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Object-Oriented Analysis & Design

1. Answer:
A UML diagram is a collection of UML elements. Name spaces are defined for its contents.
Class diagrams give the entities, attributes and dependency relationships between the classes
that are used in the package diagrams.
The package is represented as a rectangle with a small tab attached to the left side of the top
of the rectangle. Relationships are defined as dependencies. Grouping of classes are defined
in packages. These relations are aggregation and association
In a package diagram, the dependencies are represented by a dashed arrow. They establish the
relationships between package diagrams.

2. Answer:
Server Based:
Server based architectures will be used for the huge complex legacy systems. In this
Kind of systems users will be very much limited as the application runs only on the
It requires high resources in terms of things because it uses lot of power to run.
It needs high human intervention to set up the things as large systems will be involved.

Client Based:

It is a simple and more efficient system.

It will not have any central system to maintain the clients
Data will be shared among the clients.
So when data need to be copied the available clients will be connected.

Client Server Based:

Client and server will be there in this system.
Clients will request the server for an operation

Based on the request received server will run the process and then will serve the

3. Answer:
Polymorphism dramatically
impact both unit and integration testing. Since an individual business process is implemented
through a set of methods distributed over a set of objects, as shown above, the unit test makes
no sense to be at the method level. However, with polymorphism, the same method (a small
part of the overall business process) can be implemented in many different objects. Therefore,
testing individual implementations of methods makes no sense. Again, the unit that makes
sense to test is the class. Furthermore, Inheritance When considering the issues raised about
inheritance, it should be no surprise that inheritance impacts the testing of object-oriented
systems. Through the use of inheritance, bugs can be propagated from a superclass to all of
its direct and indirect subclasses instantaneously. However, the tests that are applicable to a
superclass are also applicable to all of its subclasses. As usual, inheritance is a double-edged
Finally, even though we have stated this many times before, inheritance should only support a
generalization and specialization type of semantics. Remember, when using inheritance, the
principle of substitutability is critical. All of these issues impact unit and integration testing

4. Answer:
Layout: The interface should be a series of areas on the screen that are used consistently for
different purposesfor example, a top area for commands and navigation, a middle area for
information to be input or output, and a bottom area for status information.
Content awareness: Users should always be aware of where they are in the system and what
information is being displayed.
Aesthetics: Interfaces should be functional and inviting to users through careful use of white
space, colors, and fonts. There is often a tradeoff between including enough white space to
make the interface look pleasing without losing so much space that important information
does not t on the screen.
User experience: Although ease of use and ease of learning often lead to similar design
decisions, there is sometimes a tradeoff between the two. Novice users or infrequent users of
software will prefer ease of learning, whereas frequent users will prefer ease of use.
Consistency: Consistency in interface design enables users to predict what will happen
before they perform a function. It is one of the most important elements in ease of learning,
ease of use, and aesthetics.

Minimal user effort: The interface should be simple to use. Most designers plan on having
no more than three mouse clicks from the starting menu until users perform work.

5. Answer:
Basic principles of output design.
Understand report usage.
Manage information load.
Minimize bias.

6. Answer:
The main purpose of security is to provide data integrity. This refers to protection of data
from theft, loss and unauthorized access to it, phishing. Data should be protected from
whaling, worms, Trojan horses and any kind of identity theft. For all these things to happen
there should be a controlled environment. The major threat is from inside the organization
and black pen testers. The main emphasis should be laid on
Encryption: The code or the data generated should be properly encrypted. Encryption tools
and mechanisms should be properly implemented.
Several internal controls should be kept in place which allows only authorized personnel to
access the critical and sensitive data.
Virus threats are the most important growing concern in current industry. Business should
practice certain good measures which scans the profile of people along with the data who
uploads it into the system