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Experiment # 1

To determine the Mannings Roughness Coefficient(n)


& Chzy Coefficient(c) in laboratory flume
Purpose:

To study changes in Mannings Roughness coefficient (n) by varying discharge (Q) in


flume.
To study changes in Chezy Coefficient(c) by varying discharge (Q) in flume.
To investigate relation between Manning Roughness Coefficient(n) & Chezy Coefficient
(c)
To determine Manning Roughness Coefficient(n) and Chezy Coefficient (c)

Apparatus :
i.

S6 glass sided tilting flume

Note: In this type of flume we can adjust


positive as well as negative slope. Positive
slope ranges between 0 to 1:40 and negative
upto 1:200.The bad of the flume is made up of
cold formed steel. Length of the channel is 7.5
m.
ii.
iii.

Point Gauge
Differential Manometer

Related Theory:
1) Uniform Flow:
That type of flow in which flow perimeters and channel perimeters remain constant as
a function of distance between two cross sections. In uniform flow, depth and velocity
remain constant along the flow direction for the given discharge in the given channel. We
can say that it is only possible in prismatic channels.

2) Non-Uniform Flow:
That type of flow in which flow perimeters and channel perimeters do not remain
constant as a function of distance between two cross sections.

3) Steady flow:
That type of flow in which flow perimeters and channel perimeters remains constant at a
particular cross-section with respect to time.

4) Unsteady flow:
That type of flow in which flow perimeters and channel perimeters remains do not remain
constant at a particular cross-section with respect to time.It can also be determined by noting
the depth of water.
There are four different flow combinations present.

i.

Uniform-Steady
Generally flow in irrigation canals are maintained uniform and steady.

ii.

Non-uniform-Steady
A typical example of such flow is back water flow on upstream of the dam.

iii.

Unsteady-Uniform
An example is a pipe of constant diameter connected to a pump pumping at a
constant rate which is then switched off. This type of flow is practically not possible
in open channel.

iv.

Unsteady-Non-uniform
Example of this type of flow is flood waves.

5) Mannings Roughness Formula:

Assumptions
o Fluid is an ideal fluid just to simplify the calculations (ideal flow condition)
o Flow is steady flow
o Fluid is non-viscous
o Fluid is incompressible
The Manning formula, known also as the GaucklerManning formula, or Gauckler
ManningStrickler formula in Europe, is an empirical formula for open channel flow or freesurface flow driven by gravity. It was first presented by the French engineer Philippe
Gauckler in 1867,and later re-developed by the Irish engineer Robert Manning in 1890.
The GaucklerManning formula states:

Where:
V

= cross-sectional average velocity (ft/s, m/s)

= 1.486 for U.S. customary units or 1.0 for SI units

= GaucklerManning coefficient ( s/m1/3, s/ft1/3).

Rh = hydraulic radius (ft, m)


S

= slope of the water surface or the linear hydraulic head loss (m/m.ft/ft)) (S = hf/L)

The GaucklerManning coefficient (n) depends upon roughness of the


channel,Vegitation,scavering and many other factors.
Hydraulic Radius (Rh) =A/P
P= wetted perimeter
A=area of flow of water
The discharge formula, Q = A V, can be used to manipulate GaucklerManning's equation
by substitution for V. Solving for Q then allows an estimate of the volumetric flow
rate (discharge) without knowing the limiting or actual flow velocity.
The GaucklerManning formula is used to estimate flow in open channel situations where it
is not practical to construct a weir or flume to measure flow with greater accuracy. The
friction coefficients across weirs and orifices are less subjective than n along a natural
(earthen, stone or vegetated) channel reach. Cross sectional area, as well as n, will likely
vary along a natural channel.

6) Effect of GaucklerManning coefficient(n) on channel:


The effect of GaucklerManning coefficient (n) on flow is very important because if value
of GaucklerManning coefficient (n) changes from the original value it will cause many
problems and efficiency of channel will decrease.
If GaucklerManning coefficient (n) increases velocity of water will decrease and due to
which sedimentation will increase,it will raise the bed channel and there are chances of over
flow of water. On the other hand if GaucklerManning coefficient (n) decreases than it will
increase the velocity and head depth of water will decreases. It will effect whole system of
irrigation as well as the hydro power projects.

7) Chezy Formula:
The Chzy formula describes the mean flow velocity of steady, turbulent open
channel flow:

v = c (R S)
Where
v = mean velocity (m/s, ft/s)
c = the Chezy roughness and conduit coefficient
R = hydraulic radius of the conduit (m, ft)
S = slope of the conduit (m/m, ft/ft)
The formula is named after Antoine de Chzy, the French hydraulics engineer who
devised it in 177.

8) Relation between Mannnings roughness coefficient and Chezy

Coefficient:
This formula can also be used with Manning's Roughness Coefficient, instead of
Chzy's coefficient. Manning derived the following relation to C based upon
experiments:

Where
C = the Chzy coefficient [m/s],
R = the hydraulic radius [m],
n = Manning's roughness coefficient.
This relation is empirical.

Procedure:
i.

Set the slope of the channel.

ii.

Switched on the pump and left it to become fully operational.

iii.

After some time uniform condition is achieved.

iv.

Note down the manometric head attached to the flume and find the discharge
from the table provided by the Manufacturer.

v.

Also we will note done the average depth of water in the flume by gauge by
measuring depth at 2,4,6 m .

vi.

Repeat the same procedure for different values of discharge.

Observations and Calculations


Formulas
Mannings formula
vavg=

vavg=

2/3

R h S01/2
2/3

R h S1/2

Chaezys formula
vavg =1 0
vavg =2

Hydraulic radius =Rh = A/P

; Area of flow of water= A=b x yavg

Depth = yavg = (y1+y2+y3)/3

; Wetted perimeter = P = b + 2yavg

S = Slope of Energy line

; Sw= Slope of Hydraulic Grade Line

S0=Slope of Channal Bed

vavg= Average Velocity

For uniform flow conditions

S = S0 = Sw

=Conversion Constant = 1.00 in SI = 1.486 in FPS


n = Mannings Roughness Coefficient; c = Chezy Coefficient

Sr
No

So

vavg

y1

y2

y3

yavg

(m3/s)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m2)

(m/s)

Pw

Rh

Mannings
Roughness
coefficient

Chezys
Coefficient

n1

n2

c1

c2

(m)

(m)

(s/m1/3)

(s/m1/3)

(m1/2/s)

(m1/2/s)

0.002

0.008942

0.055

0.059

0.06

0.058

0.0174

0.513908

0.001

0.416

0.041827

0.010486

0.010486

56.18786

79.46163

0.002

0.011997

0.072

0.073

0.073

0.072667

0.0218

0.550321

0.00055

0.445333

0.048952

0.010875

0.010875

55.61802

106.0594

0.002

0.015996

0.079

0.081

0.079

0.079667

0.0239

0.669289

0.00045

0.459333

0.052032

0.009313

0.009313

65.60902

138.316

0.002

0.018326

0.084

0.083

0.081

0.082667

0.0248

0.738952

0.0003

0.465333

0.053295

0.008571

0.008571

71.57432

184.8041

0.002

0.0192

0.084

0.087

0.085

0.0853

0.0256

0.7610

0.0005

0.7521

0.749141

0.0005

0.470667

0.054391

0.00857

0.002

0.0204

0.092

0.092

0.085

0.0897

0.0269

0.7388

0.0011

0.7996

0.75803

0.0011

0.479333

0.05612

0.008648

Relation bettwen Q & c2


200
180
160

c2
(m1/2/s)

140
120
100
80

60
40
20
0
0.0000

0.0050

0.0100

0.0150

0.0200

0.0250

Q
(m3/s)

Relation between Q & n2


0.0250

Q
(m3/s)

0.0200
0.0150
0.0100
0.0050
0.0000
0

0.002

0.004
n2
(s/m)

0.006

0.008

Relation between n2 & c2


0.008

0.007

n2
(s/m1/3)

0.006
0.005
0.004
0.003
0.002
0.001
0
0

50

100
c2
(m1/2/s)

150

200

Hyraulic Grade Line & Energy Line # 1


0.0800
0.0700

2, 0.0700

0.0600
2, 0.055

Head
(m)

0.0500

4, 0.0720

6, 0.0726

4, 0.059

6, 0.06

0.0400
EL 1

0.0300

HGL 1

0.0200
0.0100
0.0000
0

Horizontal Distance
(m)

Head
(m)

Hyraulic Grade Line & Energy Line # 2


0.1000
0.0900
0.0800
0.0700
0.0600
0.0500
0.0400
0.0300
0.0200
0.0100
0.0000

2, 0.0877

4, 0.0883

6, 0.0883

2, 0.072

4, 0.073

6, 0.073

EL
HGL

Horizontal Distance
(m)

Hyraulic Grade Line & Energy Line # 3

Head
(m)

0.1200
0.1000

2, 0.1022

4, 0.1031

6, 0.1022

0.0800

2, 0.079

4, 0.081

6, 0.079

0.0600
EL
0.0400

HGL

0.0200
0.0000
0

Horizontal Distance
(m)

Hyraulic Grade Line & Energy Line # 4


0.1200
2, 0.1110

4, 0.1106

6, 0.1100

2, 0.084

4, 0.083

6, 0.081

0.1000

Head
(m)

0.0800
0.0600

EL

0.0400

HGL

0.0200
0.0000

Axis Title

Hyraulic Grade Line & Energy Line # 5


0.1400
0.1200

2, 0.1198

4, 0.1198

6, 0.1176

2, 0.084

4, 0.087

6, 0.085

Head
(m)

0.1000
0.0800
0.0600

EL

0.0400

HGL

0.0200
0.0000
0

Horizontal Distance
(m)

Hyraulic Grade Line & Energy Line # 6


0.1400
0.1200

Head
(m)

0.1000

2, 0.1135

4, 0.1145

2, 0.092

4, 0.092

6, 0.1138
6, 0.085

0.0800
0.0600

EL

0.0400

HGL

0.0200
0.0000
0

Comments :

3
4
Horizontal Distance
(m)