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A NOTE ON q -ANALOGUE OF S ANDOR’S FUNCTIONS

by

Taekyun Kim 1 , C. Adiga 2 and Jung Hun Han 2

1 Department of Mathematics Education Kongju National University, Kongju 314-701 South Korea e-mail:tkim@kongju.ac.kr / tkim64@hanmail.net

2 Department of Studies in Mathematics University of Mysore, Manasagangotri Mysore 570006, India e-mail:c-adiga@hotmail.com

Dedicated to Sun-Yi Park on 90th birthday

ABSTRACT

The additive analogues of Pseudo-Smarandache, Smarandache-simple func-

tions and their duals have been recently studied by J. S´andor. In this note,

we obtain q -analogues of S´andor’s theorems [6].

Keywords and Phrases: q -gamma function, Pseudo-Smarandache function,

Smarandache-simple function, Asymtotic formula.

2000 AMS Subject Classiﬁcation: 33D05,40A05.

1 Introduction

The additive analogues of Smarandache functions S and S have been

introduced by S´andor [5] as follows:

S ( x) = min { m N : x m!} ,

x (1 , ) ,

2

and

S ( x) = max { m N : m! x} ,

x [1 , ) .

He has studied many important properties of S relating to continuity, diﬀer-

entiability and Riemann integrability and also proved the following theorems:

Theorem 1.1

S ( x)

logx

loglog x

Theorem 1.2 The series

( x ) .

n =1

1

n( S ( n)) α

is convergent for α > 1 and divergent for α 1.

In [1], Adiga and Kim have obtained generalizations of Theorems 1.1 and

1.2 by the use of Euler’s gamma function. Recently Adiga-Kim-Somashekara-

Fathima [2] have established a q -analogues of these results on employing the

q -analogue of Stirling’s formula. In [6], S´andor deﬁned the additive analogues

of Pseudo-Smarandache, Smarandache-simple functions and their duals as fol-

lows:

and

Z ( x) = min m N : x m( m + 1) ,

2

Z ( x) = max m N : m( m + 1) x ,

2

x (0 , ) ,

x [1 , ) ,

P ( x)

= min{ m N : p x m!} ,

p > 1 , x (0 , ) ,

P ( x) = max { m N : m! p x } ,

p > 1 , x [1 , ) .

He has also proved the following theorems:

3

Theorem 1.3

Z ( x) 1 2 8 x + 1 (x → ∞ ) .

Theorem 1.4 The series

n =1

1

( Z ( n)) α

is convergent for α > 2 and divergent for α 2. The series

n =1

1

n( Z ( n)) α

is convergent for all α > 0.

Theorem 1.5

log P ( x) logx ( x → ∞ ) .

Theorem 1.6 The series

n

=1

1

loglog n logP ( n) α

n

is convergent for α > 1 and divergent for α 1.

The main purpose of this note is to obtain q -analogues of S´andor’s Theo-

rems 1.3 and 1.5. In what follows, we make use of the following notations and

deﬁnitions. F. H. Jackson deﬁned a q -analogue of the gamma function which

extends the q -factorial

( n!) q = 1(1 + q )(1 + q + q 2 ) · · · (1 + q + q 2 + · · · + q n 1 ) ,

cf [3],

which becomes the ordinary factorial as q 1. He deﬁned the q -analogue of

4

the gamma function as

and

Γ q ( x) = ( ( q q x ; ; q q ) ) (1 q ) 1 x ,

0 < q < 1 ,

where

Γ q ( x) = ( ( q q x 1 ; ; q q 1 1 ) ) ( q 1) 1 x q ( x ) ,

2

( a; q ) =

n =0

(1 aq n ) .

q > 1 ,

It is well known that Γ q ( x) Γ( x) as q 1, where Γ( x) is the ordinary

gamma function.

2 Main Theorems

We now deﬁne the q -analogues of Z and Z as follows:

and

Z q ( x) = min 1 1 q q m

:

x Γ q ( m + 2) 2Γ q ( m)

,

m N, x (0 , ) ,

Z ( x) = max 1 1 q q m

q

:

Γ q ( m + 2) 2Γ q ( m)

x ,

m N, x

Γ q (3) 2Γ q (1) , ,

where 0 < q < 1. Clearly, Z q ( x) Z ( x) and Z ( x) Z ( x) as q 1 . From

the deﬁnitions of Z q and Z , it is clear that

q

q

Z q ( x) =

1 ,

1q

m

1

q

if

,

x 0 ,

Γ q (3) 2Γ q (1)

if x

Γ q (m+1) 1) , Γ q (m+2)

q (m

q (m)

, m 2 ,

(2.1)

5

and

Since

q

Z

( x) = 1 1 q q m

if x Γ q ( m + 2) Γ q ( m + 3)

q ( m) , q ( m +

1) .

1 q m 1 1 q m = 1 q m 1

1 q

1 q

1 q

m1

+ q m 1 1 1 q q

(2.1) and (2.2) imply that for x

Γ q (3) 2Γ q (1) ,

+ 1 ,

Z ( x)

q

Z q ( x) Z ( x) + 1 .

q

(2.2)

Hence it suﬃces to study the function Z . We now prove our main theorems.

q

Theorem 2.1 If 0 < q < 1, then

1 + 8 xq (1 + 2 q )

2

q 2

q

< Z

( x) 1 + 8 xq 1

2

q

Proof. If

then

and

Γ q ( k + 2) 2Γ q ( k )

q

Z

x <

Γ q ( k + 3)

q ( k +

1) ,

( x) = 1 1 q q k

,

x

Γ q (3) 2Γ q (1) .

(2.3)

(1 q k )(1 q k +1 ) 2 x(1 q ) 2 0 < (1 q k +1 )(1 q k +2 ) 2 x(1 q ) 2 . (2.4)

Consider the functions f and g deﬁned by

f ( y ) = (1 y )(1 yq ) 2 x(1 q ) 2

6

and

g ( y ) = (1 yq )(1 yq 2 ) 2 x(1 q ) 2 .

Note that f is monotonically decreasing for y 1+ q and g is strictly decreasing

for y < 1+ q . Also f ( y 1 ) = 0 = g ( y 2 ) where

2q

2q 2

Since y 1 < 1+ q

2q

y 1 =

(1 + q ) (1 q ) 1 + 8 xq 2 q

,

y 2 = ( q + q 2 ) q (1 q ) 1 + 8 xq 2 q 3

.

, y 2 < 1+ 2q 2 q

and q k < 1+ q

2q

< 1+ q 2q 2

, from (2.4), it follows that

f ( q k ) f ( y 1 ) = 0 = g ( y 2 ) < g ( q k ) .

Thus y 1 q k < y 2 and hence

1 y 2 < 1 q k 1 y 1

1 q

1 q

1 q .

i.e.

1 + 8 xq (1 + 2 q )

2

q 2

This completes the proof.

q

< Z

( x) 1 + 8 xq 1

2 q

.

Remark. Letting q 1 in the above theorem, we obtain S´andor’s

Theorem 1.3.

We deﬁne the q -analogues of P and P as follows:

and

P q ( x) = min { m N : p x Γ q ( m + 1)} ,

p > 1 , x (0 , ) ,

7

P ( x) = max{ m N : Γ q ( m + 1) p x } ,

q

p > 1 , x [1 , ) ,

where 0 < q < 1. Clearly, P q ( x) P ( x) and P ( x) P ( x) as q 1 . From

the deﬁnitions of

q

P q and P , we have

q

P ( x) P q ( x) P ( x) + 1 .

q

q

Hence it is enough to study the function P q .

Theorem 2.2 If 0 < q < 1, then

P ( x)

xlog p

log

1q

1

Proof. If Γ q ( n + 1) p x < Γ q ( n + 2),

( x → ∞ ) .

then

and

P ( x) = n

q

logΓ q ( n + 1) logp x < logΓ q ( n + 2).

(2.5)

But by the q -analogue of Stirling’s formula established by Moak [4], we

have

logΓ q ( n + 1) n +

1

2 log q n q +1 1 1 nlog 1 q .

1

1

Dividing (2.5) throughout by nlog( 1 q ), we obtain

logΓ q ( n + 1)

nlog(

1

1q )

xlog p 1q ) < logΓ q ( n + 2)

1

nlog(

1

1q )

P q ( x)log(

.

(2.6)

(2.7)

8

Using (2.6) in (2.7), we deduce

This completes the proof.

References

lim

x

→∞

xlog p

P ( x)log(

q

1q ) = 1 .

1

[1] C. Adiga and T. Kim, On a generalization of S´andor’s function, Proc.

Jangjeon Math. Soc., 5, (2002), 121–124.

[2] C. Adiga, T. Kim, D. D. Somashekara and N. Fathima, On a q -analogue

of S´andor’s function, J. Inequal. Pure and Appl. Math., 4,No.4 Art.84

(2003), 1–5.

[3] T. Kim, Non-archimedean q -integrals associated with multiple Changhee

q -Bernoulli polynomials, Russian J. Math. Phys., 10 (2003), 91–98.

[4] D. S. Moak, The q -analogue of Stirling’s formula, Rocky Mountain J.

Math., 14 (1984), 403–413.

[5] J. S´andor, On an additive analogue of the function S , Notes Numb. Th.

Discr. Math., 7(2001), 91–95.

[6] J. S´andor, On additive analogues of certain arithmetic functions, Smaran-

dache Notions J.,14(2004),128-133.