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MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach, 4th Ed.

4-1a-1

PROBLEM 4-1a
Statement:

A differential stress element has a set of applied stresses on it as indicated in each row of Table
P4-1. For row a, draw the stress element showing the applied stresses, find the principal stresses
and maximum shear stress using Mohr's circle diagram, and draw the rotated stress element
showing the principal stresses.

Given:

x := 1000

y := 0

z := 0

xy := 500

yz := 0

zx := 0

Solution:

See Figure 4-1a and Mathcad file P0401a.

500
y

1. Draw the stress element, indicating the x and y axes.

1000

2. Draw the Mohr's circle axes, indicating the and


axes with CW up and CCW down.
3. Plot the positive x-face point, which is (+1000, -500),
and label it with an "x."

FIGURE 4-1aA

4. Plot the positive y-face point, which is (0, +500), and


label it with a "y."

Stress Element for Problem 4-1a

5. Draw a straight line from point x to point y. Using the point where this line intersects the -axis as the center of
the Mohr circle, draw a circle that goes through points x and y.
6. The center of the circle will be at

c :=

x + y

c = 500

7. The circle will intersect the -axis at two of the principal stresses. In this case, we see that one is positive and
the other is negative so they will be 1 and 3. The third principal stress is 2 = 0.
2

8. Calculate the radius of the circle

x y
2

+ xy
2

R :=

R = 707.1

CW

CW

1-3
1-2
500

500

-500

500
3

1000

1500
1

2-3

-500

500
2

1000

1500
1

500

CCW

500

CCW

FIGURE 4-1aB
2D and 3D Mohr's Circle Diagrams for Problem 4-1a
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P0401a.xmcd
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MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach, 4th Ed.


9. Calculate the principal stresses

4-1a-2

1 := c + R

1 = 1207

3 := c R

3 = 207

2 := 0

10. Draw the three Mohr's circles to represent the complete 3D stress state.
y

11. Calculate the principal shear stresses

12 := 0.5 ( 1 2)

12 = 603.6

23 := 0.5 ( 2 3)

23 = 103.6

13 := 0.5 ( 1 3)

13 = 707.1

207
1207
22.5
x

The maximum principal stress is always 13.


12. Determine the orientation of the principal normal
stress (1) with respect to the x-axis. From the 2D
Mohr's circle diagram, we see that the angle 2 from x
to 1 is CCW and is given by

x c
:= acos

2
R
1

= 22.5 deg

FIGURE 4-1aC
Rotated Stress Element for Problem 4-1a

13. Draw the rotated 2D stress element showing the two nonzero principal stresses.

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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
P0401a.xmcd
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
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MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach, 4th Ed.

4-3-1

PROBLEM 4-3
Statement:

For the bicycle pedal-arm assembly in Figure 4-1 with rider-applied force of 1500 N at the pedal,
determine the maximum principal stress in the pedal arm if its cross-section is 15 mm in dia. The
pedal attaches to the pedal arm with a 12-mm screw thread. What is the stress in the pedal screw?

Given:

Distances (see figure)


Rider-applied force

a 170 mm
Frider 1.5 kN

Pedal arm diameter

d pa 15 mm

Screw thread diameter

d sc 12 mm

b 60 mm

Solution:

See Figure 4-3 and Mathcad file P0403.


a

1. From the FBD in Figure 4-3A (and on


the solution for Problem 3-3), we see that
the force from the rider is reacted in the
pedal arm internally by a moment, a
torque, and a vertical shear force. There
are two points at section C (Figure 4-3B)
that we should investigate, one at z = 0.5
d pa (point A), and one at y = 0.5 d pa (point
B).

Frider a Mc = 0

M x:

Frider b Tc = 0

Mc

Arm
y

Fc
Pedal
x

2. Refering to the FBD resulting from


taking a section through the arm at C, the
maximum bending moment Mc is found by
summing moments about the y-axis, and
the maximum torque Tc is found by
summing moments about the x-axis.
M y:

Tc

Frider

FIGURE 4-3A
Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-3

Section C

A
Maximum bending moment:
Mc Frider a

Mc 255 N m

Maximum torque:
Tc Frider b

Fc Frider

3.

Tc 90 N m

Vertical shear:

Arm

y
FIGURE 4-3B

Fc 1.500 kN

Points A and B at Section C

Determine the stress components at point A where we have the effects of bending and torsion, but where the
transverse shear due to bending is zero because A is at the outer fiber. Looking down the z-axis at a stress
element on the surface at A,
Distance to neutral axis

cpa 0.5 d pa

cpa 7.5 mm

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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach, 4th Ed.


4

d pa

Moment of inertia of
pedal-arm

Ipa

Bending stress
(x-direction)

Stress in y-direction

y 0 MPa

Torsional stress
due to Tc

xy

Principal stresses at A,
equation (4.6a)

Mc cpa

Tc cpa

xy 135.8 MPa

2 Ipa

x y
2

x y
2

CW

2
x y
2

xy
2

2
x y
2

xy
2

2A 0 MPa

3A 23 MPa

Determine the stress components at point B where we have the effects of transverse shear and torsion, but
where the bending stress is zero because B is on the neutral plane. Looking down the y-axis at a stress
element at B,
2

d pa

Cross-section area
of pedal-arm

Apa

Torsional stress
due to Tc and shear
stress due to Fc

zx

Normal stresses

x 0 MPa

Principal stresses at B

1B 124 MPa

Apa 176.7 mm

4
4 Fc

xy
3 Apa

1B

3B

5.

x 769.6 MPa

Ipa

1A

1A 793 MPa

Ipa 2.485 10 mm

64

3A

4.

4-3-2

zx 124.5 MPa

CW

z 0 MPa
x z
2

x z
2

2
x z
2

zx
2

2
x z
2

zx
2

2B 0 MPa

The maximum principal stress is at point A and is

3B 124 MPa

1A 793 MPa

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obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
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MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach, 4th Ed.


6.

4-3-3

Determine the stress in the pedal screw.


Bending moment

Msc Frider b

Msc 90 N m

Distance to neutral axis

csc 0.5 d sc

csc 6 mm

Moment of inertia of
pedal screw

Isc

Bending stress
(y-direction)

Stress in z-direction

z 0 MPa

Torsional stress

xy 0 MPa

d sc

Isc 1.018 10 mm

64
Msc csc
Isc

y 530.5 MPa

Since there is no shear stress present at the top of the screw where the bending stress is a maximum, the
maximum principal stress in the pedal screw is

1 y

1 530.5 MPa

2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach, 4th Ed.

4-15-1

PROBLEM 4-15
Statement:

Design a shear pin for the propeller shaft of an outboard motor if the shaft through which the
pin is placed is 25-mm diameter, the propeller is 20-cm diameter, and the pin must fail when a
force > 400 N is applied to the propeller tip. Assume an ultimate shear strength for the pin
material of 100 MPa.

Given:

Propeller shaft dia


Propeller dia
Max propeller tip force

d 25 mm
D 200 mm
Fmax 400 N

Ultimate shear strength

S us 100 MPa

Fpin

Propeller Hub

Shear Pin

Assumptions: A shear pin is in direct, double shear.


Solution:

Fpin

See Figure 4-15 and Mathcad file P0415.

FIGURE 4-15

1. Calculate the torque on the propeller shaft that will


result from a tip force on the propeller of Fmax.
T Fmax
2.

Free Body Diagram for Problem 4-15

T 40000 N mm

This will be reacted by the shear pin's couple on the shaft. Determine the magnitude of the direct shear force.
Fpin

3.

Propeller Shaft

T
d

Fpin 1600 N

Determine the maximum pin diameter that will shear at this force.

Direct shear stress

Fpin
A

4 Fpin

d pin
4 Fpin

Solving for the pin diameter

d pin

Round this to

d pin 4.5 mm

S us

= S us

d pin 4.514 mm

2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach, 4th Ed.

4-18-1

PROBLEM 4-18
Statement:

A set of steel reinforcing rods is to be stretched axially in tension to create a tensile stress of 30
ksi prior to being cast in concrete to form a beam. Determine how much force will be required to
stretch them the required amount and how much deflection is required. There are 10 rods; each
is 0.75-in diameter and 30 ft long.

Given:

Desired stress

30 ksi

Rod diameter

d 0.75 in

Number of rods
Rod length

Nrods 10
L 30 ft

Young's modulus

E 30 10 psi

Assumptions: The rods share the load equally.


Solution:

See Mathcad file P0418.

1.

Calculate the cross-sectional area of one rod. A

2.

Determine the force required to achieve the desired stress level in one rod.

=
3.

F
A

F 13.254 kip

Determine the total force required to achieve the desired stress level in all rods.
Ftotal Nrods F

4.

F A

A 0.442 in

Ftotal 132.5 kip

Determine the amount the rods will deflect under the applied load.

F L
A E

0.360 in

2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be
obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department,
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.