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Pre-Bar Review Notes on Intellectual Property

Atty. Melissa Romana P. Suarez


RA 8392 Intellectual Property Code
Intellectual Creation
The product of mental labor embodied in writing or some other material form
It is one of the original modes of acquiring ownership
Sec. 3. International Conventions and Reciprocity.
Any person who:
1. is a national, or
2. is domiciled, or
3. has a real and effective industrial establishment
in a country which:
1. is a party to any convention, treaty or agreement relating to intellectual property rights or the
repression of unfair competition, to which the Philippines is also a party, or
2. extends reciprocal rights to nationals of the Philippines by law,
shall be entitled:
1. to benefits to the extent necessary to give effect to any provision of such convention, treaty
or reciprocal law, in addition
2. to the rights to which any owner of an intellectual property right is otherwise entitled by this
Act.
The term "intellectual property rights" consists of:
1. Copyright and Related Rights;
2. Trademarks and Service Marks;
3. Geographic Indications;
4. Industrial Designs;
5. Patents;
6. Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits; and
7. Protection of Undisclosed Information
Sec. 6. The Organizational Structure of the Intellectual Property Office [IPO]
The IPO shall be divided into six (6) Bureaus:
1. The Bureau of Patents;
2. The Bureau of Trademarks;
3. The Bureau of Legal Affairs;
4. The Documentation, Information and Technology Transfer Bureau;
5. The Management Information System and EDP Bureau; and
6. The Administrative, Financial and Personnel Services Bureau.
Sec. 8. General Functions of Bureau of Patents:
1. Search and examination of patent applications
2. Grant of patents
Sec. 9. General Function of Bureau of Trademarks:

1. Search and examination of the applications for the registration of marks


2. Issuance of the certificates of registration
Sec. 10. General Functions of Bureau of Legal Affairs:
1. Hear and decide:
a. Opposition to the application for registration of marks;
b. Cancellation of trademarks, patents, utility models, and industrial designs; and
c. Petitions for compulsory licensing of patents;
2. Exercise original jurisdiction in administrative complaints for violations of laws involving
intellectual property rights where the total damages claimed are not less than Two hundred
thousand pesos (P200,000.00)
3. Hold and punish for contempt all those who disregard orders or writs issued in the course of
the proceedings.
4. After formal investigation, impose administrative penalties
Patents
Patent:
A grant made by the government to an inventor, conveying and securing to him the exclusive
right to make use of his invention for a given period
Sec. 21. What is patentable
Any technical solution of a problem in any field of human activity which is:
1. new [novel],
2. involves an inventive step, and
3. is industrially applicable
It may be, or may relate to:
1. a product, or
2. a process, or
3. an improvement of any of the foregoing.
Sec. 22. What CANNOT be Patented:
1. Discoveries, scientific theories and mathematical methods;
2. Schemes, rules and methods of performing mental acts, playing games or doing business,
and programs for computers;
3. Methods for treatment of the human or animal body by surgery or therapy and diagnostic
methods practiced on the human or animal body;
4. Plant varieties or animal breeds or essentially biological process for the production of plants
or animals;
5. Aesthetic creations; and
6. Anything which is contrary to public order or morality.
Sec. 23. What is NOT New or Novel:
An invention shall not be considered new if it forms part of a prior art.
Q: What is Prior Art:

A: Everything which has been made available to the public anywhere in the world, before the
filing date or the priority date of the application claiming the invention
Sec. 28. Who has the Right to a Patent:
The right to a patent belongs to:
1. the inventor,
2. his heirs, or assigns.
When two (2) or more persons have jointly made an invention, the right to a patent shall belong
to them jointly.
What if there are 2 or more Inventors:
1. If the invention was made jointly - the right to a patent shall belong to them jointly [Sec. 28]
2. If two (2) or more persons have made the invention separately and independently of each
other - the right to the patent shall belong to:
a. the person who filed an application for such invention, or
b. where two or more applications are filed for the same invention, to the applicant who has
the earliest filing date, or earliest priority date [Sec.29]
Q: What case can be filed against an applicant for patent?
A: A case for Opposition to the Application for Registration of Patent
Q: Where?
A: Bureau of Legal Affairs
Q: On what grounds?
A: The following:
1. The invention is not patentable under Sec. 21 and 22
2. The applicant is not the inventor or his heirs or assigns under Sec. 28
Q: On what grounds?
A: The following:
1. The invention is not patentable under Sec. 21 and 22
2. The applicant is not the inventor or his heirs or assigns under Sec. 28
Sec. 54. Term of a Patent:
The term of a patent shall be twenty (20) years from the filing date of the application [not from
the date of effectivity]
Sec. 71. Rights Conferred by Patent
A patent shall confer on its owner the following exclusive rights:
1. Where the subject matter of a patent is a:
a. PRODUCT - to restrain, prohibit and prevent any unauthorized person or entity from
making, using, offering for sale, selling or importing that product;
b. PROCESS - to restrain, prevent or prohibit any unauthorized person or entity from using
the process, and from manufacturing, dealing in, using, selling or offering for sale, or
importing any product obtained directly or indirectly from such process.

2. Patent owners shall also have the right:


a. to assign, or transfer by succession the patent, and
b. to conclude licensing contracts for the same.
Q: What case can be filed against a patent which is already effective?
A: A case for Cancellation of Patent
Q: Where?
A: Bureau of Legal Affairs
Q: On what grounds?
A: Any interested person may, upon payment of the required fee, petition to cancel the patent,
on any of the following grounds:
1. That what is claimed as the invention is not new or patentable;
2. That the patent does not disclose the invention in a manner sufficiently clear and
complete for it to be carried out by any person skilled in the art; or
3. That the patent is contrary to public order or morality [Sec. 61]
Sec. 76. Patent Infringement
1. The making, using, offering for sale, selling, or importing a patented product or a
product obtained directly or indirectly from a patented process, or
2. The use of a patented process without the authorization of the patentee
Q: Who can file a case for infringement of patent?
A: The registered holder of patent against the infringer who violates Sec. 76
Q: What is the test for infringement of patents?
A: In order to constitute infringement, there need only be SUBSTANTIAL IDENTITY [exact
identity not required] between the 2 devices [the registered one and the device of the infringer]
Doctrine of Equivalents
There is substantial identity between 2 devices when they perform:
1. substantially the same function [or mode or principle],
2. in substantially the same way,
3. to obtain the same result,
even if they differ in form, shape or dimension
Q: Who has jurisdiction over actions for infringement of patent?
A: RTC [Sec. 76]
Q: Can a foreign national bring an action for infringement of patent?
A: Yes, provided:
1. he meets the requirements of Sec. 3,
2. he is not engaged in business in the RP,
3. he has been granted or assigned a patent under RA 8293,whether or not it is licensed to
do business in the RP [Sec. 77]
Sec. 79. Prescriptive Period for Filing a Case for Infringement

No damages can be recovered for acts of infringement committed more than four (4) years
before the institution of the action for infringement.
Q: What are the DEFENSES in an action for infringement?
A: In an action for infringement, the defendant, in addition to other defenses available to him,
may show the invalidity of the patent, or any claim thereof, on any of the grounds on which a
petition of cancellation can be brought under Sec. 61:
1. That what is claimed as the invention is not new or patentable
2. That the patent does not disclose the invention in a manner sufficiently clear and
complete for it to be carried out by any person skilled in the art
3. That the patent is contrary to public order or morality
4. That the patent is invalid
Q: When can a CRIMINAL case be filed against the infringer?
A: If infringement is repeated by the infringer or by anyone in connivance with him after
finality of the judgment of the court against the infringer, the offenders shall, without prejudice
to the institution of a civil action for damages, be criminally liable therefor [Sec. 84]
Q: What is the prescriptive period for filing a criminal case against the infringer?
A: The criminal action herein provided shall prescribe in three (3) years from date of the
commission of the crime [Sec. 84]
Trademark and Tradenames
Definitions [Sec. 121]
1. Trademark - Any visible sign capable of distinguishing the goods of an enterprise
2. Service Mark - Any visible sign capable of distinguishing services of an enterprise
3. Trade name - the name or designation identifying or distinguishing an enterprise
Q: How can a mark be acquired?
A: The rights in a mark shall be acquired through registration made validly in accordance with
the provisions of this law [Sec. 122]
Sec. 123. What CANNOT be Registered- A mark cannot be registered if it:
1. Consists of immoral, deceptive or scandalous matter, or matter which may disparage or
falsely suggest a connection with persons, living or dead, institutions, beliefs, or national
symbols, or bring them into contempt or disrepute;
2. Consists of the flag or coat of arms or other insignia of the RP or any of its political
subdivisions, or of any foreign nation, or any simulation thereof;
3. Consists of a name, portrait or signature:
a. identifying a particular living individual except by his written consent,
b. of a deceased President of the RP, during the life of his widow, if any, except by written
consent of the widow;
4. Is identical with a registered mark belonging to a different proprietor or a mark with an
earlier filing or priority date, in respect of:
a. The same goods or services, or

b. Closely related goods or services, or


c. If it nearly resembles such a mark as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion;
5. Is identical with, or confusingly similar to, or constitutes a translation of a mark which
is considered by the competent authority of the RP to be well-known internationally and
in the RP:
a. whether or not it is registered here, as being already the mark of a person other than the
applicant for registration, and
b. used for identical or similar goods or services: Provided, That in determining whether a
mark is well-known, account shall be taken of the knowledge of the relevant sector of
the public, rather than of the public at large, including knowledge in the RP which has
been obtained as a result of the promotion of the mark;
6. Is identical with, or confusingly similar to, or constitutes a translation of a mark which
is considered by the competent authority of the RP to be well-known internationally and
in the RP:
a. whether or not it is registered here, as being already the mark of a person other than the
applicant for registration, and
b. used for identical or similar goods or services: Provided, That in determining whether a
mark is well-known, account shall be taken of the knowledge of the relevant sector of
the public, rather than of the public at large, including knowledge in the RP which has
been obtained as a result of the promotion of the mark;
7. Is identical with, or confusingly similar to, or constitutes a translation of a mark
considered well-known in accordance with the preceding paragraph, which is registered in
the RP with respect to goods or services which are not similar to those with respect to
which registration is applied for, provided that:
a. the use of the mark in relation to those goods or services would indicate a connection
between
those goods or services, and the owner of the registered mark
b. the interests of the owner of the registered mark are likely to be damaged by such use;
8. Is likely to mislead the public, particularly as to the nature, quality, characteristics or
geographical origin of the goods or services;
9. Consists exclusively of signs that are generic for the goods or services that they seek to
identify;
10. Consists exclusively of signs or of indications that have become customary or usual to
designate the goods or services in everyday language or in bona fide and established trade
practice;
11. Consists exclusively of signs or of indications that may serve in trade to designate the kind,
quality, quantity, intended purpose, value, geographical origin, time or production of
the goods or rendering of the services, or other characteristics of the goods or services;
12. Consists of shapes that may be necessitated by technical factors or by the nature of the
goods themselves or factors that affect their intrinsic value;
13. Consists of color alone, unless defined by a given form; or
14. Is contrary to public order or morality.
Sec. 123.2. Doctrine of Secondary Meaning
As regards signs or devices in # 10, 11 and 12, nothing shall prevent the registration of
any such sign or device which has become distinctive in relation to the goods for which
registration is requested as a result of the use that have been made of it in commerce in RP.
The IPO may accept as prima facie evidence that the mark has become distinctive, as
used in connection with the applicant's goods or services in commerce, proof of substantially

exclusive and continuous use thereof by the applicant in commerce in the RP for five (5) years
before the date on which the claim of distinctiveness is made.
Doctrine of Secondary Meaning or Doctrine of Distinctiveness of Trademark
A doctrine wherein a word or phrase originally incapable of exclusive appropriation with
reference to an article in the market, because geographical or otherwise descriptive, might
nevertheless have been used do long and so exclusively by one producer with reference to this
article that, in that trade and to that group of the purchasing public, the word or phrase has come
to mean that the article was his product.
A doctrine wherein a long time exclusive and continuous use of a mark or name which is
unregisterable for being [1] geographical, [2] descriptive, or [3] a surname, such that the mark
or name has lost its primary meaning and it becomes associated in the public mind with the
particular goods, entitles the user to have such name registered.
Requisites to Entitle the User to have a Mark or Name Registered under the Doctrine of
Secondary Meaning
1. A word or phrase being used as a mark or name for a particular article or product, cannot be
registered, because it is geographical or otherwise descriptive
2. Said word or phrase has been used for so long and so exclusively by one producer with
reference to particular article or product
3. That, such word or phrase has lost its primary meaning, and it becomes associated in the
public mind with that particular article or product
Q: What case can be filed against an applicant for a mark?
A: A case for Opposition to the Application for Registration of a trademark, service mark or
tradename
Q: Where?
A: Bureau of Legal Affairs
Q: Who may file an opposition to the registration of a mark?
A: Any person who believes that he would be damaged by the registration of a mark [Sec. 134]
Sec. 145. Duration of a Registered Mark
A certificate of registration shall remain in force for ten (10) years:
Provided, That the registrant shall:
1. file a declaration of actual use and evidence to that effect, or
2. show valid reasons based on the existence of obstacles to such use,
within one (1) year from the fifth anniversary of the date of the registration of the mark.
Otherwise, the mark shall be removed from the Register by the Office.
Q: Can the registration of a mark be renewed?
A: Yes, a certificate of registration may be renewed for periods of ten (10) years at its expiration
upon payment of the prescribed fee and upon filing of a request [Sec. 146]
Owner of Registered Mark
The owner of a registered mark shall have the exclusive right to prevent all third parties not
having the owner's consent from using in the course of trade identical or similar signs or
containers for goods or services:

1. which are identical or similar to those in respect of which the trademark is registered,
2. where such use would result in a likelihood of confusion.
In case of the use of an identical sign for identical goods or services, a likelihood of confusion
shall be presumed.
WELL KNOWN Mark Registered in RP
The exclusive right of the owner shall extend to goods and services which are not similar to
those in respect of which the mark is registered: Provided, That:
1. use Sec. 147. Rights Conferred to Owner of a of that mark in relation to those goods or
services would indicate a connection between those goods or services and the owner of the
registered mark, AND
2. the interests of the owner of the registered mark are likely to be damaged by such use.
Sec. 148. Limitations to Rights of Registered Owners of Marks
Registration of the mark shall not confer on the registered owner the right to preclude third
parties from using bona fide their
1. names,
2. addresses,
3. pseudonyms,
4. a geographical name, or
5. exact indications concerning the kind, quality, quantity, destination, value, place of origin, or
time of production or of supply,
of their goods or services: Provided, That such use is confined to the purposes of mere
identification or information and cannot mislead the public as to the source of the goods or
services.
Sec. 151. Petition for Cancellation of Mark
1. Where to file - Bureau of Legal Affairs
2. Who can file - Any person who believes that he is or will be damaged by the registration of a
mark
3. Prescriptive period - Within five (5) years from the date of registration of the mark
Grounds for Cancellation of Mark with 5 year Prescriptive Period
The mark or name is not registerable under Sec. 123
Sec. 151. Grounds for Cancellation of Mark may be filed at any time:
1. The registered mark becomes the generic name for the goods or services, or a portion
thereof, for which it is registered, or
2. The registered mark has been abandoned, or
3. The registration was obtained fraudulently or contrary to the provisions of RA 8293, or
4. The registered mark is being used by, or with the permission of, the registrant so as to
misrepresent the source of the goods or services on or in connection with which the mark is
used
5. Failure to use the registered mark within the RP for an uninterrupted period of three (3)
Infringement of Mark
Infringement is the use by others of a reproduction or colorable imitation of a registered
trademark, tradename or service mark, without the consent of the registrant, with the purpose of

causing to mislead or misleading the public that such goods or services are those of the
registrant
Note:
Only REGISTERED trademarks, tradenames or service marks are protected against
infringement
Sec. 155. What Constitutes Infringement of a Mark
Any person who shall, without the consent of the owner of the registered mark:
1. Use in commerce any reproduction, counterfeit, copy, or colorable imitation of a registered
mark or the same container or a dominant feature thereof in connection with the sale,
offering for sale, distribution, advertising of any goods or services including other
preparatory steps necessary to carry out the sale of any goods or services on or in connection
with which such use is likely to cause confusion, or to cause mistake, or to deceive; or
2. Reproduce, counterfeit, copy or colorably imitate a registered mark or a dominant feature
thereof and apply such reproduction, counterfeit, copy or colorable imitation to labels, signs,
prints, packages, wrappers, receptacles or advertisements intended to be used in commerce
upon or in connection with the sale, offering for sale, distribution, or advertising of goods or
services on or in connection with which such use is likely to cause confusion, or to cause
mistake, or to deceive
Q: What is the test for infringement of trademark or tradename?
A: The essential element of infringement is colorable imitation. Colorable imitation has been
defined as:
1. such a close or ingenious imitation as to be calculated to deceive ordinary
purchasers, or
2. such resemblance of the infringing mark to the original as to deceive an ordinary
purchaser giving such attention as a purchaser usually gives, and to cause him to
purchase the one supposing it to be the other [Emerald v. CA, 251 SCRA 600]
Two [2] Tests to Determine w/n Colorable Imitation Exists:
1. Holistic Test - Mandates that the entirety of the marks in question must be considered in
determining confusing similarity
2. Dominancy Test - Infringement takes place if the competing trademark contains the main or
essential features of another, and confusion and deception is likely to result. Duplication is
not necessary, nor is it necessary that the infringing label should suggest an effort to imitate
[Asia Brewery v. CA, 224 SCRA 437]
Q: Is fraud essential in the infringement of trademark? [1958 Bar]
A: No, the mere use of a similar mark likely to mislead the public is sufficient to constitute
infringement.
Sec.156-157. What Infringer can be Liable for to Owner of Registered Mark
1. Damages, which may either be:
a. the reasonable profit which the owner would have realized if not for the infringement, or
b. the profit which the infringer actually made out of the infringement, or
c. a certain percentage over the gross sales of infringer, in the event such measure of
damages cannot be readily ascertained

2. Impounding of sales invoices and other documents evidencing sales


3. Damages may be doubled in cases where actual intent to mislead the public or to defraud the
registered owner
4. Injunction to prevent further use of trademark
5. Destruction of goods found to be infringing and all related paraphernalia
Q: Does a Foreign Corporation have the right to sue in Trademark or Service Mark Enforcement
Action?
A: Yes, under Art. 160, it may bring a civil or administrative action for opposition, cancellation,
infringement, or unfair competition, provided:
1. It meets the requirements of Sec. 3
2. It does not engage in business in the Philippines, whether or not it is licensed to do
business in the Philippines under existing law.
Unfair Competition
Q: What is unfair competition?
A: The employment of deception or any other means contrary to good faith by which one shall
pass off the goods manufactured by him or in which he deals, or his business, or services for
those of the one having established such goodwill
Q: Who is protected against Unfair Competition?
A: A person who has identified in the mind of the public the goods he manufactures or deals
in, his business or services from those of others, whether or not a registered mark is
employed, has a property right in the goodwill of the said goods, business or services so
identified, which will be protected in the same manner as other property rights.
Sec. 168.3. Any Person Committing any of the following Acts are Deemed Guilty of Unfair
Competition:
1. Making ones goods appear as the goods of another
2. Use of artifice or device to induce the false belief that ones goods are those of another
3. False statements in the course of trade
4. Any act contrary to good faith calculated to discredit the goods of another
Q: What is the test of unfair competition?
A: Whether certain goods have been clothed with an appearance likely to deceive the ordinary
purchaser exercising ordinary care
Q: Is fraud essential in unfair competition? [1958 Bar]
A: Yes, there must be fraudulent intent to pass off ones goods as those of another
Q: What are the remedies for Unfair Competition?
A: The same as the remedies for infringement of trademark and tradenames
Distinctions
Infringement of Trademark
Unauthorized use of a
registered trademark

As to:
Cause of Action

Unfair Competition
Passing of ones goods as those
of another

Not necessary
Registration is a pre-requisite
Must be of similar classes

Fraudulent Intent
Necessity of Registration
Class of goods involved

Necessary
Registration not required
Need not be of the same class

Sec. 170. Criminal Liability


Independent of the civil and administrative sanctions imposed by law, a criminal penalty of
imprisonment from and a fine shall be imposed on any person who is found guilty of
committing any of the acts mentioned in:
1. Sec. 155 - Infringement of Trademark
2. Sec. 168 - Unfair Competition
3. Sec. 169.1 - False Description or Representation
Copyright
Copyright
An intangible incorporeal right:
1. to certain literary, scholarly and artistic productions,
2. granted by statute to the author or creator of the work,
3. giving him, his heirs and assigns, copyright or economic rights,
4. which shall consist of the exclusive right to carry out, authorize or prevent the acts listed in
Sec. 177
Sec. 177. Copyright or economic rights shall consist of the exclusive right to carry out,
authorize or prevent the following acts:
1. Reproduction of the work or substantial portion of the work;
2. Dramatization, translation, adaptation, abridgment, arrangement or other
transformation of the work;
3. The first public distribution of the original and each copy of the work by sale or other
forms of transfer of ownership;
4. 4. Rental of the original or a copy of an audiovisual or cinematographic work, a work
embodied in a sound recording, a computer program, a compilation of data and other
materials or a musical work in graphic form, irrespective of the ownership of the original or
the copy which is the subject of the rental;
5. Public display of the original or a copy of the work;
6. Public performance of the work; and
7. Other communication to the public of the work.
Q: What are the works protected by a copyright?
A: Literary and Artistic Works which are original intellectual creations in the literary and artistic
domain protected from the moment of their creation
Art. 172. Literary and Artistic Works shall include in particular:
1. Books, pamphlets, articles and other writings;
2. Periodicals and newspapers;
3. Lectures, sermons, addresses, dissertations prepared for oral delivery, whether or not
reduced in writing or other material form;

4. Letters;
5. Dramatic or dramatico-musical compositions; choreographic works or entertainment in
dumb shows;
6. Musical compositions, with or without words;
7. Works of drawing, painting, architecture, sculpture, engraving, lithography or other works of
art; models or designs for works of art;
8. Original ornamental designs or models for articles of manufacture, whether or not
registrable as an industrial design, and other works of applied art;
9. Illustrations, maps, plans, sketches, charts and three-dimensional works relative to
geography, topography, architecture or science;
10. Drawings or plastic works of a scientific or technical character;
11. Photographic works including works produced by a process analogous to photography;
lantern slides;
12. Audiovisual works and cinematographic works and works produced by a process analogous
to cinematography or any process for making audio-visual recordings;
13. Pictorial illustrations and advertisements;
14. Computer programs; and
15. Other literary, scholarly, scientific and artistic works.
172.2. When Protection of the Works Begin
Works are protected by the sole fact of their creation, irrespective of their mode or form
of expression, as well as of their content, quality and purpose.
Sec. 173. Derivative Works
The following derivative works shall also be protected by copyright:
1. Dramatizations, translations, adaptations, abridgments, arrangements, and other
alterations of literary or artistic works; and
2. Collections of literary, scholarly or artistic works, and compilations of data and other
materials which are original by reason of the selection or coordination or arrangement
of their contents.
Sec. 175. Works NOT Protected by Copyright
No protection shall extend, under this law, to:
1. any idea, procedure, system, method or operation, concept, principle, discovery or
mere data as such, even if they are expressed, explained, illustrated or embodied in a work;
2. news of the day and other miscellaneous facts having the character of mere items of press
information; or
3. any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official
translation thereof.
Sec. 178. Rules on Copyright Ownership
Copyright ownership shall be governed by the following rules:
1. Original literary and artistic works - copyright shall belong to the author of the work;
2. In the case of works of joint authorship:
a. the co-authors shall be the original owners of the copyright and in the absence of
agreement, their rights shall be governed by the rules on co-ownership
b. if a work of joint authorship consists of parts that can be used separately and the author
of each part can be identified, the author of each part shall be the original owner of the
copyright in the part that he has created;

3. In the case of work created by an author during and in the course of his employment, the
copyright shall belong to the:
a. EMPLOYEE - if the creation of the object of copyright is not a part of his regular
duties even if the EE uses the time, facilities and materials of the ER
b. EMPLOYER - if the work is the result of the performance of his regularly-assigned
duties, unless there is an agreement, express or implied, to the contrary.
Sec. 184. The following Acts shall NOT Constitute Infringement of Copyright:
1. The recitation or performance of a work once it has been lawfully made accessible to the
public, if done privately and free of charge, or if made strictly for a charitable or religious
institution or society
2. The making of quotations from a published work if they are compatible with fair use and
only to the extent justified for the purpose, including quotations from newspaper articles and
periodicals in the form of press summaries: Provided, That the source and the name of the
author, if appearing on the work, are mentioned;
3. The reproduction or communication to the public by mass media of articles on current
political, social, economic, scientific or religious topic, lectures, addresses and other works
of the same nature, which are delivered in public if such use is for information purposes and
has not been expressly reserved: Provided, That the source is clearly indicated;
4. The inclusion of a work in a publication, broadcast, or other communication to the public,
sound recording or film, if such inclusion is made by way of illustration for teaching
purposes and is compatible with fair use: Provided, That the source and of the name of the
author, if appearing in the work, are mentioned;
5. The recording made in schools, universities, or educational institutions of a work included
in a broadcast for the use of such schools, universities or educational institutions: Provided,
That such recording must be deleted within a reasonable period after they were first
broadcast: Provided, further, That such recording may not be made from audiovisual works
which are part of the general cinema repertoire of feature films except for brief excerpts of
the work;
6. The making of ephemeral recordings by a broadcasting organization by means of its own
facilities and for use in its own broadcast;
7. The use made of a work by or under the direction or control of the Government, by the
National Library or by educational, scientific or professional institutions where such use is
in the public interest and is compatible with fair use;
8. The public performance or the communication to the public of a work, in a place where no
admission fee is charged in respect of such public performance or communication, by a club
or institution for charitable or educational purpose only, whose aim is not profit making,
subject to such other limitations as may be provided in the Regulations;
9. Public display of the original or a copy of the work not made by means of a film, slide,
television image or otherwise on screen or by means of any other device or process:
Provided, That either the work has been published, or, that the original or the copy displayed
has been sold, given away or otherwise transferred to another person by the author or his
successor in title; and
10. Any use made of a work for the purpose of any judicial proceedings or for the giving of
professional advice by a legal practitioner.
Sec. 185.Fair Use of a Copyrighted Work

The fair use of a copyrighted work for criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching
including multiple copies for classroom use, scholarship, research, and similar purposes is not
an infringement of copyright.
Sec. 191. Registration and Deposit with National Library and SC Library
1. Registration of the works with the National Library and Supreme Court Library
2. Deposit of two [2] complete copies or reproductions of the work with the National Library
and Supreme Court Library
This must be made after the first public dissemination of performance by authority of the
copyright owner of a work
Sec. 213. Duration of Protection
1. Original and Derivative Works during the life of the author and for 50 years after his
death.
2. Works of joint authorship during the life of the last surviving author and for 50 years
after his death.
3. Anonymous or pseudonymous works 50 years from the date on which the work was first
lawfully published
Distinctions
As to
Subject Matter
Where to Register

Copyright
Literary, scholarly,
scientific, artistic work
National Library

Duration of Right

50 years

Patent
Trademark
Useful and industrially Goods or services
applicable inventions
Bureau of Patents - IPO Bureau of Trademarks
- IPO
20 years
10 years