BTEC NATIONALS LEVEL 3, MATHS UNIT 4, STATISTICAL METHODS

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BTEC NATIONALS LEVEL 3, MATHS UNIT 4, STATISTICAL METHODS

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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- Blood Splatter Trig

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30 cm

299

3 cm

60 cm

TYK 4.10

1. A parallelogram has an area of 60 cm2, if its perpendicular height is 10 cm,

what is the length of one of the parallel sides?

2. Figure 4.43 shows the cross-section of a template, what is its area?

3. An annulus has an inside diameter of 0.75 m and an external diameter of

0.9 m, determine its area.

4. Find the volume of a circular cone of height 6 cm and base radius 5 cm.

4 cm

5. Find the area of the curved surface of a cone (not including base) whose

base radius is 3 cm and whose vertical height is 4 cm. Hint: you need rst

to nd the slant height.

6. If the area of a circle is 78.54 mm2, nd its diameter to 2 signicant gures.

t your

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height.

8. A pipe of thickness 5 mm has an external diameter of 120 mm, nd the

volume of 2.4 m of pipe material.

9. A batch of 2000 ball bearings are each to have a diameter of 5 mm.

Determine the volume of metal needed for the manufacture of the whole

batch.

10. Determine the volume and total surface area of a spherical shell having an

internal diameter of 6 cm and external diameter of 8 cm.

Statistical Methods

Your view of statistics has probably been formed from what you read in

the papers, or what you see on the television. Survey use to show which

political party is going to win the election, why men grow moustaches, if

smoking damages your health, the average cost of housing by area, and all

sorts of other interesting data! So statistics is used to analyse the results of

such surveys and when used correctly, it attempts to eliminate the bias that

often appears when collecting data on controversial issues.

Statistics is concerned with collecting, sorting and analysing numerical

facts, which originate from several observations. These facts are collated

and summarized, then presented as tables, charts or diagrams, etc.

In this brief introduction to statistics, we look at two specic areas. First, we

consider the collection and presentation of data in its various forms. Then

we look at how we measure such data, concentrating on nding average

values.

If you study statistics beyond this course, you will be introduced to

the methods used to make predictions based on numerical data and the

probability that your predictions are correct. At this stage in your learning,

however, we will only be considering the areas of data handling and

measurement of central tendency (averages), mentioned above.

UNIT 4

50 cm

300

Data manipulation

KEY POINT

Statistics is concerned with collecting,

sorting and analysing numerical facts

and Government reports, statistical information is presented in the form

of charts, tables and diagrams, as mentioned above. We now look at a

small selection of these presentation methods, including the necessary

manipulation of the data to produce them.

Charts

Suppose, as the result of a survey, we are presented with the following

statistical data (Table 4.4).

UNIT 4

Major category of employment

Number employed

Private business

750

Public business

900

Agriculture

200

Engineering

300

Transport

425

Manufacture

325

Leisure Industry

700

Education

775

Health

500

Other

125

Now, ignoring for the moment the accuracy of this data, let us look at

typical ways of presenting this information in the form of charts, in

particular the bar chart and the pie chart.

Bar chart

In its simplest form, the bar chart may be used to represent data by drawing

individual bars (Figure 4.44) using the gures from the raw data (the data in

the table).

1000

0

Category of employment

Others

Health

Education

Leisure industry

Manufacture

Engineering

Transport

200

Agriculture

400

Public business

600

Private business

Number employed

800

301

Now, the scale for the vertical axis, the number employed, is easily decided

by considering the highest and lowest values in the table, 900 and 125,

respectively. Therefore, we use a scale from 0 to 1000 employees. Along

the horizontal axis, we represent each category by a bar of even width. We

could just as easily have chosen to represent the data using column widths

instead of column heights.

Now the simple bar chart above tells us very little that we could not have

determined from the table. So, another type of bar chart that enables us to

make comparisons, the proportionate bar chart, may be used.

In this type of chart, we use one bar, with the same width throughout its

height, with horizontal sections marked-off in proportion to the whole. In

our example, each section would represent the number of people employed

in each category compared with the total number of people surveyed.

For example, given that the height of the total 10 cm represents 5000

people, then the height of the column for those employed in private

750

business

10 1.5 cm. This type of calculation is then repeated

5000

for each category of employment. The resulting bar chart is shown in

Figure 4.45.

10 cm

Others

Health

Education

Leisure industry

Manufacture

Transport

Engineering

Agriculture

Public business

Private business

UNIT 4

rst need to total the number of people who took part in the survey. This

total comes to 5000. Now, even with this type of chart we may represent

the data either in proportion by height or in proportion by percentage. If

we were to choose height, then we need to set our vertical scale at some

convenient height, say, 10 cm. Then we would need to carry out 10 simple

calculations to determine the height of each individual column.

302

Example 4.49

Draw a proportionate bar chart for the employment survey shown in Table 4.4

using the percentage method.

For this method all that is required is to find the appropriate percentage of the total

(5000) for each category of employment. Then, choosing a suitable height of column to

represent 100%, mark on the appropriate percentage for each of the 10 employment

categories. To save space, only the first five categories of employment have been

calculated.

750

100 15%

1. private business

5000

900

2. public business

100 18%

5000

200

3. agriculture

100 4%

5000

300

4. engineering

100 6%

5000

UNIT 4

425

100 8.5%

5. transport

5000

Similarly, manufacture 6.5%, leisure industry 14%, education 15.5%, health 10%

and other categories 2.5%.

Other categories of bar chart include horizontal bar charts, where for

instance Figure 4.44 is turned through 90 in a clockwise direction. One

last type may be used to depict data given in chronological (time) order.

Thus, for example, the horizontal x-axis is used to represent, hours, days,

years, etc., while the vertical axis shows the variation of the data with time.

Example 4.50

Represent the following data on a chronological bar chart.

Year

engineering (thousands)

2003

800

2004

785

2005

690

2006

670

2007

590

Since we have not been asked to represent the data on any specific bar chart we will use

the simplest, involving only the raw data. Then, the only concern is the scale we should

use for the vertical axis.

303

Others (2.5%)

Health (10%)

Education (15.5%)

Manufacture (6.5%)

Transport (8.5%)

Agriculture (4%)

1000

Number employed in

engineering (thousands)

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

Time (years)

(a)

850

Number employed in

engineering (thousands)

800

750

To present a true representation, the scale should start from zero and extend to, say,

800 (Figure 4.47a). If we wish to emphasize a trend, that is, the way the variable is

rising or falling with time, we could use a very much exaggerated scale (Figure 4.47b).

This immediately emphasizes the downward trend since 1995. Note that this data is

fictitious (made-up) and used here merely for emphasis!

700

650

600

550

500

Time (years)

(b)

correct proportion, and (b) with graduated

scale

Pie chart

In this type of chart the data is presented as a proportion of the total using

the angle or area of sectors. The method used to draw a pie chart is best

illustrated by example.

UNIT 4

Engineering (6%)

304

Example 4.51

Represent the data given in Example 4.50 on a pie chart.

Remembering that there are 360 in a circle and that the total number employed in

general engineering (according to our figures) was 800 785 690 670 590 3535

(thousands), then we manipulate the data as follows:

Year

engineering (thousands)

degree)

2003

800

800

360 81.5

3535

2004

785

785

360 80

3535

2005

690

690

360 70.5

3535

2006

670

670

360 68

3535

2007

590

590

360 60

3535

Total

3535

2005

2004

2006

2003

2007

UNIT 4

Example 4.51: employment in engineering

by year

360

These are diagrams in pictorial form used to present information to those

who have a limited interest in the subject matter or who do not wish

to deal with data presented in numerical form. They have little or no

practical use when interpreting engineering or other scientic data and

apart from acknowledging their existence we will not be pursuing them

further.

Frequency distributions

One of the most common and most important ways of organizing and

presenting raw data is through use of frequency distributions.

Consider the data given in Table 4.5, which shows the time in hours that it

took 50 individual workers to complete a specic assembly line task.

1.1

1.0

0.6

1.1

0.9

1.1

0.8

0.9

1.2

0.7

1.0

1.5

0.9

1.4

1.0

0.9

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.1

0.8

0.9

1.2

0.7

0.6

1.2

0.9

0.8

0.7

1.0

1.0

1.2

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.4

0.7

1.1

0.9

0.9

0.8

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.3

0.5

0.8

1.3

1.3

0.8

305

From the data you should be able to see that the shortest time for completion

of the task was 0.5 hour, the longest time was 1.5 hours. The frequency of

appearance of these values is once. On the other hand the number of times

the job took 1 hour appears 11 times, or it has a frequency of 11. Trying

to sort out the data in this ad hoc manner is time consuming and may lead

to mistakes. To assist with the task we use a tally chart. This chart simply

shows how many times the event of completing the task in a specic time

takes place. To record the frequency of events we use the number 1 in a

tally chart and when the frequency of the event reaches 5, we score through

the existing four 1s to show a frequency of 5. The following example

illustrates the procedure.

Example 4.52

Time (hours)

Tally

Frequency

0.5

0.6

11

0.7

1111

0.8

1111 1

0.9

1111 111

1.0

1111 1111 1

11

1.1

1111 111

1.2

1111

1.3

111

1.4

11

1.5

Total

50

We now have a full numerical representation of the frequency of events. So, for example,

8 people completed the assembly task in 1.1 hours or the time 1.1 hours has a frequency

of 8. We will be using the above information later on when we consider measures of

central tendency.

The times in hours given in the above data are simply numbers. When data

appears in a form where it can be individually counted we say that it is

discrete data. It goes up or down in countable steps. Thus the numbers

1.2, 3.4, 8.6, 9, 11.1, 13.0 are said to be discrete. If, however, data is

obtained by measurement, for example, the heights of a group of people,

then we say that this data is continuous. When dealing with continuous

data we tend to quote its limits, that is the limit of accuracy with which we

take the measurements. So, for example, a person may be 174 0.5 cm

in height. When dealing numerically with continuous data or a large

UNIT 4

Use a tally chart to determine the frequency of events, for the data given on the

assembly line task in Table 4.5.

306

KEY POINT

The grouping of frequency distributions

is a means for clearer presentation of

the facts

amount of discrete data, it is often useful to group this data into classes or

categories. We can then nd out the numbers (frequency) of items within

each group.

Table 4.6 shows the height of 200 adults, grouped into 10 classes.

Table 4.6 Height of adults

Height (cm)

150154

155159

160164

15

165169

21

170174

32

175179

45

180184

41

185189

22

190194

195199

Total

UNIT 4

Frequency

200

the frequency distribution. In Table 4.6, the rst class interval is 150154.

The end number 150 is known as the lower limit of the class interval and

the number 154 is the upper limit. The heights have been measured to the

nearest centimetre. That means within 0.5 cm. Therefore, in effect, the

rst class interval includes all heights in the range 149.5154.5 cm; these

numbers are known as the lower and upper class boundaries, respectively.

The class width is always taken as the difference between the lower and

upper class boundaries, not the upper and lower limits of the class interval.

The histogram is a special diagram that is used to represent a frequency

distribution, such as that for grouped heights shown above. It consists of

a set of rectangles, whose areas represent the frequencies of the various

classes. Often when producing these diagrams, the class width is kept the

same, so that the varying frequencies are represented by the height of each

rectangle. When drawing histograms for grouped data, the midpoints of the

rectangles represent the midpoints of the class intervals. So, for our data,

they will be 152, 157, 162, 167, etc.

An adaptation of the histogram, known as the frequency polygon, may also

be used to represent a frequency distribution.

Example 4.53

Represent the data shown in Table 4.6 on a histogram and draw in the frequency

polygon for this distribution.

307

50

45

40

Frequency

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

152 157 162 167 172 177 182 187 192 197

Height of adults in cm

Class width 5 cm

All that is required to produce the histogram is to plot frequency against the height

intervals, where the intervals are drawn as class widths.

KEY POINT

The frequencies of a distribution may

be added consecutively to produce a

graph known as a cumulative frequency

distribution

Then, as can been seen from Figure 4.49, the area of each part of the histogram is the

product of frequency class width. The frequency polygon is drawn so that it connects

the midpoint of the class widths.

of a distribution consecutively, to produce a graph known as a cumulative

frequency distribution or Ogive.

Figure 4.50 shows the cumulative frequency distribution graph for our data

given in Table 4.6, while Table 4.7 shows the consecutive addition of the

frequencies needed to produce the graph in Figure 4.50.

From Figure 4.50 it is now a simple matter to nd, for example, the median

grouped height or as it is more commonly known the 50th-percentile. This

occurs at 50% of the cumulative frequency (as shown in Figure 4.50), this

being, in our case 100 giving an equivalent height of approximately 175 cm.

Any percentile can be found: for example, the 75th-percentile, where in

our case at a frequency of 150, the height can be seen to be approximately

180 cm.

UNIT 4

Figure 4.49 Figure for Example 4.53, histogram showing frequency distribution

308

200

190

180

170

160

75th percentile

150

Cumulative Frequency

140

130

120

110

50th percentile

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

152

157

162

167

172

177

187

182

192

197

180 cm

Figure 4.50 Cumulative frequency distribution graph for data given in Table 4.6

UNIT 4

Height (cm)

155159

13

160164

15

28

165169

21

49

170174

32

81

175179

45

126

180184

41

167

185189

22

189

190194

198

195199

200

200

200

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Cumulative frequency

150154

Total

t your

Frequency

given in the table below.

Faculty

Number of students

Humanities and social science

Physical and life sciences

Technology

Total

1950

2820

1050

850

6670

309

2. For the group of numbers given below, produced a tally chart and

determine their frequency of occurrence.

36

42

36

40

41

44

37

41

42

43

42

42

38

41

38

37

39

40

39

38

40

38

42

39

42

39

35

44

41

39

42

45

37

43

38

37

40

39

39

40

Class interval

Frequency (f )

6064

6569

7074

7579

8084

8590

4

11

18

16

7

4

UNIT 4

(b) produce a cumulative frequency graph and from it determine the value

of the 50th-percentile class.

Statistical measurement

When considering statistical data it is often convenient to have one or two

values that represent the data as a whole. Average values are often used.

You have already found an average value when looking at the median or

50th-percentile of a cumulative frequency distribution. So, for example, we

might talk about the average height of females in the United Kingdom being

170 cm, or that the average shoe size of British males is size 9. In statistics,

we may represent these average values using the mean, median or mode

of the data we are considering. We will spend the rest of this short section

nding these average values for both discrete and grouped data, starting

with the arithmetic mean.

The arithmetic mean or simply the mean is probably the average with which

you are already familiar. For example, to nd the arithmetic mean of the

numbers 8, 7, 9, 10, 5, 6, 12, 9, 6, 8, all we need to do is to add them all up

and divide by how many there are, or more formally:

Arithmetic mean

number of values

n

n

x1 x2 x3 x4 xn and n the number of these values in the

data.

310

mean

n 8 7 9 10 5 6 12 9 6 8 80 8.

n

10

10

Now, no matter how long or complex the data we are dealing with, provided

that we are only dealing with individual values (discrete data), the above

method will always produce the arithmetic mean. The mean of all the x

values is given the symbol x , pronounced, x bar.

Example 4.54

The height of 11 females was measured as follows: 165.6 cm, 171.5 cm, 159.4 cm,

163 cm, 167.5 cm, 181.4 cm, 172.5 cm, 179.6 cm, 162.3 cm, 168.2 cm, 157.3 cm. Find

the mean height of these females.

Then, for n 11:

165.6 171.5 159.4 163 167.5 181.4 172.5 179.6 162.3 168.22 157.3

11

1848.3

x

168.03 cm.

11

UNIT 4

x

What if we are required to nd the mean for grouped data? Look back at

Table 4.6 showing the height of 200 adults, grouped into ten classes. In this

case, the frequency of the heights needs to be taken into account.

We select the class midpoint x as being the average of that class and then

multiply this value by the frequency (f) of the class, so that a value for that

particular class is obtained (fx). Then by adding up all class values in the

frequency distribution, the total value for the distribution is obtained (fx).

This total is then divided by the sum of the frequencies (f) in order to

determine the mean. So, for grouped data:

x

f1 x1 f2 x2 f3 x3 fn xn

f1 f2 f3 fn

( f midpoint )

f

example.

Example 4.55

Determine the mean value for the heights of the 200 adults, using the data in

Table 4.6.

The values for each individual class are best found by producing a table, using

the class midpoints and frequencies and remembering that the class midpoint is found by

dividing the sum of the upper and lower class boundaries by 2. So, for example, the mean

149.5 154.5

value for the first class interval is

152. The completed table is shown

2

below.

152

Frequency (f)

311

fx

608

157

1413

162

15

2430

167

21

3507

172

32

5504

177

45

7965

182

41

7462

187

22

4114

192

1728

197

394

Total

f 200

fx 35,125

I hope you can see how each of the values was obtained. Now that we have the required

totals the mean value of the distribution can be found.

mean value x

200

f

Median

When some values within a set of data vary quite widely, the arithmetic

mean gives a rather poor representative average of such data. Under

these circumstances another more useful measure of the average is the

median.

For example, the mean value of the numbers 3, 2, 6, 5, 4, 93, 7 is 20, which

is not representative of any of the numbers given. To nd the median value

of the same set of numbers, we simply place them in rank order that is 2,

3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 93. Then we select the middle (median) value. Since there are

seven numbers (items) we choose the fourth item along, the number 5, as

our median value.

If the number of items in the set of values is even, then we add together the

value of the two middle terms and divide by 2.

Example 4.56

Find the mean and median value for the set of numbers: 9, 7, 8, 7, 12, 70, 68,

6, 5, 8.

The arithmetic mean is found as:

mean x

9 7 8 7 12 70 68 6 5 8

200

20.

10

10

This value is not really representative of any of the numbers in the set.

UNIT 4

Notice that our mean value of heights has the same margin of error as the original

measurements. The value of the mean cannot be any more accurate than the measured

data from which it was found!

312

To find the median value, we first put the numbers in rank order, that is,

5, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 9, 12, 68, 70

Then from the ten numbers, the two middle values. The 5th and 6th values along are 8

88

8.

and 8. So, the median value

2

Mode

UNIT 4

values is the mode. Now, the mode of a set of values containing discrete

data is the value that occurs most often. So, for the set of values 4, 4, 4, 5,

5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, the mode or modal value is 5 as this value occurs

four times. Now, it is possible for a set of data to have more than one

mode. For example, the data used in Example 4.62 above has two modes

7 and 8, both of these numbers occurring twice and both occurring more

than any of the others. A set of data may not have a modal value at all. For

example, the numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 all occur once and there is

no mode.

KEY POINT

The mean, median and mode are

statistical averages, or measures

of central tendency for a statistical

distribution

A set of data that has one mode is called unimodal, data with two

modes is bimodal and data with more than two modes is known as

multimodal.

When considering frequency distributions for grouped data, the modal

class is that group which occurs most frequently. If we wish to nd

the actual modal value of a frequency distribution, we need to draw a

histogram.

Example 4.57

Find the modal class and modal value for the frequency distribution of the height

of adults given in Table 4.6.

Referring back to Table 4.6, it is easy to see that the class of heights which occurs most

frequently is 175 179 cm, which occurs 45 times.

Now, to find the modal value we need to produce a histogram for the data.

We did this for Example 4.53. This histogram is shown again here with the modal

shown.

From Figure 4.51 it can be seen that the modal value 178.25 0.5 cm.

This value is obtained from the intersection of the two construction lines, AB and CD. The

line AB is drawn diagonally from the highest value of the preceding class up to the top

right-hand corner of the modal class. The line CD is drawn from the top left-hand corner

of the modal group to the lowest value of the next class, immediately above the modal

group. Then, as can be seen, the modal value is read-off where the projection line meets

the x-axis.

313

50

C

45

40

Frequency

35

A

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

152 157 162 167 172 177 182 187 192 197

Height of adults (cm)

Modal value 178.25 0.5 cm

UNIT 4

Figure 4.51 Histogram showing frequency distribution and modal value for height of adults

1. Calculate the mean of the numbers 176.5, 98.6, 112.4, 189.8, 95.9 and

88.8.

t your

2. Determine the mean, the median and the mode for the set of numbers 9, 8,

7, 27, 16, 3, 1, 9, 4 and 116.

k n ow

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TYK 4.12

3. For the set of numbers 8, 12, 11, 9, 16, 14, 12, 13, 10, 9, nd the

arithmetic mean, the median and the mode.

4. Estimates for the length of wood required for a shelf were as follows:

d

g

e

Length (cm)

Frequency

35

1

36

3

37

4

38

8

39

6

40

5

41

3

42

2

5. Calculate the arithmetic mean and median for the data shown in the table.

Length (mm)

Frequency

TYK

167

2

168

7

169

20

170

8

171

3

6. Calculate the arithmetic mean for the data shown in the table.

Length of rivet (mm)

Frequency

9.8

3

9.9

18

9.95

36

10.0

62

10.05

56

10.1

20

10.2

5

314

greenhouse gases in the emissions from an internal combustion engine.

The results from the tests showing the percentage of greenhouse gases

recorded were as follows:

% greenhouse gases present

Frequency

3.2

2

3.3

12

3.4

20

3.5

8

3.6

6

3.7

2

(a) Determine the arithmetic mean for the greenhouse gases present.

(b) Produce a histogram for the data and from it nd an estimate for the

modal value.

(c) Produce a cumulative frequency distribution curve and from it determine

the median value of greenhouse gases present.

Introduction

UNIT 4

Meeting the calculus for the rst time is often a rather daunting business.

In order to appreciate the power of this branch of mathematics we

must rst attempt to dene it. So, what is the calculus and what is its

function?

Imagine driving a car or riding a motorcycle starting from rest over a

measured distance, say 1 km. If your time for the run was 25 seconds, then

we can nd your average speed over the measured kilometre from the

fact that speed distance/time. Then using consistent units, your average

speed would be 1000 m/25 s or 40 ms1. This is ne, but suppose you were

testing the vehicle and we needed to know its acceleration after you had

driven 500 m? In order to nd this, we would need to determine how the

vehicle speed was changing at this exact point, because the rate at which

your vehicle speed changes is its acceleration. To nd things, such as rate of

change of speed, we can use calculus techniques.

The calculus is split into two major areas: the differential calculus and the

integral calculus.

The differential calculus is a branch of mathematics concerned with nding

how things change with respect to variables such as time, distance or speed,

especially when these changes are continually varying. In engineering, we

are interested in the study of motion and the way this motion in machines,

mechanisms and vehicles varies with time, and the way in which pressure,

density and temperature change with height or time. Also, how electrical

quantities vary with time, such as electrical charge, alternating current,

electrical power, etc. All these areas may be investigated using the

differential calculus.

The integral calculus has two primary functions. It can be used to nd

the length of arcs, surface areas or volumes enclosed by a surface. Its

second function is that of anti-differentiation. For example, we can use the

differential calculus to nd the rate of change of distance of our motorcycle

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