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PRACTICAL

ENVIRONMENTAL
MEASUREMENTS
Prepared By/
Alaa Edden R.A. Aljubb

Maysara A. Abo hassanin

Oct.2015

Environmental measurements Lab.

Prepared By Al Jubb et. al., 2015.

Lab. No. (1)


WATER SAMPLING AND FIELD MEASUREMENTS
1. Collection and Preservation of Samples:
The objective of sampling is to collect representative sample.
Representative sample by means a sample in which relative proportions
or concentration of all pertinent components will be the same as in the
material being sampled.

General Requirements:
1. Ensure that all sampling equipment is clean and quality-assured
before use.
2. Fill sample containers without prerinsing with sample; prerinsing
results in loss of any preadded preservative and sometimes can
bias results high when certain components adhere to the sides of
the container. Depending on determinations to be performed, fill
the container full (most organic compound determinations) or
leave space for aeration, mixing, etc. (microbiological and
inorganic analyses).
3. Special precautions are necessary for samples containing organic
compounds and trace metals. Since many constituents may be
present at low concentrations(micro-grams or Nano grams per
liter)
4. Composite samples can be obtained by collecting over a period of
time, or at many different over a period of time, depth, or at many
different sampling points.
5. Record of sample shall be as follows :( Sample identification
number - Location - Sample collector - Date and hour - Sample
type (Grab or composite).
6. When samples are collected from a river or stream, observed
results may vary with depth, stream flow, and distance from each
shore.
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Environmental measurements Lab.

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7. Rivers, streams, lakes, and reservoirs are subject to considerable


variations from normal causes such as seasonal stratification,
diurnal variations, rainfall, runoff, and wind. Choose location,
depth, and frequency of sampling depending on local conditions
and the purpose of the investigation.
8. Collect samples beneath the surface in quiescent areas and open
sampling container below surface with the mouth directed toward
the current to avoid collecting surface scum unless oil and grease is
a constituent of interest; then collected water at the surface.
9. If composite samples are required, ensure that sample constituents
are not lost during compositing because of improper handling of
portions being composited.
10. If samples will be analyzed for organic constituents, refrigerate
composited portions.
11. Do not composite samples for VOC analysis because some of the
components will be lost through volatilization.
12. Always prohibit eating, drinking, or smoking near samples,
sampling locations, and in the laboratory. Keep sparks, flames, and
excessive heat sources away from samples and sampling locations.

Collection of Samples:
1. Types of samples (Grab samples - Composite samples - Integrated
(discharge-weighted) samples )
2. Chain-of-Custody Procedures (Sample labels (including bar-code
labels)- Field log book:- Chain-of custody record - Sample analysis
request sheet - Sample delivery to the laboratory - Receipt and
logging of sample - Assignment of sample for analysis Disposal ).
3. Sampling Methods (Manual sampling - Automatic sampling )
4. Sample Containers (The type of sample containers used is of utmost
importance. Containers typically are made of plastic or glass, but one
material may be preferred over the other.)
5. Number of Samples (Because of variability from analytical and
sampling procedures (i.e., population variability), a single sample is
insufficient to reach any reasonable desired level of confidence.
6. Sample Volumes (Collect a 1-L sample for most physical and
chemical analyses. For certain determination, larger samples may be
necessary.)
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Environmental measurements Lab.

Prepared By Al Jubb et. al., 2015.

Sample Storage and Preservation


1. To minimize the potential for volatilization or biodegradation
between sampling and analysis, keep samples as cool as possible
without freezing.
2. Preferably pack samples in crushed or cubed ice or commercial ice
substitutes before shipment.
3. Avoid using dry ice because it will freeze samples and may cause
glass containers to break.
4. Preservation methods are limited to pH control, chemical addition,
the use of amber and opaque bottles, refrigeration, filtration, and
freezing.

2. Field Measurements:
A. pH measurement:
The pH of a solution is measured as negative logarithm
of hydrogen ion concentration. At a given temperature,
the intensity of the acidic or basic character of a solution
is indicated by pH or hydrogen ion concentration. pH
values from 0 to 7 are diminishing acidic, 7 to 14
increasingly alkaline and 7 is neutral.
ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE
Measurement of pH in one of the most important and frequently
used tests, as every phase of water and wastewater treatment and
waste quality management is pH dependent.
The pH of natural water usually lies in the range of 4 to 9 and
mostly it is slightly basic because of the presence of bicarbonates
and carbonates of alkali and alkaline earth metals.
pH value is governed largely by the carbon dioxide/ bicarbonate/
carbonate equilibrium. It may be affected by humic substances,
by changes in the carbonate equilibriums due to the bioactivity of
plants and in some cases by hydrolysable salts.
The effect of pH on the chemical and biological properties of
liquid makes its determination very important.

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Environmental measurements Lab.

Prepared By Al Jubb et. al., 2015.

Reagents and standards


A. pH 4 buffer solution: Dissolve 10.12g potassium hydrogen
phthalate, KHC8H4O9 in distilled water. Dilute to 1L.
b. pH 7 buffer solution: Dissolve 1.361g anhydrous potassium
dihydrogen phosphate, KH2PO4, and 1.42g anhydrous disodium
hydrogen phosphate, Na2HPO4, which have been dried at 110C.
Use distilled water which has been boiled and cooled. Dilute to 1L.
c. pH 9.2 buffer solution: Dissolve 3.81gm borax, Na2B4O7.10H2O
in distilled water, which has been previously boiled and cooled.
Dilute to 1L.

Procedure:
a. Before use, remove electrodes from storage solutions
(recommended by manufacturer) and rinse with distilled water.
b. Dry electrodes by gently blotting with a soft tissue paper,
standardize instrument with electrodes immersed in a buffer solution
within 2 pH units of sample pH.
c. Remove electrodes from buffer, rinse thoroughly with distilled
water and blot dry.
d. Immerse in a second buffer below pH 10, approximately 3 pH units
different from the first, the reading should be within 0.1 unit for the
pH of second buffer. (If the meter response shows a difference greater
than 0.1 pH unit from expected value, look for trouble with the
electrodes
or pH meter)
e. For samples analysis, establish equilibrium between electrodes and
sample by stirring sample to ensure homogeneity and measure pH.
f. For buffered samples (or those with high ionic strength), condition
the electrodes after cleaning by dipping them into the same sample,
and read pH.
g. With poorly buffered solutions (dilute), equilibrate electrodes by
immersing in three or four successive portions of samples. Take a
fresh sample and record the pH.

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Environmental measurements Lab.

Prepared By Al Jubb et. al., 2015.

B. Conductivity (EC) measurement:


Conductance is the inverse of resistance, and conductivity is
the inverse of resistivity. Resistivity is the preferred parameter
when measuring the electrical properties of a solid, but in
liquids the conductivity vanes (approximately) linearly with
ionic concentration.
Conductivity of a substance is defined as the ability or power
to conduct or transmit heat, electricity or sound
The electrical conductivity can be expressed as mhos
(reciprocal of ohms)
The conductivity of water is a measure of ability of water to
carry an electric current
In most water, the conductivity is very low, so millisiemens or
microsiemens are used as units for water conductivity
The conductivity depends on the value of the pH , on the
temperature of measurement and on the amount of CO2 which
has been dissolved in the water to from ions
The conductivity is also affected by the concentration of ions
already present in water such as chloride, sodium and
ammonium

Environmental Significance:
Electrical conductivity measurements are often employed to
monitor desalination plants
It is useful to assess the source of pollution
In coastal region, conductivity data can be used to decide the
extent of intrusion of sea water into ground water
Conductivity data is useful in determining the suitability of
water and wastewater for disposal on land.

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Environmental measurements Lab.

Prepared By Al Jubb et. al., 2015.

Procedure:
1. For testing the given water sample first the calibration reagent
are to be prepared (Potassium chloride solution 0.1N)
2. Adjust The conductivity of the 0.1N potassium chloride
solution to 14.12 millisimens /cm at 30C
3. Rinse the electrode thoroughly with deionized water and
carefully wipe with a tissue paper
4. Measure 200 ml of water sample and transfer it to a beaker
5. Dip the electrode into the sample solution taken in a beaker
and wait for a steady reading.

C. Temperature measurements (TC )


Measurement:
Calibrate an immersion thermometer or thermocouple by
comparing its readings with those of the reference thermometer
at two different temperatures that bracket the temperature range
normally measured in the field.
Calibration must be done at least annually and whenever the
instrument is suspected of having been misused, damaged, or
producing erratic or erroneous readings.
The instrument should be within 1.0 C compared with a
thermometer calibrated to the National Institute of Standards and
Technology standards. Obtain a representative wastewater
sample.
Place the temperature probe into the wastewater sample, read the
temperature upon stabilization, and record the value in the field
notebook.
Some pH and electrical conductivity meters are equipped with a
temperature probe, which can be used to simultaneously measure
sample temperature.

D. Total dissolved solids measurements (TDS)


Is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic
substances contained in a liquid in molecular, ionized or microgranular (colloidal solution) suspended form. Generally the
operational definition is that the solids must be small enough to
survive filtration through a filter with two-micrometer (nominal
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Environmental measurements Lab.

Prepared By Al Jubb et. al., 2015.

Size or smaller) pores. Total dissolved solids are normally


discussed only for freshwater systems, as salinity includes some of
the ions constituting the definition of TDS. The principal
application of TDS is in the study of water quality for streams,
rivers and lakes, although TDS is not generally considered a
primary pollutant (e.g. it is not deemed to be associated with
health effects) it is used as an indication of aesthetic
characteristics of drinking water and as an aggregate indicator of
the presence of a broad array of chemical contaminants.

Procedure:
1. Rinse the electrode thoroughly with deionized water and carefully
wipe with a tissue paper
2. Measure 200 ml of water sample and transfer it to a beaker
3. Dip the electrode into the sample solution taken in a beaker and
wait for a steady reading.

E. Dissolved Oxygen measurements (DO)


SIGNIFICANCE: Dissolved oxygen is essential for fish to breathe.
Many microbial forms require it, as well.
The oxygen bound in the water molecule (H2O) is not available for
this purpose, and is in the wrong "oxidation state", anyway.
The low solubility of oxygen in water means that it does not take
much oxygen-consuming material to deplete the D.O.
As mentioned before, the biodegradation products of bacteria which
do not require oxygen are foul-smelling, toxic, and/or flammable.
Sufficient D.O. is essential for the proper operation of many
wastewater treatment processes.
Activated sludge tanks often have their D.O. monitored continuously.
Low D.O.'s may be set to trigger an alarm or activate a control loop
which will increase the supply of air to the tank.

MEASUREMENT:
D.O. can be measured by a fairly tricky wet chemical procedure
known as the Winkler titration. The D.O. is first trapped, or "fixed",
as an orange-colored oxide of manganese. This is then dissolved with
sulfuric acid in the presence of iodide ion, which is converted to
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Environmental measurements Lab.

Prepared By Al Jubb et. al., 2015.

iodine by the oxidized manganese. The iodine is titrated using


standard sodium thiosulfate. The original dissolved oxygen
Concentration is calculated from the volume of thiosulfate solution
needed.
Measurements of D.O. can be made more conveniently with
electrochemical instrumentation. "D.O. meters" are subject to less
interference than the Winkler titration. Most dissolved-oxygen
meters may be auto calibrated on site by simply exposing the probe
to saturated air and pressing the calibration button.
To obtain a representative water sample. Place the dissolved-oxygen
probe into the water sample and record the final value of dissolvedoxygen concentration to mg/l.

F. Turbidity Measurement:
Turbidity in water is a measure of water clarity (or murkiness).The
lack of clarity resulting from suspended materials such as clay, sand,
silt, plankton, and other inorganic and organic matter; as such, it is
related to both run-off and phytoplankton productivity. This
suspended material causes light to be scattered instead of being
transmitted directly. Attempts to correlate turbidity with the weight
concentration of suspended solids are not practical because it is the
materials optical properties (particle size and shape) that prove to be
more important than the concentration. Increases in turbidity have the
effect of decreasing the percentage of light transmitted, which results
in a decrease in photosynthesis. The EPA recommends that the depth
of light penetration in a water body not be reduced by more than 10%
as a result of turbidity and suspended solids.
High turbidity levels in marine coasts refer to; in coastal waterways
can result from the input/influence of fine sediments caused by gully
and stream bank erosion and sheet wash, and algal blooms are often
indicative of excessive nutrient loads. Other causes of turbidity in
coastal waters include: dissolved organic matter from sewage
treatment plants and wash from construction sites, shoreline erosion;
dredging; and humus substances.

MEASUREMENT:
Portable Turbidity meter are used to measure the turbidity of water
samples.
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Environmental measurements Lab.

Prepared By Al Jubb et. al., 2015.

1. Before the measuring process, the turbidity meter was calibrated


using 0 and 100 NTU standards.
2. The sample was gently shaken and
3. The cuvette was filled and recapped.
4. The cuvette is then placed in its position and the led was closed.
5. Reading key was pressed on, waiting few second till the
appearance of turbidity value.

G. Free Chlorine (Residual) Measurement:


The chlorination of water supplies and polluted waters serves
primarily to destroy or deactivate disease-producing microorganisms. A secondary benefit, particularly in treating drinking
water, is the overall improvement in water quality resulting from the
reaction of chlorine with ammonia, iron, manganese, Sulphide and
some organic substances. Chlorination may produce adverse effects.
Taste and odour characteristics of phenols and other organic
compounds present in a water supply may be intensified. Potentially
carcinogenic chloro organic compounds such as chloroform may be
formed. Combined chlorine formed on chlorination of ammonia-or
amine-bearing waters adversely affects some aquatic life. To fulfil
the primary purpose of chlorination and to minimise any adverse
effects, it is essential that proper testing procedures be used with a
foreknowledge of the limitations of the analytical determination.

Measurement:
Portable Free chlorine meter are used to measure the residual
chlorine in water samples.
1. Before the measuring process, the free chlorine meter was
calibrated using zero samples (distilled water + DPD reagent).
2. The sample was gently shaken and
3. The cuvette was filled of sample add the DPD reagent and
recapped.
4. The cuvette and sample was gently shaken and
5. The cuvette is then placed in its position and the led was closed.
6. Reading key was pressed on, waiting few second till the
appearance of turbidity value.
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Environmental measurements Lab.

Prepared By Al Jubb et. al., 2015.

DETERMINATION OF FIELD MEASUREMENTS


DATA SHEET
Date Tested
Tested By
Group
St. Name
Class No.
Sample Number
Sample Description
Tabulation:
PARAMETER
Sample
No.

pH

EC
S

TDS
mg/l

DO
mg/l

Turb.
FTU

TC

Free
chlorine
mg/l

RESULTS INTERPRETATION:

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