Sie sind auf Seite 1von 34

A Methodology for detailing - Applied to Point-Supported-Glass Wall Systems

by
Xiaojun Cheng
-----------------------------------------------------

A Thesis Presented to the


FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
In Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree
MASTER OF BUILDING SCIENCE
May 2006

Copyright 2006

Xiaojun Cheng

Chapter II Research Methodology


2.1

Statement

Architectural detailing is primarily left to experience in professional practice rather than


formal education. There are few publications discussing strategies of detailing with
demonstrations using a specific type of structure. This thesis presents a methodology to
teach architectural detailing illustrated and demonstrated on case studies of PointSupported-Glass walls.
2.2
Hypothesis
This thesis assumes a methodology can be developed to teach students and young
architects architectural detailing. The methodology is based on rules and process,
considering assembly, installation, tolerance, functionality and aesthetics using PSG
walls as demonstrations.
2.3
Thesis structure and research process
The methodology of this thesis is based on rules and process. The eight rules are:

Know basic requirements of PSG wall systems


Know design concept
Know principles
Study from good designers and good detail examples
Consult with manufacturers as needed
Create your own detail designs (process)
Mock-up examples and test as needed
On site supervision as needed

Among the eight rules, four are explained in details, which are:

Know basic requirements of PSG wall systems


Know principles
Study from good designers and good detail examples
Create your own detail designs (process)

Each of these four rules is explained in detail below:


Know basic knowledge of PSG wall systems
This introduces the basic knowledge of PSG wall systems, including:
The materials generally used in PSG walls
The components of a PSG wall

Know principles
This introduces the principles which should be considered in detail design. This thesis
discusses two types of principles, general principals and important principles. The
general principles are normally more emphasized during macro scale design, which is not
the focus of this thesis. The important principles are generally more emphasized during
micro scale design, which is the focus of this thesis. The general principles and important
principles are listed as below.
The general principles are emphasized in macro scale design and they are not the focus of
the thesis. Therefore the thesis only gives brief introduction for each one. They are:
Function, structure type, structure behavior, material property, life cycle analysis
(LCA), maintenance, light control, thermal control, ventilation, cost control, sound
control, water proof, aesthetics, integration, fire resistance, water proof, synergy
Then the paper selects six points from the principals listed above to give more description
for each one. The reason for this is because the author considers these six points more
critical to PSG walls than other points. The six points are:
Light control
Structure behavior
Thermal control
Sound control
Cost control
Integration
The important principles are generally more emphasized in micro design scale, and
therefore they are described in detail. They are:
Tolerance
Manufacture, assembly and installation
Water resistance
Maintenance
Aesthetics
Study from good designers and good detail examples
The thesis recommends some representative PSG projects to readers. The projects are
categorized into six groups based on the back up structure types, which are:
Metal frame
Truss
Tension cable
Cable net
Glass fin
Other types
Create own detail designs (process)

The thesis then introduces a process which can be a guide to follow to make a detail
design. The process includes nine points. The thesis firstly introduces the nine points, one
by one, and then used the four case studies to illustrate and support the nine points. In
order to make the process easy to understand and follow, during the case studies, the
thesis introduces a sequence for the nine points. This sequence, however, is only one of
possible sequences. If choosing different sequence, the result might be different. But how
to determine the sequence, and what is the effect, are not going to be discussed in the
thesis.
The nine points of the process are:

Find out the infrastructure


Determine modular size
Determine the back up structure
Make a checklist of all elements based on four categories
Category 1 Infrastructure elements
Category 2 Glass wall elements
Category 3 Elements for openings
Category 4 - Additional devices
Determine the position, shape and size of each element
Find out all Connections based on eight categories
Category 1 Connections within glass wall
Category 2 Connections within openings
Category 3 Connections within additional devices
Category 4 Connections between glass wall and additional devices
Category 5 Connections between glass wall and openings
Category 6 Connections between openings and additional devices
Category 7 Connections between glass wall and infrastructure
Category 8 Connections between openings and infrastructure
Category 9 Connections between additional devices and infrastructure
Determine the material and method for each connector
Any other special requirements
Detailing each connection

The first eight points are to make preparation for the ninth point, which is detailing each
connection. For the ninth point, because different connections have different
requirements and emphasis in detailing, it is advisable to provide a method for each
typical connection type. Examples of connection types with different requirements are
the connection between glass and infrastructure, the connection between glass support
structure and infrastructure, the connection within the glass panels, and the connections
within the glass support structure. Therefore, the thesis studies one typical connection for
each of the first two case studies and develops a specific detailing method (shown as a
process) for each typical connection. For instance, the detailing process for a typical
connection between cables and struts (the elements involved in the support structure of a
cable-supported glass wall), is shown as below:

Step 1 Draw concentric center line connections


Step 2 Draw connector size as dotted line
Step 3 Define tolerance between connectors
Step 4 Explore connector options
Step 5 Design connecter
Step 6 Make adjustment (Such as reducing connector and checking eccentric stress
shown in the first case study)

After exploring the rules and process, the thesis uses four PSG projects from ASI
(Advanced Structures Incorporated) as demonstrations. The paper also makes a brief
study of some projects with detail failures. Detailed research for projects with failures is
left for future studies.
The four case studies from ASI are:
University of Connecticut, Stamford, Connecticut
McCarren International Airport, Las Vegas
UBS Building at One North Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois
Ha-Lo, Niles, Illinois
Each of the four case studies represents a typical structural type of PSG wall system.
They are cable truss, truss, cable net and glass-fin, respectively. For each project, a
typical PSG wall section is used to illustrate and support the detailing process developed
for the methodology. Then, for the first two case studies, a typical joint is selected to
further describe the detailing process which is specifically used for a typical cable joint.
To make the detailing process easy to follow, a flow chart is developed to explain each
step visually. For instance, the following chart describes the detailing process of a typical
cable joint in the first case study.

Fig. 2-1 The detailing process of a typical cable joint


At the end of the thesis, a conclusion is drawn from the research, including:

2.4

Feedback from peers and experts


Suggestions for future studies
Useful sources
Products

The research results in two products. One product is the written thesis and the other one
is a web-page of the methodology. The thesis provides the complete description of the
research, including the hypothesis, research methods, and research results. The web-page
is used as a teaching tool for students and young architects to study the detailing
methodology.

Chapter VIII
Case study one University of Connecticut
Student Center

8.1

Introduction

8.1.1

Project information

Climate
The latitude of Connecticut is 41.07N, and longitude is 073.25W. Connecticut has a
generally temperate climate with warm summer and mild winter. The average
temperature in January is 27F (3C), and in July 70F (21C). The lowest recorded
temperature is 32F (36C) in Falls Village in Feb1943, and the highest is 106F (41C)
in Danbury in July1995. The rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with an
annual rainfall 46.2in (117cm) from 1971 to 2000. (http://www.citydata.com/states/Connecticut-Climate.html) The following charts show the average
temperature, humidity, sunshine, cloudy days, precipitation, and wind speed around the
year in Stamford.

Fig. 8-1 Stamford climate data


(http://www.city-data.com/city/Stamford-Connecticut.html)

General project information


Location: Stamford, Connecticut
Architects: Perlins Eastman Architects
Associate architects: Dubose Associates
Engineers: Cosentini Associates (mechanical); Purcell Associates (structural); Allan
Davis Associates (civil)
Consultants: Advanced Structures Inc. (structural glazing); Scott B. Page (program); Jack
Curtis & Associates (landscape); Chermayeff & Geismar (graphics); Donegan &
Associates (consulting architect); Ann Kale Associates (lighting)
Sources:
Uninsulated metal Panel: Alply
Insulated metal Panel: Criterion
Glass curtain wall: Pilkington
Aluminum windows: Vistawall, Pilkington
Insulated glass: Pilkington, Viracon
Skylights: Architectural Skylight
Glass entrance doors: Blumcraft
Cherry veneer doors: Weyerhauser
Lighting: Zumtobel, Bega
Total Cost: $40 million
Total area: 253,000 SQFT
Unit cost: $158/SQFT
Brief introduction
Stamford campus building is located in downtown Stamford. It is the renovation of an old
building of which only the structure and floor slab remaine, but the brick skin was
removed and substituted by glass and concrete. The south part of the building is a library,
and the north part consists of classrooms and offices. The south-facing and 440-foot long
glass faade is one of the most impressive features of the building. It not only brings
sufficient daylight into the academic concourse, but also makes the building close and

friendly to pedestrian, which strengthens the designers idea to bring the building closer
to the community it serves. The whole glass faade is divided into two parts by a
concrete slab. The lower part is about 11 feet, supported by regular mullion. The 36-foot
glazing of the upper part is pointed fitted, and supported by cable (rod) truss. This part is
what ASI developed. For this project, ASI was hired by Pilkington as a subcontractor to
provide the design and detailing of the glass wall and support system. The glass panes
and fittings were not the responsibility of ASI; in stead, they were designed by W&W
Glass Systems, Inc., another subcontractor of Pilkington. (Langdon, P., 1998)
The glass faade is the nation's first Pilkington Planar glazing system supported by the
longest, clear span, lenticular cable truss. The facade was made up of green-tinted, low-e
coated, insulated glass panels supported by stainless steel, four-point castings. The glass
wall includes several 900 corners supported by custom-designed corner trusses. The key
feature of the support structure was the pretensioning methodology created to adequately
support this unique clear span structure. (http://www.wwglass.com/)
8.1.2

Images

The following images are the site plan & first floor plan (Fig. 8-2), exploded axonometric
(Fig. 8-3), exterior and interior photos (Fig. 8-4) of the building.

Left: Site plan


1. Stamford
Campus Building
2. Parking garage
3. Franklin Plaza
4. C.L.Whitey
Heist Park
5. Rippowam
River
6. St. Andrews
Church

Left: First floor


plan
1. Entrance
2. Concourse
3. Library
4. Bookstore
5. Conference
center entrance
6. Light spine
7. Auditorium
8. Classroom
9. Multiuse area
10. Mechanical

Fig. 8-2 Site plan (top) and first floor plan (bottom) of the building of the
University of Connecticut (Langdon, P., 1998)

Fig. 8-3 Exploded axonometric


(Langdon, P., 1998)

(b) North facade


(Langdon, P., 1998)

(a) South faade


(Langdon, P., 1998)

(c) Inside view looking from east to west


(Langdon, P., 1998)

(d) South faade


(http://www.wwglass.com/)

(e) Inside view from north to south


(Langdon, P., 1998)

(f) In side view looking from east to west


(http://www.wwglass.com/)

Fig. 8-4 Exterior and interior photos of the building of the University of Connecticut

Two detailing processes are introduced in this chapter, using case studies. Firstly, a
typical wall section is used to explain the detailing process of a typical PSG wall (see
Chapter 8.2). Secondly, a specific joint is selected to illustrate the detailing process of a
typical joint of cable and strut (see Chapter 8.2.9). Fig. 8-1 shows the interior views,
description, elevation and section of the glass wall used to illustrate the detailing process.
The 440 feet long and 35.4 feet high south glazing facade of
the Student Center, University of Connecticut, features 5 feet
wide and 5.83 feet high glass panes of double-glazing, greentined and low-E coated glass. (http://www.wwglass.com/) The
glazing is point-supported, and the fixing type is Pilkington
Planer System. The glazing support attachments are stainless
steel four-way spiders, attached to stainless steel doublecurved tension rods. The glass wall is attached to horizontal
infrastructure of two square-tube steel beams.
(a) Interior view

(b) Description of the PSG wall based on five layers


7'-2"

Square steel tube


Strut pipe

5'

Rods
5.83'

Glass
35.4'

A typical joint
used in Step 8
and Step 9 (see
8.2.8 & 8.2.9)

6'

Square steel tube

(c) Interior view of the wall

(d) Elevation

(e) Section

Fig. 8-5 Interior views, description, elevation and section of the glass wall
(ASI, modified)
8.2

Detailing process for a typical section

8.2.1 Identify the infrastructure

(http://www.wwglass.com/)

(ASI, modified)

Infrastructure type upper beam to lower beam (horizontal)


Infrastructure material steel frame (stiff)
In this example, the infrastructure consists of two horizontal beams (see the wide lines in the image left
above). This means that the back up structure is a vertical structure. Here, vertical cable trusses are used.
The materials of the beams are steel, which is generally strong, and can resist the cable tension,

Fig. 8-6 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of step 1


8.2.2

Determine modular size

(ASI, modified)

(ASI, modified)

5 5 10 based on glass pane limitation


In this project, the modular size of the glass wall was determined by the size of glass pane, which is 5 feet
width and 5 10 height.

Fig. 8-7 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of step 2


8.2.3

Identify the back up structure

(Drawn based on ASI drawings)

Primary structure Vertical curved tension rods are used as the back up structure; Vertical straight
rods are used additionally; Horizontal strut pipes are compression members
Secondary structure Horizontal bracing rods are used to strengthen the structure;
Horizontal straight rods are used additionally
Material stainless steel rods; steel pipe

Fig. 8-8 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of step 3


8.2.4

Make a checklist of all of the elements based on four categories

Category
Category 1
infrastructure

Elements
Two horizontal beams (like roof and ground)
Top beam
Bottom beam
Steel beam: TS 1620
Steel beam: TS 1814
Steel grid: TS 1614
Steel rid: W 14?

Category 2
Glass wall

Glass panels

Glass
fittings

Back up structure elements

elements
Category 3
Elements for
openings
Category 4 Additional
devices

Double glazing,
green-tinted, lowE coated
N/A

Four
way
spider

Strut
pipe

Truss
rod

Vertical
rod

Bracing
rod

Horizontal
rod

N/A

Fig. 8-9 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of step 4


(ASI, summarized)
8.2.5

Define the position, shape and size of each element

(ASI, modified)

Identify the size of the given infrastructure


The size of glass panels is defined by architects and/or glass manufacturers.
The size of glass fittings is determined by manufacturers and/or in consultation with architects.
The size of strut pipe and rod are determined through calculation and experience.

Fig. 8-10 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of step 5

The following gives out an example of how to determine the size of the key elements
including strut pipe, truss rod, vertical rod, horizontal rod, and diagonal rod, through
calculation.
The sizes ASI used for these key elements are as the following:
Strut pipe: 2 3/8 (Diameter)
Truss rod: three different sizes were used:
Typical truss rod 1/2
Truss rod at corner: 3/4
Truss rod next to gate: 5/8
Vertical rod: 3/8
Horizontal rod and diagonal rod: 1/4 (this number is estimated from the DWG
drawing by ASI)
The calculation in the following will show how ASI determined these sizes.
The size of truss rod:
We need to consider the following load:
Gravity load 10psf
Gravity load includes dead load and live load. In this case, we only consider the dead
load because there is no live load. Gravity load is critical for seismic load. The bigger
the gravity load is, the higher the seismic load. Since glass wall is lightweight
structure, in most cases, the seismic load can be ignored.
Seismic load 2 psf
V=CsW
Cs: 20%
W: 10psf
V = 20%10psf = 2psf
Wind load 30 psf for typical locations; 45psf for corners
Since the seismic load (2psf) is much smaller than the wind load (30psf), consider the
wind load only.
Thermal load Temperature range: 75oF
Thermal stress
ft = t E
ft Thermal stress
Coefficient of thermal expansion
t Temperature range
E Elastic modulus
In this case, stainless steel rod is the bearing structure, so we need to consider the
thermal stress of rod. The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion () of steel is 6.5 10-6
o
F. The Elastic Modulus of steel is 29 106 psi. The temperature range is 75 oF.
Therefore, the thermal stress of rod is:
ft = t E = 6.5 10-6 oF 75 oF 29 106 psi = 14137 psi 14 ksi
Tension of truss rod (the curved rods are also called truss rods):
Truss rod space: 5
Allowable truss rod load: 10,000 LBS
Allowable rod stress: Fa = 50 ksi (high stress steel)

Wind load: 30 psf


Truss rod length (L): 35
Truss rod depth (D): 4.5
Tributary area: 5
Tributary load on each truss rod (uniform load):
W = 30 psf 5 = 150 plf
Global moment:
M = WL2/8 = 150 plf (35) 2 / 8 = 22969 lbf
Horizontal reaction:
H = WL/2 = 150 plf 35 / 2 = 2625 #
Vertical reaction:
V = M/D = 22969 lbf / 4.5 = 5104 #
Tension:
T = (V2 + H2) = (26252 + 51042) = 5739 #
Metallic cross section required:
Am = T/Fa = 5739 / 50 ksi = 0.115 in2
Gross cross section (70% metallic)
Ag = Am/0.70 = 0.115 / 0.70 = 0.164 in2
Rod size
= 2(Ag/) = 2 (0.164 / 3.14) = 0.456 in
Use = inch, therefore the cross area is:
A = (/2)2 = 3.14 (0.5/2) 2 = 0.196 in2
Ultimate stress of rod:
US = T/A = 5739 / 0.196 = 29281 30 ksi
Pre-stress of rod:
PS = US = 15 ksi
Thermal stress is 14 ksi
In winter, rod shrinks, causing bigger tension
Stress is 15ksi + 14kis = 29 ksi
In summer, rod expands, causing smaller tension,
Stress is 15ksi 14ksi = 1ksi > 0, ok!
Total maximum stress of rod:
f = US + PS + TS = 15ksi + 15ksi + 14ksi = 44ksi < 50 ksi, ok!
Size of strut pipe:
Wind load: 30 psf
Strut length: 5
Tributary area: 5 5.8 = 29 f2
Tributary load on each strut:
W = 30 psf 29 f2 = 870 #, check <Manual of Steel Construction>

Fig. 8-11 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of step 5


Example of structural calculations (Instructed by G.G. Schierle, 2005)
8.2.6

Define Connections based on eight categories

(ASI, modified)

Category 1 Connections within glass wall


Glass + Glass, Glass + Spider, Spider + Strut, Strut + Rod
Category 2 Connections within openings (Does not apply in this case)
Category 3 Connections within additional devices (Does not apply in this case)
Category 4 Connections between glass wall and additional devices (Does not apply in this case)
Category 5 Connections between glass wall and openings (Does not apply in this case)
Category 6 Connections between openings and additional devices (Does not apply in this case)
Category 7 Connections between glass wall and infrastructure
Glass + Ground, Glass + Roof, Rod + Ground, Rod + Roof
Category 8 Connections between openings and infrastructure (Does not apply in this case)
Category 9 Connections between additional devices and infrastructure (Does not apply)

Fig. 8-12 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of step 6


8.2.7

Determine the material and method for each connectors

From step 6, we can see that there are eight connections. They are: Glass + Glass, Glass +
Spider, Glass + Strut, Strut + Rod, Glass + Ground, Glass + Roof, Rod + Ground, and
Rod + Roof.

Glass + Glass structural silicone


The left image show the typical detail of
double glazing insulating glass joint.
(Left image comes from
http://sweets.construction.com/)

Glass + Spider bolted together


Using standard Pilkington Planar
System, we can get perfect smooth
exterior surface. The connection detail of
Glass + Spider is usually from the
manufacturer who provides the spider.
(Above left image is edited base on ASI
drawings. Below left image comes from
http://www.wwglass.com/)

Glass

Bolt hole

Solid bar

Threaded bolt
Steel spider
Glass fixing
(Pilkington Planer)

Strut pipe
Weldings

This step is to define the material and


method for connectors. In this case, glass
panes are fixed to the four-way spider by
standard Pilkington Planer system,
which creates a flush exterior surface.
The spider is connected to the strut pipe
by a solid bar. The spider is bolted into
the solid bar, and the solid bar is welded
to the strut pipe. The threaded bolt was
provided by the glass manufacturer who
provided glass and fixings, but the size
of the bolt was dependent on the
diameter of the bolt hole, which was
defined by ASI. The size of the bolt
(5/8 diameter, 2deep) was defined to
assure structural safety.
Strut + Rod connected by a steel
plate; the plate is welded to the strut; the
rod is bolted to the plate. (image from
ASI, modified)

Glass + Ground

Glass + Roof A steel pocket holds the


glass pane; the pocket is bolted to a steel
angle; the angle then is welded to the
infrastructure. Please notice that, the
pocket should have enough height so that
the glass can move vertically freely
under any vertical load (such as seismic),
or thermal expansion.
(image from ASI, modified)

Rod + Ground (steel tube) connected


by a plate and an anchor plate; the
anchor plate is welded to the steel tube;
the plate is welded to the anchor plate;
the rods are bolted to the plate

Rod + Roof (steel tube) connected by


a plate and an anchor plate; the anchor
plate is welded to the steel tube; the plate
is welded to the anchor plate; the rods
are bolted to the plate
(image from ASI, modified)

Fig. 8-13 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of step 7


(Drawn based on ASI drawings)
8.2.8

Any other special requirements

Gusset plate
(connector)

Hole for
pre-stressing
Force applied
during installaion

This step is to define special requirement for


manufacture, assembly and installation, as well as
any other requirements that are not covered in other
steps. For example, a hole is designed in the gusset
plate for pre-stressing purpose. Because the steel
rods are tension members, prestress is needed to
avoid compressive stress under any load
(compressive stress would buckle the rods and
cause instability).

Fig. 8-14 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of Step 8

8.2.9

Detailing each connection

A typical joint type (cable + strut) shown in Fig. 8-14 is used to illustrate the detailing
process of a specific connection. Please notice that this joint is eccentric. However, when
starting to detail, concentric connection should always be considered first (Fig. 8-15).
The reason is that eccentric connection may cause bending stress in the joint. One should
make concentric connections at first, and adjust it to eccentric connection only if needed.
If eccentric connections are used, designers must check the resulting stress to ensure
structural safety. The illustration of the steps will start with a concentric connection and
then introduce the reasons for eccentric connection (Fig. 8-16 & Fig. 8-17). Then a
detailing process starting with an eccentric connection is introduced (Fig. 8-18 & Fig. 819).
Gusset plate
(Connector)
Strut

Socket
(Coupler)
Rod
(a) Joint of cable + strut

(b) Eccentric connection

(c) Concentric connection

Fig. 8-15 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of Step 9 - Eccentric and
concentric conditions of the joint (Drawn based on ASI drawings)
The process to detail the joint starting from a concentric connection is:

Step 1 Draw concentric center line connections


Step 2 Draw connector size as dotted line
Step 3 Define tolerance between connectors
Step 4 Explore connector options
Step 5 Design connector
Step 6 Make adjustment (reduce connector and check eccentric stress)

These six steps are further explained in the flow chart below (Fig. 8-16). Each image in
Fig. 8-16 is described in Fig. 8-17 (Image numbers of Fig. 8-16 correspond to respective
numbers in Fig. 8-17).

Alternate connector options

4.3

4.3.1

4.3.2

4.2

4.2.1

4.2.2

4.1

4.1.1

6.1

Fig. 8-16 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of Step 9 - Flow chart of the
detailing process starting from concentric connection (Drawn based on ASI drawings)
Enlarged diagrams shown in Fig. 8-16

Image 1

Principles applied:
Structural behavior (concentric connection)
Always consider a concentric connection at first and
adjust it to eccentric connection only if needed.
Concentric connection requires that the center lines
for all connected elements join at one point. Five
center lines are drawn, four rods and one strut.

Image 2

Principles applied:
Manufacture & structure (size of available cable
fittings A1)
Structure (size of strut A2)
Draw the size for the elements to be connected by
dotted line. Here, the size of the strut (A2) and the size
of sockets (A1) are needed. (Sockets connect strands
or rods to other elements). A1 is provided by the strand
manufacturer. A2 is defined by structural design, based
on stress, material strength, and structural length of
the strut (see image below). A2 may be also defined
by needs to make connections.
In this case A1 1 1/2, A2 = 2 3/8.

Image 3

Principles applied:
Tolerance (tolerance between adjacent sockets)
Draw the tolerance needed between adjacent elements.
Here, tolerances needed for the top rods (B1), and the
bottom rods (B2) are B1 = B2 = 0.5 (reference). After
drawing B1 and B2, one can see that the distances
between the rods and the strut (B3 and B4), are
obviously bigger than 0.5, which is ok for the
necessary tolerance.

Fig. 8-17 (continued)

Image 4

Principles applied:
Manufacture (socket dimensions)
Structure (minimum socket size C2)
Draw sockets connecting rods to strut. Firstly, get C1
and C2 from socket manufacturer (see image below)
based on rod size. In this case C1 = 1 1/4", C2 25/32.

Image 4.1

Principles applied:
Tolerance (between socket and gusset plate )
Aesthetics (connector shape)
An egg-shaped gusset plate (connector) is designed to
start. Note, tolerance (C3) is needed between the
socket and gusset plate (see image above). C3 = 1/2"
(reference). Considering the tolerance, the maximum
gusset plate is defined.

Image 4.1.1

Principles applied:
Structure (pre-stressing to keep strands always in
tension; minimum C5 to assure enough strength to
resist shear force when applying prestress)
Installation (a hole to pull down the connector for
pre-stressing; diameter of the hole; enough space C4
for convenience of installation )
A hole is designed to apply pre-stress in strands.
Enough space (C4) is needed for installation purpose.
The hole diameter (1) and C5 are defined based on
the prestress force applied. The prestress force is
defined by structural calculations.
Image 4.2 4.3.2 are a few examples of connector
alternatives.

Fig. 8-17 (continued)

Image 5

Principles applied:
Aesthetics (smooth curved edge of connector)
Installation (larger space around the hole)
Structure (sufficient weld length)
For aesthetical reasons, the connector edge is curved.
The strut ending (D1) is based on aesthetics and weld
length required. The minimum strut ending D1 = 0.
(See images below). At this stage, the joint design is
almost complete. However, there are still two items that
could be improved: the connector looks a bit too bulky
and the space around the pre-stressing hole looks too
small.

Image 6

Principles applied:
Aesthetics (reducing connector size)
Installation (increase space around prestress hole)
Structure (check eccentric stress)
An eccentric connection can solve these problems (see
dotted lines). By separating the center lines, the strand
sockets may be placed closer to the strut to reduce the
joint; and the space around the prestress hole can be
increased for easier installation.

Image 6.1

Principles applied:
Aesthetics (connector shape)
Structure (allowing structural movement)
An eccentric connection is designed to reduce the
gusset plate and joint detail. However the eccentric
joint may cause secondary stress in the strut. Thus, the
strut must be designed to resist the eccentric stress in
addition to any axial stress. Note, the concave shape of
the gusset plate is partly because of aesthetics and
partly because of functions (allowing the rods to rotate
under structural movement).

Fig. 8-17 (Continued)

Fig. 8-17 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of Step 9 Illustration of each
image shown in Fig. 8-16 (Drawn based on ASI drawings)

Fig. 8-16 and Fig. 8-17 illustrate why the concentric connection is adjusted to an
eccentric connection due to the size of fittings. Fig. 8-18 shows how the detailing
process works for an eccentric connection. Each image shown in Fig. 8-18 is further
illustrated in Fig. 8-19.

Alternate connector options

Step 1 Draw eccentric center line connections


Step 2 Draw connector size as dotted line
Step 3 Define tolerance between connectors
Step 4 Explore connector options
Step 5 Design connector
Step 6 Make adjustment (the concave shape of the gusset plate to allow structural movement)

Fig. 8-18 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of Step 9 Flow chart of the
detailing process starting from an eccentric connection (Drawn based on ASI drawings)

Enlarged diagrams shown in Fig. 8-18

Image 1

Principles applied:
Structural behavior (concentric connection)
Aesthetics (eccentric connection)
As explained in Fig. 8-16 and Fig. 8-17, the
concentric connection needs to be changed to an
eccentric connection to fit the fiitings. The left
image is the result of an eccentric connection,
showing the five center lines of four rods and one
strut. Because the eccentric joint may cause
secondary stress in the strut, the strut must be
designed to resist the eccentric stress in addition to
axial stress.
However, the principal of concentric connection is
still favored Rod #1 & Rod #3 are connected to one
point; as are Rod #2 & Rod #4

Image 2

Principles applied:
Manufacture & structure (size of available cable
fittings A1)
Structure (size of strut A2)
Draw the size for the elements to be connected by
dotted line. Here, the size of the strut (A2) and the
size of sockets (A1) are needed. (Sockets connect
strands or rods to other elements). A1 is provided by
the strand manufacturer. A2 is defined by structural
design, based on stress, material strength, and
structural length of the strut (see image 3). A2 may
be also defined by needs to make connections.
In this case A1 1 1/2, A2 = 2 3/8.

Image 3

Principles applied:
Tolerance (tolerance between adjacent sockets)
Draw the tolerance needed between adjacent
elements, the distance between the top two rods and
the distance between the bottom two rods are bigger
than 0.5, which is needed for necessary tolerance.
Here, tolerances needed are the distances between
the rods and the strut, which are B1 = B2 = B3 = B4 =
0.5 (reference).

Fig. 8-19 (Continued)

Image 3.1

Principles applied:
Structure and aesthetics (check D1 and D2)
After setting the B1 = B2 = B3 = B4 = 0.5 as shown
in Image 3, it turns out that the distance between the
restraining bolts in the top two rods and the strut
(D1) is smaller than that of the bottom two rods and
the strut (D2). (To determine D1 and D2, see Image
4. This is an example that the detailing process as
shown in these images is not fixed. A designer
should be able to adjust the process due to different
circumstances.)

Image 3.1.1

Principles applied:
Structure and aesthetics (equal D1 to D2)
To make the joint structurally balanced, D1 and D2
should be equal. Because D1 is smaller than D2, D1
is adjusted to be equal to D2 to ensure minimum
clearance (tolerance) mentioned in Image 3.
Another benefit to equal D1 to D2 is better aesthets
The connector looks more balanced if D1 equals to
D2.

Image 4

Principles applied:
Manufacture (socket dimensions)
Structure (minimum socket size C2)
Draw sockets connecting rods to strut. Firstly, get
C1 and C2 from socket manufacturer based on rod
size (see Image 4 in Fig. 8-17). In this case C1 = 1
1/4", C2 25/32.

Fig. 8-19 (Continued)

Image 4.1

Principles applied:
Structure (pre-stressing to keep strands always in
tension)
Installation (a hole to pull down the connector for
pre-stressing; diameter of the hole; enough space
around the hole for convenience of installation )
A hole is designed to apply pre-stress in strands.
Enough space around the hole is needed for
installation purpose. The hole diameter (1) and C3
are defined based on the pre-stress force applied.
The pre-stress force is defined by structural
calculations (typically half the ultimate stress).
Image 3.2 3.4.3 are gusset plate alternates

Image 5

Principles applied:
Aesthetics (smooth curved edge of connector)
For aesthetical reasons, the connector edge is
curved. The strut ending (D1) is based on aesthetics
and weld length required. The minimum strut
ending D1 = 0. (See Image 5 in Fig. 8-17). At this
stage, the joint design is almost complete.

Image 6

Principles applied:
Aesthetics (connector shape)
Structure (allowing structural movement)
The concave shape of the gusset plate is partly
because of aesthetics and partly because of
functions (allowing the rods to rotate under
structural movement).

Fig. 8-19 (Continued)

Fig. 8-19 (Continued)

Fig. 8-19 Case study #1 - Illustration and description of Step 9 Illustration of each
image shown in Fig. 8-18 (Drawn based on ASI drawings)