produce symptoms?
A food safety hazard is a biological, chemical or physical agent, or
condition of food, with the potential to cause harm or an adverse health
affect when the food is eaten. Food safety hazards can be classed as:

Biological such as microorganisms

Chemical such as chemicals, pesticides, cleaning agents and allergens
Physical foreign objects that are not supposed to be in the food, such
as timber, glass, packaging material and naturally occurring objects
bones, dust and grit.


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Microorganisms responsible for common food-borne illness

MicroFood Symptom Common food Incub
product that is
left uncovered
cramps, or
milk, meats,
fish, rice, and
starchy foods




Raw chicken,
other foods
ed by
by raw
milk, untreated
and muscle
cation weakness,
, and/or
bottled garlic;
Meats, meat
abdomin products, gravy,
Tex-Mex type
foods, other

ia coli








ground beef,
apple juice and
cider, raw milk,
alfalfa sprouts,
cut melons


including raw
milk, cheeses,
ice cream, raw

from a

Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

Risk Management

All restaurants must promote good personal hygiene of staff and

implement everyday work procedures which prevent the growth of
microorganisms and limit the opportunity for cross contamination. The FSANZ
standard 3.2.1 requires food businesses to implement a food safety program
based upon the HACCP concepts. A food safety program based on identifying
and analysing the food safety hazards which exist in a food service operation,
and implementing a simple set of policies and procedures to be followed by a
food handlers, can be done by following the six steps below. A food safety
program for each business must follow a systematic documented manner:

Identify the potential food safety hazards

Identify the means of control of the hazards
Monitor the hazards
Provide for corrective action
Regularly review the program
Keep appropriate records

Risk Characterization

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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

Risk characterization represents the integration of the hazard identification,
hazard characterization, and exposure assessment determinations to obtain a
risk estimate; providing a qualitative or quantitative estimate of the likelihood
and severity of the adverse effects which could occur in a given population,
including a description of the uncertainties associated with these estimates.
These estimates can be assessed by comparison with independent
epidemiological data that relate hazards to disease prevalence.
Risk characterization brings together all of the qualitative or quantitative
information of the previous steps to provide a soundly based estimate of risk
for a given population. Risk characterization depends on available data and
expert judgements. The weight of evidence integrating quantitative and
qualitative data may permit only a qualitative estimate of risk.
The degree of confidence in the final estimation of risk will depend on the
variability, uncertainty, and assumptions identified in all previous steps.
Differentiation of uncertainty and variability is important in subsequent
selections of risk management options. Uncertainty is associated with the
data themselves, and with the choice of model. Data uncertainties include
those that might arise in the evaluation and extrapolation of information
obtained from epidemiological, microbiological, and laboratory animal
studies. Uncertainties arise whenever attempts are made to use data
concerning the occurrence of certain phenomena obtained under one set of
conditions to make estimations or predictions about phenomena likely to
occur under other sets of conditions for which data are not available.
Biological variation includes the differences in virulence that exist in
microbiological populations and variability in susceptibility within the human
population and particular subpopulations.
It is important to demonstrate the influence of the estimates and
assumptions used in risk assessment; for quantitative risk assessment this
can be done using sensitivity and uncertainty analyses.
Foods can be healthy or not depending on how much you consumed in
a day. Pork and fish meat, is source of energy, protein, fat, and traces of
minerals like calcium, iron and vitamins but can be dangerous if consume too
much because of cholesterol and sodium content. Mango, is high in vitamin A
and C is necessary but too much can lead to nausea, diarrhea, or stomach
Nutrition Facts of Pork and Fish Meat
Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body. They are
one of the building blocks of body tissue, and can also serve as a fuel
source. As a fuel, proteins contain 4 kcal per gram, just
like carbohydrates and unlike lipids, which contain 9 kcal per gram.
The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from
a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. Aside from
water, proteins are the most abundant kind of molecules in the body.
Protein can be found in all cells of the body and is the major structural
component of all cells in the body, especially muscle. This also includes
body organs, hair and skin. Proteins are also used in membranes, such
as glycoproteins. When broken down into amino acids, they are used
as precursors to nucleic acid, co-enzymes, hormones, immune

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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

response, cellular repair, and other molecules essential for life.
Additionally, protein is needed to form blood cells.

Fats are also sources of essential fatty acids, an important
above. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble, meaning they can only
be digested, absorbed, and transported in conjunction with fats. Fats
play a vital role in maintaining healthy skin and hair, insulating body
organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, and promoting
healthy cell function. Fat also serves as a useful buffer towards a host
of diseases. When a particular substance, whether chemical or biotic,
reaches unsafe levels in the bloodstream, the body can effectively
diluteor at least maintain equilibrium ofthe offending substances
by storing it in new fat tissue. This helps to protect vital organs, until
such time as the offending substances can be metabolized and/or
removed from the body by such means as excretion, urination,
intentional bloodletting, sebum excretion,
and hair growth. But saturated fat that can elevate your cholesterol
levels and increase your risk for heart disease.

Cholesterol is found in every cell of the body and has important
natural functions. It is manufactured by the body but can also be taken
in from food. It is waxy and fat-like in appearance. Cholesterol is oilbased and so does not mix with the blood, which is water-based. It is
therefore carried around the body in the blood by lipoproteins. The
parcels of cholesterol are carried by two types of lipoprotein: Lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL - cholesterol carried by this type is known as
'bad' cholesterol) and; High-density lipoprotein (HDL - cholesterol
carried by this type is known as 'good' cholesterol).
Cholesterol has four main functions, without which we could not
live. It contributes to the structure of cell walls. It takes up digestive
bile acids in the intestine. It allows the body to produce vitamin D. It
enables the body to make certain hormones.

Sodium is an element that the body needs to work properly. The
body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your
body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work properly.
But too much sodium in the diet may lead to high blood pressure in
some people and a serious build-up of fluid in people with congestive
heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, or kidney disease.

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Nutrition Facts of Mango

Vitamin C
Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that is necessary for normal
growth and development. Vitamin C is needed for the growth and
repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It is used to form an
important protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood
vessels, to heal wounds and form scar tissue, to repair and maintain
cartilage, bones, and teeth.
Vitamin C is one of many antioxidants. Antioxidants are nutrients
that block some of the damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals
are made when your body breaks down food or when you are exposed
to tobacco smoke or radiation. The build-up of free radicals over time is
largely responsible for the aging process. Free radicals may play a role
in cancer, heart disease, and conditions like arthritis. The body is not
able to make vitamin C on its own, and it does not store vitamin C. It is
therefore important to include plenty of vitamin C-containing foods in
your daily diet.

Vitamin A
Vitamin A helps form and maintain healthy skin, teeth, skeletal
and soft tissue, mucus membranes, and skin. It is also known as retinol
because it produces the pigments in the retina of the eye. Vitamin A
promotes good vision, especially in low light. It may also be needed for
reproduction and breast-feeding.
Beta-carotene is an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells from
damage caused by substances called free radicals. Free radicals are
believed to contribute to certain chronic diseases and play a role in the
aging processes. Food sources of carotenoids such as beta-carotene
may reduce the risk for cancer.

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Microbiological Risk Assessment of Food Chain Business

Based on the gathered information, bacteria are naturally occurring in
foods especially in the environment but it can be lessen by applying the risk
management which prevent the growth of microorganisms and limit the
opportunity for cross contamination based from: the hazard identification to
ensure that the food is safe to consume in terms of physical, chemical and
biological hazards; exposure assessment to make hazards less dangerous in
terms of handling sources, thawing and food pathogen determination in foods
and; hazard characterization which helps in assuming what possible hazard
can be found in certain food products. Thus must establish critical control
points in purchasing and delivery, stock control and food storage,
preparation, cooking, cooling and service, where there is a high risk of
contamination or food spoilage in a restaurant in preparing food/s.

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Each business must put in place procedures at the critical control

points or the stages in processing or preparation of food, where there is a
high risk of contamination or food spoilage. Common critical control points for
restaurants are:

Purchasing and delivery

Use only use reputable or approved suppliers. Ask for evidence
of the suppliers food safety program or HACCP certificate.
Deliveries of food supplies should be made at a convenient time for
correct checking and storage procedures to be followed. Check the
temperature of all perishable, potentially hazardous and frozen
foods and record the temperature. Check use-by dates. Check for
any damage or opening to packaging or produce. Check for freezer
burn or visible icicles inside frozen food wrapping. Reject the
delivery if the delivery does not meet the temperature
requirements (<5C for cold food and -18C for frozen food), if the
food is out of date, or if there is any variation in normal colour,
texture, odour or general appearance.

Stock control and food storage

Store food immediately and at the correct temperature. Cover
food and make sure it is clearly labelled and dated. Never store
food on the floor. Separate raw and cooked foods. Rotate stock on a
first in first out (FIFO) basis. Do not store food near chemicals. Keep
storage areas clean and dry. Check storage areas daily for pests
and cleanliness. Check and record temperature of cold food storage
areas; cool rooms, bench fridges, display fridges and preparation
fridges to ensure food is being stored at temperatures that dont
allow food microorganisms to grow.

Always wash hands before commencing any preparation and
between raw and cooked foods. Prepare raw and cooked foods
separately and use separate chopping boards and knives.
Thoroughly wash all fruit and vegetables in clean water before use,
to remove soil, insects and any chemical residues. Use clean and
sanitised equipment. Avoid cross contamination. Cooking destroys
most harmful bacteria however cooked foods can be recontaminated by allowing the transfer of bacteria from raw to
cooked food. This can occur with hands, utensils, equipment or
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surfaces such as benches and cutting boards. When preparing food,
limit the time high- risk foods such as animal products are in the
danger zone. This should be less than one hour preparation time for
high risk foods. Fingers should not be used to taste food. A tasting
spoon should be used and washed after each tasting. Thaw foods in
a refrigerator, cool room or in the microwave.

Cook foods above 75C. Chicken and pork cuts must be
thoroughly cooked, so that the centre is no longer pink. Using a
meat thermometer is a good idea when roasting meats. Record the
temperature of potentially hazardous foods when they are cooked.

Potentially hazardous food need to be cooled after cooking as
quickly as possible. Hot food needs to be chilled to below 5C as
quickly as possible. Placing hot food straight into the cool room or
freezer is not advisable as it raises the temperature of these
storage areas placing the food into the danger zone. Small portions
and shallow containers cool food quickly. Transfer hot foods into
smaller shallow containers. Stir food to decrease temperatures.
Cool the food container in some ice or cold water.

Food is to be served with utensils only. Foods which are to be
held hot for service must not be allowed to fall below 60c. Foods
which are to be served cold must be kept refrigerated at <5c until
serving time. Single use, disposable, take away food and drink
containers, lids, and drinking straws must be kept in hygienic,
covered receptacles until used.
Food safety monitoring
Each hospitality business must monitor the food safety
hazards and controls in place at the critical control points.
Different ways of monitoring or checking food safety hazards
may be: check and record food temperature using a
thermometer probe check and record the food deliveries at
receipt check and record the use by date or preparation date
check and record the temperature of cold storage equipment
such as fridges, cool rooms, display cabinets and freezers check
and record the temperature of hot food storage equipment such
as bain maries, warming cabinets check and record the cooking
temperature check and record the time and temperature when
chilling food check for bacterial growth using bacterial swabs
and tests chemical tests.
Corrective actions

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Each hospitality business must take corrective actions if the
food hazards are found not to be under control, or the food
poses a risk of harm if eaten. When checking and monitoring
food safety, staff need to take action if there is a procedure not
followed, or the critical control points are breached, or they feel
that there is an incident that may pose a food safety hazard. The
corrective action should either remedy the food safety hazard or
prevent the food from being consumed. Staff must also take
steps to prevent the hazard from happening again. All corrective
actions must be written down in a record book.


Microbiological risk assessment in food processing: ed. by Martyn
Brown, Martyn Brown Michael Stringer
Microbial Risk Analysis Of Foods: Donald W. Schaffner
Principles and Guidelines for the Conduct of Microbiological Risk
Assessment: CAC/GL-30 (1999)
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