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The TOSCA-Topology Optimisation Mesh Adaption and Manufacturing

Restrictions
FE-Design GmbH 2002
Peter Allinger

2001 FE-Design GmbH


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The TOSCA-Topology Optimisation Mesh Adaption and Manufacturing


Restrictions
Who is FE-Design?
What is TOSCA?
Manufacturing restrictions for topology
optimisation
Mesh adaption for topology optimisation
Conclusions

2001 FE-Design GmbH


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Engineering
Service
FE structural
analyses
Structural
optimisation
CDF calculations
Computation
Consulting
Training

Software
Products
TOSCA.topology,
TOSCA.shape
TOSCA.smooth
OEM-Products:
MSC.Construct
CATopo
visualNastran Desktop
FEA

Support

Research &
Development
Software Development
TOSCA
MSC.Construct...
ASP
National & International
research projects
HiPOP
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Elano
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Aerospace
industry
Automotive
industry

Supply
industry

Universities &
Research

ETH Zrich

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Basic Technology of

Structural optimisation system


Stable and fast algorithms
Interfaces to MSC.NASTRAN, ABAQUS, ANSYS, IDEAS
UNIX and NT
Optimisation of nearly every FE-model
Unlimited number of load cases
Efficient handling of very large models (> 4,5 Mio. DOF)

Fields of application
Domestic appliances
Machine tools
Automotive- and aerospace-industry

2001 FE-Design GmbH


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Topology Optimization with
Optimal design from a given design space
Shorter development time
Economic use of material

By courtesy of AUDI AG

Shape Optimization with


Load homogenization by modification
of the components surface
Increase of durability
Reduction of stress concentration
2001 FE-Design GmbH
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Optimization and
Analysis Model

Topology Optimization

Design Space

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Transfer to CAD
(STL, IGES)

Optional:
Shape Optimization

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Smoothing, Data
Reduction, Remeshing,
Remodelling

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The topology and the shape of a component has to be determined in
such a way, that its mechanical behaviour is an optimum for the
specified design criteria. Only the available boundary conditions, the
forces and the design area for the component has to be defined.
[Maute 98]

Design area

Iteration loop

Design proposal
2001 FE-Design GmbH
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Motivation

Bending and torsion load


lead to a hollow body
Results of the topology
optimisation cannot be
transferred into real
components because of the
costs for producing.
The manual transfer of the
results into a castable
component needs a lot of
time and of leads to suboptimal components.

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Pull direction / removable components


No undercuts or hollow structures
Removal angle
No conglomeration of material (problems during cooling
process)
No thin structures or supports
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4961 Nodes; 4000 Hexaeder elements


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Pull direction sideways
Front view

Side view

Pull direction backwards


Front view

Side view
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93854 Nodes; 495158 Tetraeder-elements

By courtesy of AUDI AG
2001 FE-Design GmbH
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Advantage:
+ more detailed solution
+ better material distribution
Fine mesh

Disadvantage:
- increase of design variables
- dramatic increase of computational
time
Adaptive mesh refinement during
topology optimization

Coarse mesh

-> refinement of result without big


influences of disadvantages

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Necessary areas: refined mesh

Selective refinement

Unnecessary areas: mesh of start model

When should the refinement be performed?

start criteria

Where should the refinement take place?

location criteria

How should the refinement been done?

refinement algorithms

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1) refinement with templates displaced mesh

initial mesh
1

2) Coupling of nodal displacement


3
2

1
X 3 = ( X i 1 + X i 2)
2
i

Multi Point Constraint (MPC)


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Element to be refined

How to ensure the mesh consistency ?

= Nodes
marked
for refinement

Select template No. 2a


and rotate clockwise 90

Select
template No. 4

Templates for QUAD elements


2D and 3D
refinement is
possible

2a

2b

4
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Permanent mesh refinement /


coarsening

Error estimator as indicator for the


mesh refinement area

Refinement in areas of high error


indicator values

Coarsening in areas of high error


indicator values

Definition of a limit volume of


elements to be refined

Error criteria enables the system to


refine in more than one level (multi
level refinement)
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model

time

percentage

complete refinement

26 min 1 sec

100%

Template refinement
(each element border is divided into
three new borders)

17 min 50 sec

68,5 %

Refinement with displacement


conditions
(each element border is divided into
two new borders)

9 min 48 sec

37,6 %

Without refinement

6 min 15 sec

24,0 %

PC 866 MHz with 512 MB RAM


2001 FE-Design GmbH
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Coarse mesh
CPU-Time=9,6%
DOF= 22 000

Adaptive mesh
refinement

Fine mesh

CPU-Time=60,9%

DOF= 151 000

CPU-Time=100 %

DOF=100 000
2001 FE-Design GmbH
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Material: Steel
Youngs modul [N/mm2 ]

210000

Poisson ratio

0,3

Mesh type: Pave


shell elements (2D)

944

tetraeder elements(3D)

9252

nodes

2924

Optimization task:
obj. Function:

Maximize
stiffness

constraint volume:

55%

mixed mesh: 2D-3D elements


Location criteria: errror indicator distribution
2001 FE-Design GmbH
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Without refinement

Results of the tetraeder


mesh are smoothed

Complete refinement

adaptive mesh refinement

2001 FE-Design GmbH


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Manufacturing restrictions
Difficult to transfer solutions of non restricted optimization
Manufacturing process has to be included in the early stages of
the product development

Adaptive refinement during topology optimization


Error indicator distribution is used as location criteria
Permanent mesh refinement and coarsening during iteration
process
Results of the adaptive topology optimization are comparable to
the optimization with the fine mesh

Optimization system TOSCA


integrated solution for structural optimization of real-world
problems
wide acceptance in industry
2001 FE-Design GmbH
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