WA
PURDUE UNIVERSITY
LAFAYETTE INDIANA
fi
'//7777/^^S^K/l
Research Report
STRESS BISTRIBUTKM
WITHXH AND UHDBB
LCK3 ELASTIC BffiABKMEKES
So:
From:
666
Project:
CE3S5?
Respectfully submitted.,
Harold L. Michael
Associate Director
HLM:i
Attachment
Copy:
F. L. Ashbauehez
W. L. Dolch
W. H. Goetz
W. L. Greece
G. K. Hallock
R. H Harrell
V.
J.
F.
R.
J.
C.
E.
F.
E.
D.
C.
F.
Harvey
McLaughlin
Mendenhall
Miles
Oppenlander
Scholer
M. B. Scott
W. T. Spencer
F. W. Stubbs
E. R. J. Walsh
K. Woods
E. J. Yoder
Research Report
STRESS DISTRIBUTION
WITHIN AND UNDER
LONG ELASTIC EMBANKMENTS
by
W. H. Perloff ,
G. Y. Baladi,
M. E. Karr,
File :
CE365F
666
and the
U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
Bureau of Public Roads
Subject to Change
Purdue University
Lafayette, Indiana
June 20, 1967
Not Reviewed By
Indiana State Highway Commission
gr the
Bureau of Public Roads
ABSTRACT
Influence
http://www.archive.org/details/stressdistributiOOperl
BERODUCTIGN
variety of applications,,
Consequently, various
approximations of the real problem have been made, with the objective
It was assumed that the load was applied normal to the boundary
These
OSTERBERG
L
^WAVV/WAWXVAVVI
WV^WV^ASX^
(a)
.V
Long
Symmetric
Continuous
With
Elastic
Fig.
Foundation
Problem
Considered
'
'>.
Embankment
^X/AVV/VWAVVAVV/av^AvV^^
(b)
v "v
(1936).
failure and thus the shearing resistance of the embankment was fully
suggested that the magnitude of the computed shear stress at the base was
likely to be lower than the actual insitu stresses,
TROLLOPE (1957), and DAVIS and TAYLOR (I962) considered the state of
stress within a granular embankment resting on a foundation which yielded
an arbitrary amount .
FUSS (i960) suggested the use of the SchwarzChristoffel transformation to map the embankment surface into a straight line, thereby utilizing
the distribution of stresses within a semiinfinite elastic medium.
ever, he did not carry out the suggested procedure
How
<>
ZIENKDMCZ
and GERSTNER (1961) to the case in which the foundation modulus differed
CARLTON (1962) used a similar method to study an elastic embankment continuous with an elastic foundation.
The finite element method of numerical analysis has been applied by
ZISNKIEWICZ and CHBUBG (1964, 1965) in the study of stresses within buttress dams resting on elastic foundations .
FIHN (1966), respectively, have also applied the finite element method to
the study of a triangular dam on a rigid foundation and a rock slope continuous with its elastic foundation.
BROHN (1962) and GOODMAU and BROWN (1963} investigated the case of a
long elastic slope constructed incrementally; it is not clear to what de
gree their results are influenced by the fact that compatibility is not
satisfied by their solution method
ergblem CONSIDERED
The problem considered herein is the determination of the distribution
of stresses within and under an embankment resulting from the selfweight
of the embankment.
It
is assumed that the embankment and the foundation material with which it is
found.
given in Appendix 1.
A typical result
is illustrated in Figure 2.
a * U5
The contour lines show only the effect of the embankment weight.
0.3.
Thus,
assumed weightless.
The two
dashed lines in Figure 2 show stress contours, in terms of Oy/VH, for the
These
indicate that the vertical normal stresses produced in the foundation material below the elastic embankment are generally smaller than computed for
jx.
123456789
x/H
Fig.
Stress
10
1+5
and
u * 0.3.
The figure is a
Clearly,
Furthermore, a smaller
base of the embanloaent for u 0.3, four values of a, and several embankment shapes shown schematically in the figure.
represent the distribution of stress against the base; dashed lines show
the distribution of stress assumed in the usual normal loading approximation.
The stress distribution is much more uniform under the elastic embankment
tude of the stress under the central zone of the elastic embankment is less
a s 45 and L/H s
becomes less pronounced, at least near the central portion of the embankment,
1
1
L
_l1
my/iWA^A^AV/AN^Ay/AW
11
/ /
/ // /
q s
/ /
///
//
a= 45
^ = 0.3
mr
l'\
z'
/0.0/0.5/
>^w/sW//&y/s&>ti
\\\
\\\
2
"
/// 'V
/
/ /
y/H
/
/
III
III
j
1
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5 ill
6
'
7'
/'
1
III
0/
1
L/H * 5
/ /
3
4
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8
L/H = 5
9
1
'
io
10
1
'
'
II
\9
lz
II
liil
.2
1/
.4
.6
1?
l2
.8
1.
At Centerline
Fig.
(b)
 Distribution
Along
Varying
.4
.6
<r_/ y H
cr./yH
(a)
ill!
of
Vertical
L/H
At Toe of Slope
Vertical
Sections
Ratios
Stress
for
Fig.
Distribution
of
The
of
Vertical
Embankment
Normal
For
Varying
Stress, a, fyW
oc,
And L/H
On
The Base
Ratios
as L/H increases o
with moderate L/H ratios, the normal loading approximation leads to larger estimates of differential settlement, assuming onedimensional compression., than would be computed by the method presented herein.
Horizontal
Norma
l Stress
imia
osncw
jti
n an.
on
ijiii i ii
fi
irn ii
fin
^t
and
L/H 3
a U5
zontal stress occurs within the body of the embankment and decreases with
increasing depth.
<
a=
k$ and
i
**
0.3
it is more than five times as large under the center line and twice as large
12
x/H
Fig.
5 Contours
for
Horizontal
Stress
.2
(a)
Fig.
u 4
At Centerline
6Distnbution
Along
Varying
(b),
of
Vertical
L/H
At Toe of Slope
Horizontal
Sections
Ratios
Stress
for
The reason for this difference becomes apparent when the shear stresses
transmitted by the embankment to the foundation material are considered.
in Figure ?.
ss
0.5.
1*5
and
The dashed line shows the stress due to the normal loading approxi
Folsson s ratio from 0.3 to 0.5 changes the stress at shallow depths below
e
The
in Figure 8, for
ratio of 0.3*
a = h5 and L/H *
3.
T/7H,
are shown
aaad
short dashed
increasing to a value at the base near the toe of the slope, in excess of
0.2 yH.
depends upon the position of the point considered, relative to the base of
y/w/w//s>y/&/Ay//s///>y/A<y//t<y//c>yA
y/H
(q)
Fig.
(b)At Toe of
At Centerline
7 Distribution
of
Horizontal
Slope
Stress
y/H
to
^i =
0.5
13
10
Fig.
8 Contours
of
Shear
Stress, ~C
the embankment.
approximately two or three, the shear stresses in the incompressible material (n * 0.5) are less than for the case in which u 0.3.
depths, the reverse is true.
At greater
loading approximation is less than that for either u above a depth factor
The magnitude
zontal shear stress, TV7H, at the base of the embankment for u 0.3*
in the figure.
required by symmetry, and reaches a maximum near the toe of the slops.
The
magnitude of the maximum and its location depend upon a and the embankment
shape
a increases,
Bote that a maximum i~Ji& ia excess of Q.k implies that the horizontal
shear stress at the base of a forty foot high embankment may be greater
than one ton per square foot (unless the shear strength of the material is
such that failure is induced).
presented in Appendix 2.
Fig
9
Distribution
of
The
ot
Shear
Embankment
The
Base
On
Ratios
Varying a, And L/H
Stress,
For
T,,/jrH
shear stress, i^^/rH, at any depth beneath the embankment exceeds the a
of
"^jjQx/yH
5 and 80
Contours
max
to the foundation material is approximately 0,25 7H at the base of the embankment in the vicinity of the toe.
2=
1.8.
It is also interest
ing to observe that within the embankment, the maximum shear stresses are
larger near the top than in the middepth region, and that they increase
horizontal stresses which are induced by the deformation mode of the embankment (cfo Figure 5)0
Two contours of ^^v/yH for the normal loading approximation corresponding to the embankment considered are shown in Figure 10 as dashed
lines c
They indicate a shear stress less than that produced by the elas
tic embankment in a shallow zone below the embankment, but larger shear
stresses at depth
0.3 and
a 9 15,
t^
In
It can be
Fig.lOContours
4X/H5
for
67
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observed that in Figure 11, that as the L/H ratio increases for
peak
a
15,
the embankment.
a particular depth moves from a position near the toe of the slope im
),
However, in
Ik and 15 is 0.5, the development of large shear stress near the toe of
*>
1.
nitudes are nearly the same for the two cases, but it occurs at approxi
mately twice the depth in the case of the normal loading approximation.
For a cutdown slope, the assumption of homogeneity in the two zones may
earth embankment, the upper material does not undergo strain due to elastic
LAMBE (196U) has suggested that the "stress path" method for predic
This
2.
Performance of a laboratory compression test which duplicates, insofar as practicable, the field effective stress path.
3.
12
Because the strains ia the laboratory sample depend upon the applied
stresses, the method requires a means of correctly assessing the insitu
stresses
A comparison of the total stress paths for several points under the
center line of an elastic embankment {a 30
L/H
nft1
= Q5, u 0.3),
Figure 160
ji
embankment.
states depths of 0.5, 1*0 and 2.0 times the final height of the embankmeat, H.
The
solid points show the stresses for corresponding embankment heights 9 de
3.
o>
c
k.
3
<*
CM
Q
CD
<n
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c
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13
stress path method is not obvious, however this question would appear
Ik
CONCLUSIONS
within and tinder long elastic embankments which are continuous with the
underlying foundation material,.
approximation will be larger than those determined using the stress distributions presented herein
The horizontal vertical shear stresses created in the foundation material by the embankment, are found to be significantly higher at shallow depths
for the elastic embankment than for the normal loading approximation.
The influence diagrams presented, provide the designer with what is
ACHJCWIBDGMBHTB
The
15
REFERENCES CITED
GOODMAN, Lo E. and BROWN, C. 3., (1963) "Dead Load Stresses and Instability
of Slopes," Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division,
Proceedings ASCE, V. 89, n SM3, May 1963.
HENDERSON, F. Mo, (i960) Elliptic Functions w ith Complex Arguments,
University of Michigan Fires s , Ann Arbor
>
IS
OSTEBEERGj Jo 0,, (1957) "Influence Value for Vertical Stresses in a SemiInfinite Mass Due to an Embankment Loading, " Proceed ings of the Fourth
International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering,
Vol= I, p. 393*
RENDULIC<,
T3RZAGHE
K. s {I9U3)
^oretig al
p"W
::
17
APPENDIX 1
SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM
~~
x '
* 1 
2
dy
,
>
ja
7J
U(x,y)
f. %
Poissoa's ratio o
Vk
J3
where
V2
far) 
(2)
When the boundary conditions of the specific problem are also satisfied,
the unique solution has been obtained.
IB
form.
in Figure lb, as the zplane, a point within the medium can be represented by the complex number, z x * iy
function is analytic within the medium, the function can be written as;
U(x,y)  Re
where z a x
 iy,
<t>
z*(z)
%(z)]
tions that the normal and tangential stresses on the boundary are equal
to zero,
zV'(z)
(U)
x.(.) p
+
(&)]
? (A.]
<
?*
+ itrj,
(CHURCHITI.,
19^8):
t
z f(t)
f l^^^jt] a dX
>0
(5)
19
where
and n
P.
is a dummy variable
For those cases where n is larger than 2, the integral can be evaluated
numerically on the computer
for all values of n on the XEM 709U digital computer by a Simpson s rule
and
constant
t)
in Figure Ala.
{t)
and
3tff(t)J
7t(*)
* it =
o=$ct)
ytsr
g(i n )
** ff c*>]
>}
sfo)
and t
1+
X (*)
8
in
a^
(6)
Im
(l2u)
fTTT
Jf(f),
(7)
20
The
This is accomplished
g(C) along
g(t)
If the point
(8)
2ai
Knowing
ty(t) and
a
3v
 2 Re <JKt)
Re
 2 Re
v *
f (t)
Re
[fW f#
*#t)]
fW $$
<(t)
f^jrlm
7 Im [f(t)]
[f(t)
(9)
MM
(a)
Geometrical
Transformation
1
stffi
,,,,
U rrrrr>
e
(b)
Transformation
of "Fictitious
(c)
Transformation
Stresses
Fig.
A.I Graphical
on
of.
"Fictitious
Boundary
Imag. Part
Representation
Transformation
Part
of
Procedure
21
AEEESSD2X 2
60
\t.
e 0.3, a e 15
Influence diagrams
ne0,3
and various
The diagrams indicate the stress due to the embankment weight alone.
Stresses due to the weight of material underlying the embankment aaist be
disaensioslsss form as
ia dlmeaaionless form.
'
2ite
the depth is measured from the tog of ths embankment, and designated y/K.
This is ia contrast to the discussion ia the body of the paper where the
vertical distances are measured from the base of the embankment and designated y/H.
tot?
stresses aloisg a vertical section through the toe of the slope; the lower
tance from centerline equal to 1.5 times the distance from the centerline
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