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# Mathematics for Engineering Technicians

30 cm

299

3 cm

60 cm

TYK 4.10
1. A parallelogram has an area of 60 cm2, if its perpendicular height is 10 cm,
what is the length of one of the parallel sides?
2. Figure 4.43 shows the cross-section of a template, what is its area?
3. An annulus has an inside diameter of 0.75 m and an external diameter of
0.9 m, determine its area.
4. Find the volume of a circular cone of height 6 cm and base radius 5 cm.

4 cm

5. Find the area of the curved surface of a cone (not including base) whose
base radius is 3 cm and whose vertical height is 4 cm. Hint: you need rst
to nd the slant height.
6. If the area of a circle is 78.54 mm2, nd its diameter to 2 signicant gures.

t your
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## 7. A cylinder of base radius 5 cm has a volume of 1 L (1000 cm3), nd its

height.
8. A pipe of thickness 5 mm has an external diameter of 120 mm, nd the
volume of 2.4 m of pipe material.
9. A batch of 2000 ball bearings are each to have a diameter of 5 mm.
Determine the volume of metal needed for the manufacture of the whole
batch.
10. Determine the volume and total surface area of a spherical shell having an
internal diameter of 6 cm and external diameter of 8 cm.

Statistical Methods
Your view of statistics has probably been formed from what you read in
the papers, or what you see on the television. Survey use to show which
political party is going to win the election, why men grow moustaches, if
smoking damages your health, the average cost of housing by area, and all
sorts of other interesting data! So statistics is used to analyse the results of
such surveys and when used correctly, it attempts to eliminate the bias that
often appears when collecting data on controversial issues.
Statistics is concerned with collecting, sorting and analysing numerical
facts, which originate from several observations. These facts are collated
and summarized, then presented as tables, charts or diagrams, etc.
In this brief introduction to statistics, we look at two specic areas. First, we
consider the collection and presentation of data in its various forms. Then
we look at how we measure such data, concentrating on nding average
values.
If you study statistics beyond this course, you will be introduced to
the methods used to make predictions based on numerical data and the
probability that your predictions are correct. At this stage in your learning,
however, we will only be considering the areas of data handling and
measurement of central tendency (averages), mentioned above.

UNIT 4

50 cm

300

## Mathematics for Engineering Technicians

Data manipulation
KEY POINT
Statistics is concerned with collecting,
sorting and analysing numerical facts

## In almost all scientic, engineering and business journals, newspapers

and Government reports, statistical information is presented in the form
of charts, tables and diagrams, as mentioned above. We now look at a
small selection of these presentation methods, including the necessary
manipulation of the data to produce them.

Charts
Suppose, as the result of a survey, we are presented with the following
statistical data (Table 4.4).

UNIT 4

## Table 4.4 Results of a survey

Major category of employment

Number employed

750

900

Agriculture

200

Engineering

300

Transport

425

Manufacture

325

Leisure Industry

700

Education

775

Health

500

Other

125

Now, ignoring for the moment the accuracy of this data, let us look at
typical ways of presenting this information in the form of charts, in
particular the bar chart and the pie chart.

Bar chart
In its simplest form, the bar chart may be used to represent data by drawing
individual bars (Figure 4.44) using the gures from the raw data (the data in
the table).
1000

0
Category of employment

Others

Health

Education

Leisure industry

Manufacture

Engineering

Transport

200

Agriculture

400

600

Number employed

800

## Mathematics for Engineering Technicians

301

Now, the scale for the vertical axis, the number employed, is easily decided
by considering the highest and lowest values in the table, 900 and 125,
respectively. Therefore, we use a scale from 0 to 1000 employees. Along
the horizontal axis, we represent each category by a bar of even width. We
could just as easily have chosen to represent the data using column widths
instead of column heights.
Now the simple bar chart above tells us very little that we could not have
determined from the table. So, another type of bar chart that enables us to
make comparisons, the proportionate bar chart, may be used.
In this type of chart, we use one bar, with the same width throughout its
height, with horizontal sections marked-off in proportion to the whole. In
our example, each section would represent the number of people employed
in each category compared with the total number of people surveyed.

For example, given that the height of the total 10 cm represents 5000
people, then the height of the column for those employed in private
750
10  1.5 cm. This type of calculation is then repeated
5000
for each category of employment. The resulting bar chart is shown in
Figure 4.45.

10 cm

Others
Health

Education

Leisure industry
Manufacture
Transport
Engineering
Agriculture

UNIT 4

## In order to draw a proportionate bar chart for our employment survey, we

rst need to total the number of people who took part in the survey. This
total comes to 5000. Now, even with this type of chart we may represent
the data either in proportion by height or in proportion by percentage. If
we were to choose height, then we need to set our vertical scale at some
convenient height, say, 10 cm. Then we would need to carry out 10 simple
calculations to determine the height of each individual column.

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## Mathematics for Engineering Technicians

Example 4.49
Draw a proportionate bar chart for the employment survey shown in Table 4.4
using the percentage method.
For this method all that is required is to find the appropriate percentage of the total
(5000) for each category of employment. Then, choosing a suitable height of column to
represent 100%, mark on the appropriate percentage for each of the 10 employment
categories. To save space, only the first five categories of employment have been
calculated.
750
 100  15%
1. private business 
5000
900
2. public business 
 100  18%
5000
200
3. agriculture 
 100  4%
5000
300
4. engineering 
 100  6%
5000

UNIT 4

425
 100  8.5%
5. transport 
5000
Similarly, manufacture  6.5%, leisure industry  14%, education  15.5%, health  10%
and other categories  2.5%.

## Figure 4.46 shows the completed bar chart.

Other categories of bar chart include horizontal bar charts, where for
instance Figure 4.44 is turned through 90 in a clockwise direction. One
last type may be used to depict data given in chronological (time) order.
Thus, for example, the horizontal x-axis is used to represent, hours, days,
years, etc., while the vertical axis shows the variation of the data with time.

Example 4.50
Represent the following data on a chronological bar chart.
Year

## Number employed in general

engineering (thousands)

2003

800

2004

785

2005

690

2006

670

2007

590

Since we have not been asked to represent the data on any specific bar chart we will use
the simplest, involving only the raw data. Then, the only concern is the scale we should
use for the vertical axis.

## Mathematics for Engineering Technicians

303

Others (2.5%)

Health (10%)

Education (15.5%)

## Leisure industry (14%)

Manufacture (6.5%)

Transport (8.5%)

Agriculture (4%)

1000

Number employed in
engineering (thousands)

900

800
700
600
500
400
300
200

100
0

Time (years)

(a)

## Figure 4.46 Proportionate percentage bar chart

850
Number employed in
engineering (thousands)

800
750

To present a true representation, the scale should start from zero and extend to, say,
800 (Figure 4.47a). If we wish to emphasize a trend, that is, the way the variable is
rising or falling with time, we could use a very much exaggerated scale (Figure 4.47b).
This immediately emphasizes the downward trend since 1995. Note that this data is
fictitious (made-up) and used here merely for emphasis!

700
650
600
550
500

Time (years)

(b)

## Figure 4.47 Chronological bar chart: (a) in

correct proportion, and (b) with graduated
scale

Pie chart
In this type of chart the data is presented as a proportion of the total using
the angle or area of sectors. The method used to draw a pie chart is best
illustrated by example.

UNIT 4

Engineering (6%)

304

## Mathematics for Engineering Technicians

Example 4.51
Represent the data given in Example 4.50 on a pie chart.
Remembering that there are 360 in a circle and that the total number employed in
general engineering (according to our figures) was 800  785  690  670  590  3535
(thousands), then we manipulate the data as follows:
Year

## Number employed in general

engineering (thousands)

degree)

2003

800

800

 360  81.5
3535

2004

785

785

 360  80
3535

2005

690

690

 360  70.5
3535

2006

670

670

 360  68
3535

2007

590

590

 360  60
3535

Total

3535

2005
2004
2006

2003

2007

UNIT 4

## Figure 4.48 Resulting pie chart for

Example 4.51: employment in engineering
by year

360

## Other methods of visual presentation include pictograms and ideographs.

These are diagrams in pictorial form used to present information to those
who have a limited interest in the subject matter or who do not wish
to deal with data presented in numerical form. They have little or no
practical use when interpreting engineering or other scientic data and
apart from acknowledging their existence we will not be pursuing them
further.

Frequency distributions
One of the most common and most important ways of organizing and
presenting raw data is through use of frequency distributions.
Consider the data given in Table 4.5, which shows the time in hours that it
took 50 individual workers to complete a specic assembly line task.

1.1

1.0

0.6

1.1

0.9

1.1

0.8

0.9

1.2

0.7

1.0

1.5

0.9

1.4

1.0

0.9

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.1

0.8

0.9

1.2

0.7

0.6

1.2

0.9

0.8

0.7

1.0

1.0

1.2

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.4

0.7

1.1

0.9

0.9

0.8

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.3

0.5

0.8

1.3

1.3

0.8

## Mathematics for Engineering Technicians

305

From the data you should be able to see that the shortest time for completion
of the task was 0.5 hour, the longest time was 1.5 hours. The frequency of
appearance of these values is once. On the other hand the number of times
the job took 1 hour appears 11 times, or it has a frequency of 11. Trying
to sort out the data in this ad hoc manner is time consuming and may lead
to mistakes. To assist with the task we use a tally chart. This chart simply
shows how many times the event of completing the task in a specic time
takes place. To record the frequency of events we use the number 1 in a
tally chart and when the frequency of the event reaches 5, we score through
the existing four 1s to show a frequency of 5. The following example
illustrates the procedure.

Example 4.52

Time (hours)

Tally

Frequency

0.5

0.6

11

0.7

1111

0.8

1111 1

0.9

1111 111

1.0

1111 1111 1

11

1.1

1111 111

1.2

1111

1.3

111

1.4

11

1.5

Total

50

We now have a full numerical representation of the frequency of events. So, for example,
8 people completed the assembly task in 1.1 hours or the time 1.1 hours has a frequency
of 8. We will be using the above information later on when we consider measures of
central tendency.

The times in hours given in the above data are simply numbers. When data
appears in a form where it can be individually counted we say that it is
discrete data. It goes up or down in countable steps. Thus the numbers
1.2, 3.4, 8.6, 9, 11.1, 13.0 are said to be discrete. If, however, data is
obtained by measurement, for example, the heights of a group of people,
then we say that this data is continuous. When dealing with continuous
data we tend to quote its limits, that is the limit of accuracy with which we
take the measurements. So, for example, a person may be 174 0.5 cm
in height. When dealing numerically with continuous data or a large

UNIT 4

Use a tally chart to determine the frequency of events, for the data given on the
assembly line task in Table 4.5.

306

## Mathematics for Engineering Technicians

KEY POINT
The grouping of frequency distributions
is a means for clearer presentation of
the facts

amount of discrete data, it is often useful to group this data into classes or
categories. We can then nd out the numbers (frequency) of items within
each group.
Table 4.6 shows the height of 200 adults, grouped into 10 classes.
Table 4.6 Height of adults
Height (cm)
150154

155159

160164

15

165169

21

170174

32

175179

45

180184

41

185189

22

190194

195199

Total

UNIT 4

Frequency

200

## The main advantage of grouping is that it produces a clear overall picture of

the frequency distribution. In Table 4.6, the rst class interval is 150154.
The end number 150 is known as the lower limit of the class interval and
the number 154 is the upper limit. The heights have been measured to the
nearest centimetre. That means within 0.5 cm. Therefore, in effect, the
rst class interval includes all heights in the range 149.5154.5 cm; these
numbers are known as the lower and upper class boundaries, respectively.
The class width is always taken as the difference between the lower and
upper class boundaries, not the upper and lower limits of the class interval.

## The histogram and frequency graph

The histogram is a special diagram that is used to represent a frequency
distribution, such as that for grouped heights shown above. It consists of
a set of rectangles, whose areas represent the frequencies of the various
classes. Often when producing these diagrams, the class width is kept the
same, so that the varying frequencies are represented by the height of each
rectangle. When drawing histograms for grouped data, the midpoints of the
rectangles represent the midpoints of the class intervals. So, for our data,
they will be 152, 157, 162, 167, etc.
An adaptation of the histogram, known as the frequency polygon, may also
be used to represent a frequency distribution.

Example 4.53
Represent the data shown in Table 4.6 on a histogram and draw in the frequency
polygon for this distribution.

## Mathematics for Engineering Technicians

307

50
45
40

Frequency

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

152 157 162 167 172 177 182 187 192 197
Height of adults in cm

Class width  5 cm

All that is required to produce the histogram is to plot frequency against the height
intervals, where the intervals are drawn as class widths.

KEY POINT
The frequencies of a distribution may
be added consecutively to produce a
graph known as a cumulative frequency
distribution

Then, as can been seen from Figure 4.49, the area of each part of the histogram is the
product of frequency class width. The frequency polygon is drawn so that it connects
the midpoint of the class widths.

## Another important method of representation is adding all the frequencies

of a distribution consecutively, to produce a graph known as a cumulative
frequency distribution or Ogive.
Figure 4.50 shows the cumulative frequency distribution graph for our data
given in Table 4.6, while Table 4.7 shows the consecutive addition of the
frequencies needed to produce the graph in Figure 4.50.
From Figure 4.50 it is now a simple matter to nd, for example, the median
grouped height or as it is more commonly known the 50th-percentile. This
occurs at 50% of the cumulative frequency (as shown in Figure 4.50), this
being, in our case 100 giving an equivalent height of approximately 175 cm.
Any percentile can be found: for example, the 75th-percentile, where in
our case at a frequency of 150, the height can be seen to be approximately
180 cm.

UNIT 4

Figure 4.49 Figure for Example 4.53, histogram showing frequency distribution

308

## Mathematics for Engineering Technicians

200
190
180
170
160

75th percentile

150

Cumulative Frequency

140
130
120
110

50th percentile

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
152

157

162

167

172

177

187

182

192

197

180 cm

Figure 4.50 Cumulative frequency distribution graph for data given in Table 4.6

UNIT 4

## Table 4.7 Cumulative frequency data

Height (cm)

155159

13

160164

15

28

165169

21

49

170174

32

81

175179

45

126

180184

41

167

185189

22

189

190194

198

195199

200

200

200

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Cumulative frequency

150154

Total

t your

Frequency

## 1. In a particular university, the number of students enrolled by a faculty is

given in the table below.
Faculty

Number of students

Humanities and social science
Physical and life sciences
Technology
Total

1950
2820
1050
850
6670

309

## Illustrate this data on both a bar chart and pie chart.

2. For the group of numbers given below, produced a tally chart and
determine their frequency of occurrence.
36
42
36
40

41
44
37
41

42
43
42
42

38
41
38
37

39
40
39
38

40
38
42
39

42
39
35
44

41
39
42
45

37
43
38
37

40
39
39
40

Class interval

Frequency (f )

6064
6569
7074
7579
8084
8590

4
11
18
16
7
4

UNIT 4

## (a) produce a histogram and on it draw the frequency polygon.

(b) produce a cumulative frequency graph and from it determine the value
of the 50th-percentile class.

Statistical measurement
When considering statistical data it is often convenient to have one or two
values that represent the data as a whole. Average values are often used.
You have already found an average value when looking at the median or
50th-percentile of a cumulative frequency distribution. So, for example, we
might talk about the average height of females in the United Kingdom being
170 cm, or that the average shoe size of British males is size 9. In statistics,
we may represent these average values using the mean, median or mode
of the data we are considering. We will spend the rest of this short section
nding these average values for both discrete and grouped data, starting
with the arithmetic mean.

## The arithmetic mean

The arithmetic mean or simply the mean is probably the average with which
you are already familiar. For example, to nd the arithmetic mean of the
numbers 8, 7, 9, 10, 5, 6, 12, 9, 6, 8, all we need to do is to add them all up
and divide by how many there are, or more formally:
Arithmetic mean 


number of values

n
n

## where the Greek symbol  the sum of the individual values,

x1  x2  x3  x4   xn and n  the number of these values in the
data.

310

## So, for the mean of our ten numbers, we have:

mean 

n  8  7  9  10  5  6  12  9  6  8  80  8.
n

10

10

Now, no matter how long or complex the data we are dealing with, provided
that we are only dealing with individual values (discrete data), the above
method will always produce the arithmetic mean. The mean of all the x
values is given the symbol x , pronounced, x bar.

Example 4.54
The height of 11 females was measured as follows: 165.6 cm, 171.5 cm, 159.4 cm,
163 cm, 167.5 cm, 181.4 cm, 172.5 cm, 179.6 cm, 162.3 cm, 168.2 cm, 157.3 cm. Find
the mean height of these females.
Then, for n  11:
165.6  171.5  159.4  163  167.5  181.4  172.5  179.6  162.3  168.22  157.3
11
1848.3
x
 168.03 cm.
11

UNIT 4

x

## Mean for grouped data

What if we are required to nd the mean for grouped data? Look back at
Table 4.6 showing the height of 200 adults, grouped into ten classes. In this
case, the frequency of the heights needs to be taken into account.
We select the class midpoint x as being the average of that class and then
multiply this value by the frequency (f) of the class, so that a value for that
particular class is obtained (fx). Then by adding up all class values in the
frequency distribution, the total value for the distribution is obtained (fx).
This total is then divided by the sum of the frequencies (f) in order to
determine the mean. So, for grouped data:
x

f1 x1  f2 x2  f3 x3    fn xn

f1  f2  f3    fn

( f  midpoint )
f

## This rather complicated looking procedure is best illustrated by

example.

Example 4.55
Determine the mean value for the heights of the 200 adults, using the data in
Table 4.6.
The values for each individual class are best found by producing a table, using
the class midpoints and frequencies and remembering that the class midpoint is found by
dividing the sum of the upper and lower class boundaries by 2. So, for example, the mean
149.5  154.5
value for the first class interval is
 152. The completed table is shown
2
below.

## Midpoint (x) of height (cm)

152

Frequency (f)

311

fx

608

157

1413

162

15

2430

167

21

3507

172

32

5504

177

45

7965

182

41

7462

187

22

4114

192

1728

197

394

Total

f  200

fx  35,125

I hope you can see how each of the values was obtained. Now that we have the required
totals the mean value of the distribution can be found.
mean value x

## fx 35,125 175.625 0.5 cm

200
f

Median
When some values within a set of data vary quite widely, the arithmetic
mean gives a rather poor representative average of such data. Under
these circumstances another more useful measure of the average is the
median.
For example, the mean value of the numbers 3, 2, 6, 5, 4, 93, 7 is 20, which
is not representative of any of the numbers given. To nd the median value
of the same set of numbers, we simply place them in rank order that is 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 93. Then we select the middle (median) value. Since there are
seven numbers (items) we choose the fourth item along, the number 5, as
our median value.
If the number of items in the set of values is even, then we add together the
value of the two middle terms and divide by 2.

Example 4.56
Find the mean and median value for the set of numbers: 9, 7, 8, 7, 12, 70, 68,
6, 5, 8.
The arithmetic mean is found as:
mean x 

9  7  8  7  12  70  68  6  5  8
200

 20.
10
10

This value is not really representative of any of the numbers in the set.

UNIT 4

Notice that our mean value of heights has the same margin of error as the original
measurements. The value of the mean cannot be any more accurate than the measured
data from which it was found!

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## Mathematics for Engineering Technicians

To find the median value, we first put the numbers in rank order, that is,
5, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 9, 12, 68, 70
Then from the ten numbers, the two middle values. The 5th and 6th values along are 8
88
 8.
and 8. So, the median value 
2

Mode

UNIT 4

## Yet another measure of central tendency for data containing extreme

values is the mode. Now, the mode of a set of values containing discrete
data is the value that occurs most often. So, for the set of values 4, 4, 4, 5,
5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, the mode or modal value is 5 as this value occurs
four times. Now, it is possible for a set of data to have more than one
mode. For example, the data used in Example 4.62 above has two modes
7 and 8, both of these numbers occurring twice and both occurring more
than any of the others. A set of data may not have a modal value at all. For
example, the numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 all occur once and there is
no mode.

KEY POINT
The mean, median and mode are
statistical averages, or measures
of central tendency for a statistical
distribution

A set of data that has one mode is called unimodal, data with two
modes is bimodal and data with more than two modes is known as
multimodal.
When considering frequency distributions for grouped data, the modal
class is that group which occurs most frequently. If we wish to nd
the actual modal value of a frequency distribution, we need to draw a
histogram.

Example 4.57
Find the modal class and modal value for the frequency distribution of the height
of adults given in Table 4.6.
Referring back to Table 4.6, it is easy to see that the class of heights which occurs most
frequently is 175 179 cm, which occurs 45 times.
Now, to find the modal value we need to produce a histogram for the data.
We did this for Example 4.53. This histogram is shown again here with the modal
shown.
From Figure 4.51 it can be seen that the modal value  178.25 0.5 cm.
This value is obtained from the intersection of the two construction lines, AB and CD. The
line AB is drawn diagonally from the highest value of the preceding class up to the top
right-hand corner of the modal class. The line CD is drawn from the top left-hand corner
of the modal group to the lowest value of the next class, immediately above the modal
group. Then, as can be seen, the modal value is read-off where the projection line meets
the x-axis.

## Mathematics for Engineering Technicians

313

50
C

45

40

Frequency

35
A

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

152 157 162 167 172 177 182 187 192 197
Height of adults (cm)
Modal value  178.25 0.5 cm

UNIT 4

Figure 4.51 Histogram showing frequency distribution and modal value for height of adults

1. Calculate the mean of the numbers 176.5, 98.6, 112.4, 189.8, 95.9 and
88.8.

t your

2. Determine the mean, the median and the mode for the set of numbers 9, 8,
7, 27, 16, 3, 1, 9, 4 and 116.

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3. For the set of numbers 8, 12, 11, 9, 16, 14, 12, 13, 10, 9, nd the
arithmetic mean, the median and the mode.
4. Estimates for the length of wood required for a shelf were as follows:

d
g
e

Length (cm)
Frequency

35
1

36
3

37
4

38
8

39
6

40
5

41
3

42
2

## Calculate the arithmetic mean of the data.

5. Calculate the arithmetic mean and median for the data shown in the table.
Length (mm)
Frequency

TYK

167
2

168
7

169
20

170
8

171
3

6. Calculate the arithmetic mean for the data shown in the table.
Length of rivet (mm)
Frequency

9.8
3

9.9
18

9.95
36

10.0
62

10.05
56

10.1
20

10.2
5

314

## 7. Tests were carried out on 50 occasions to determine the percentage of

greenhouse gases in the emissions from an internal combustion engine.
The results from the tests showing the percentage of greenhouse gases
recorded were as follows:
% greenhouse gases present
Frequency

3.2
2

3.3
12

3.4
20

3.5
8

3.6
6

3.7
2

(a) Determine the arithmetic mean for the greenhouse gases present.
(b) Produce a histogram for the data and from it nd an estimate for the
modal value.
(c) Produce a cumulative frequency distribution curve and from it determine
the median value of greenhouse gases present.

## Elementary Calculus Techniques

Introduction

UNIT 4

Meeting the calculus for the rst time is often a rather daunting business.
In order to appreciate the power of this branch of mathematics we
must rst attempt to dene it. So, what is the calculus and what is its
function?
Imagine driving a car or riding a motorcycle starting from rest over a
measured distance, say 1 km. If your time for the run was 25 seconds, then
we can nd your average speed over the measured kilometre from the
fact that speed  distance/time. Then using consistent units, your average
speed would be 1000 m/25 s or 40 ms1. This is ne, but suppose you were
testing the vehicle and we needed to know its acceleration after you had
driven 500 m? In order to nd this, we would need to determine how the
vehicle speed was changing at this exact point, because the rate at which
your vehicle speed changes is its acceleration. To nd things, such as rate of
change of speed, we can use calculus techniques.
The calculus is split into two major areas: the differential calculus and the
integral calculus.
The differential calculus is a branch of mathematics concerned with nding
how things change with respect to variables such as time, distance or speed,
especially when these changes are continually varying. In engineering, we
are interested in the study of motion and the way this motion in machines,
mechanisms and vehicles varies with time, and the way in which pressure,
density and temperature change with height or time. Also, how electrical
quantities vary with time, such as electrical charge, alternating current,
electrical power, etc. All these areas may be investigated using the
differential calculus.
The integral calculus has two primary functions. It can be used to nd
the length of arcs, surface areas or volumes enclosed by a surface. Its
second function is that of anti-differentiation. For example, we can use the
differential calculus to nd the rate of change of distance of our motorcycle