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U-Net V300R007_LTE Parameter Setting Guide

Product Name

Confidentiality

U-Net

INTERNAL

Document Version
V3.7

SECRET

Total 34 pages

U-Net V300R007_LTE Parameter Setting


Guide

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


All rights reserved

2015-10-21

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Change History
Date

Change Description

Authors

2010-09-14

Completed the draft.

Dai Jianshe (employee ID:


00142864) and Liu Minghui
(employee ID: 00133691)

2011-04-25

Revised the guide based on U-Net


V300R007.

Li Chunguang (employee ID:


00142081)

2015-10-21

Version

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Abbreviations and Acronyms

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Abbreviation or
Acronym

Full Name

LTE

Long Term Evolution

PCI

Physical cell identifier

MCS

modulation and coding scheme

IOT

Interference Over Thermal

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Overview

1.1 Background
With the mass commercial use of Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks worldwide, UNet has become a widely used network planning tool. Currently, many engineers have
mastered the basic operations of the tool, but are still unfamiliar with the settings of
certain parameters, which may affect the simulation effect. This guide is prepared to
instruct the engineers on how to set the parameters. By reading this guide, you can
improve the efficiency of parameter settings.

1.2 Purpose
As a guide describing the basic operations of U-Net is already released, this guide
focuses on how to set the parameters that are prone to mistakes and key parameters.
The descriptive sequence of parameters in this guide is consistent with that in project
creation.

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Parameter Settings

2.1 Map
Right-click Clutter under Map and choose Parameter Manager from the shortcut
menu. The Clutter Parameters Display dialog box is displayed.
Figure 1.1 Parameters to be set on the map
Blank map
Digital map

Set the parameters on the Actual Value tab if a digital map is provided, and set the
parameters on the Default Value tab if a blank map is provided.

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2.1.2 Penetration Loss


The penetration loss has direct impact on the downlink RSRP. Larger penetration loss
results in smaller downlink reference signal received power (RSRP). In outdoor
scenarios (including the high-speed railway scenario), the penetration loss is 0 dB.
Figure 1.1Figure 1.1 lists the penetration loss in various indoor scenarios (such as in a
vehicle or ship):
Figure 1.1 Penetration loss in various indoor scenarios
Frequenc
y Band

700
MHz

800
MHz

900
MHz

1500
MHz

1800
MHz

2.1
GHz

AW
S

2.3
GHz

2.6
GHz

Densely
urban

18

18

18

19

19

20

20

20

20

Urban

14

14

14

16

16

16

16

16

16

Suburban

10

10

10

10

10

12

12

12

12

Rural

High-speed
railway

22

22

22

25

25

25

25

26

26

The AWS bands include 1710 MHz to 1755 MHz (uplink) and 2110 MHz to 2155 MHz
(downlink). Currently, the penetration loss of 2.1 GHz is used as the penetration loss of AWS
frequencies.

The preceding table only lists the penetration loss on each band in indoor scenarios. If
a digital map is provided and there are parks and trees on the map, set the penetration
loss according to the actual situations. In open areas, the penetration loss can be set to
0 dB. Ensure that the penetration loss in outdoor scenarios does not exceed that in
indoor scenarios. Use the penetration loss provided by the customer if the customer
provides one. Otherwise, use the default value of Huawei.

2.1.3 Model Standard Deviation


The standard shadow fading deviation and cell edge coverage probability are used to
calculate the shadow fading margin. As the wireless channels are randomly allocated,
the penetration loss within a fixed distance is varying, and the signal strength within
the coverage is not always larger than a certain level. However, you can ensure that the
level of the received signals is larger than certain signal strength in a certain
probability. To ensure that an eNodeB covers the edge of a cell in a certain probability,
the eNodeB must reserve a certain part of power to counteract the impact of shadow
fading. This part of power is the shadow fading margin.
The larger the standard shadow fading deviation, the larger the shadow fading margin.
The higher the probability of cell edge coverage, the larger the shadow fading margin.
If shadow fading is taken into account, the shadow fading margin is directly subtracted
during RSRP calculation in coverage forecast.
Shadow fading is Gaussian process whose average value is 0 and whose standard
shadow fading deviation is . The probability density function is as follows:

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x2

1
2
pL ( x)
e 2
2
The shadow fading exceeds z dB in the following probability:

x2

1
2
PrL ( x z ) pL ( x)dx
e 2 dx
2 z
z
If is divided by x, the result is as follows:

PrL ( x z )

x
1
z
e 2 dx Q ( )

2 z

Q indicates the supplementary cumulative function. In this case, the shadow fading
margin is as follows:

SFM dB Q 1 1 PrEdgeCoverage

PrEdgeCoverage indicates the cell edge coverage probability. The value of this parameter
must be set manually.
Right-click Predictions and choose New from the shortcut menu. Click Next. The
Group Properties dialog box is displayed. Set the cell edge coverage probability in
this dialog box.

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Figure 1.1 Setting the cell edge coverage probability

Figure 1.2 lists the recommended values of the standard shadow fading deviation. Set
the parameter according to the actual situations.
Figure 1.2 Standard shadow fading deviation
Morph

StdSlowFading
(dB)

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Indoor

Outdoor

Densely urban

11.7

10

Urban

9.4

Suburban

7.2

Rural

6.2

High-speed railway

7.2

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Figure 1.3 lists the recommended values of the cell edge coverage probability. The
value of this parameter is calculated according to the regional coverage probability in
link estimation. Adjust the value according to the actual scenario and customers
requirements.
Figure 1.3 Cell edge coverage probability
Densely urban

89%

Urban

87%

Suburban

74%

Rural

72%

High-speed railway

93%

2.1.4 C/(I+N) Standard Deviation


To ensure the coverage quality in a certain probability and improve user experience,
you need to take the shadow fading margin into account when setting DL SINR.
Shadow fading has impacts on both the serving power and the interference power, and
the interference powers are cumulative. If you take the shadow fading margin into
account when calculating the strength of both serving signals and interference signals,
the actual DL signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) value cannot be obtained.
To reflect the actual impacts of shadow fading on the downlink signal quality, U-Net
provides the C/(I+N) Standard Deviation parameter. When you calculate the value of
DL SINR, do not take the shadow fading margin into account for the serving cell
signals or interference signals independently. Instead, subtract a DL SINR correction
from the calculation result. This correction is calculated according to the values of C/
(I+N) Standard Deviation and cell edge coverage probability. The calculation method
is the same as that of the shadow fading margin. This parameter has direct impact on
DL SINR. Therefore, set this parameter to an appropriate value in coverage forecast.
Right-click Clutter under Map and choose Parameter Manager from the shortcut
menu. The Clutter Parameters Display dialog box is displayed.

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Figure 1.1 Setting the C/ (I+N) Standard Deviation parameter

The setting of this parameter has high requirements on the experience of network
planning engineers. You need to adjust the value according to the actual scenario and
coverage forecast result. The recommended value is 2 dB to 4 dB lower than the value
of Model Standard Deviation.

2.2 Transceiver
2.2.1 Power Ratio
Power Ratio refers to the ratio of an antenna ways transmit power in the overall
transmit power of a multi-way antenna. If a one-way antenna is configured, set this
parameter to 1. If a multi-way antenna is configured, set this parameter to the ratio of
the main antenna way's transmit power. Set the ratios of other antenna ways' powers in
Antenna Config. Right-click a sector and choose Properties from the shortcut menu.
The Transceiver Properties dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 1.2. The sum
of all ratios must be 1, and the value of Power Ratio in Figure 1.1 must be consistent
with that of the main antenna way. Currently, one-way antenna is configured in both
forecast and simulation scenarios. Therefore, the default value of this parameter is 1.

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Figure 1.1 Setting the Power Ratio parameter

Figure 1.2 Setting the Power Ratio parameter in multi-way antenna scenarios

2.2.2 Antenna Configuration on eNodeB


M x N indicates that the eNodeB is configured with an M-way transmit antenna and
the UE is configured with an N-way receive antenna. For example, 4 x 2 indicates that
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the eNodeB is configured with a 4-way transmit antenna and the UE is configured with
a 2-way receive antenna.
4T2R indicates that the eNodeB is configured with a 4-way transmit antenna and 2way receive antenna. Generally, the MIMO mode refers to M x N.
For example, to set the downlink MIMO mode to 4 x 2, set Number of Transmission
Antennas to 4, and set Number of Reception Antennas to 2. Note that Number of
Reception Antennas in Figure 1.1 is not used.
Figure 1.1 Setting the antenna of the eNodeB

Set Number of Transmission Antennas Ports to the quantity of the logical ports
mapping the antennas of the eNodeB, and ensure that the value of this parameter is
equal to or less than that of Number of Transmission Antennas.

2.2.3 Antenna Downtilt


U-Net provides the following modes for setting the downtilt of an antenna:

Mechanical downtilt setting: Adjust the downtilt mechanically. In this case, the
coverage distance of the antenna's main lobe significantly changes, but the
vertical and horizontal components of the antenna do not change.

Electrical downtilt setting: Alter the phase of the antenna oscillator to adjust the
vertical and horizontal components of the antenna. In this way, the combined
field strength of the components can be changed.

Figure 1.1 Setting the downtilt of an antenna

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The antenna downtilt is related to various factors. Adjust it according to the actual situations.

2.3 Cells
2.3.1 Max Power
Max Power refers to the total transmit power of an eNodeB. For example, if the
transmit power of an eNodeB is 2 x 20 W, set Max Power to 46 dBm. The value of
this parameter has nothing to do with the quantity of antennas.
Figure 1.1 Setting the Max Power parameter

2.3.2 Load
Load on U-Net refers to the load of service channels. U-Net provides five load-related
parameters: Target Load (DL), Target Load (UL), Actual Load (DL), Actual Load
(UL), and Neighbor Load.
Target Load (DL) indicates the downlink target load, and Target Load (UL)
indicates the uplink target load. The value range of the parameters is 0 to 1. The values
of the parameters affect the maximum quantity of uplink and downlink schedulable
RBs in capacity simulation only, but do not affect coverage forecast.
If Target Load (DL) is set to 0.75 and the system bandwidth is set to 20M/100RB, 75
(0.75 x 100) RBs are available in capacity simulation. If the system bandwidth is set to
20M/100RB, the PUCCH overhead is 15 RBs, and Target Load (UL) is set to 0.75,
0.75 x (100 15) = 63 RBs are available.
Actual Load (DL) indicates the actual downlink load, and Actual Load (UL)
indicates the actual uplink load. The value range of the parameters is 0 to 1. The values
of the parameters have impacts on coverage forecast only. Actual Load (DL) and
Actual Load (UL) determine the maximum quantity of available RBs when the peak
throughput is calculated. The calculation method is similar to that of target loads.
Actual Load (DL) and Actual Load (UL) can be used as the output indicators in
capacity simulation. After capacity simulation is completed, set the simulated actual
loads of each cell in this window.
Neighbor Load is applicable to both serving load and interference load scenarios. The
value of this parameter ranges from 0 to 100 in coverage forecast. The dialog box in
Figure 1.1 provides a switch. After the switch is turned on, you can set the value of this
parameter. The larger the value of this parameter, the larger the interference of the
neighboring cell, and the poorer the downlink signal quality in the forecast result. If
the switch is turned off, this parameter is set to the value of Actual Load (DL) by
default.

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Figure 1.1 Setting the load parameters

Right-click Predictions and choose New from the shortcut menu. Click Next. The
Group Properties dialog box is displayed. Set Neighbor Load.
Figure 1.2 Setting the Neighbor Load parameter

2.3.3 Control Channel Overhead


Control Channel Overhead (UL) indicates the RB overhead of the uplink control
channel (PUCCH). PUCCH carries the following information: HARQ-ACK, channel
quality indicator (CQI), SR, and PMI, which is called uplink control information
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(UCI). PUCCH and PUSCH transmit data to each user in timesharing mode. Figure
1.1 lists the formats of PUCCH.
Figure 1.1 PUCCH formats

Format 1 adopts the On-Off Keying (OOK) coding mode, and other formats adopt the
binary phase shift keying (BPSK) or quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)
modulation mode.
According to the 36.213 protocol, format 1 is used to transmit Scheduling Request
Indication (SRI), format 1a is used to transmit 1bit HARQ-ACK, format 1b is used to
transmit 2bits HARQ-ACK, format 2 is used to transmit CQI, format 2a is used to
transmit CQI and 1bit HARQ-ACK, and format 2b is used to transmit CQI and 2bits
HARQ-ACK. Coverage forecast supports formats 1, 1a, and 2 only.
The RB quantity used by PUCCH depends on the system bandwidth (Bw). Figure 1.2
lists the typical value range and default value in various bandwidth scenarios. The
more RBs used by PUCCH, the fewer RBs available for PUSCH, the lower the uplink
peak rate in coverage forecast, and the lower the uplink throughput in capacity
simulation.
Figure 1.2 PUCCH overhead
Bw

TotRbNum

Default Value of
PUCCH

1.4

15

25

10

50

15

75

20

100

10

(MHz)

In commercial use, the default value is the minimum value. In comparison test, the minimum
value is 2. In coverage forecast and capacity simulation, set the value as required.

Control Channel Overhead (DL) indicates to the symbol overhead of the downlink
control channel (PDCCH). PDCCH can use the first three symbols of an RB at most.
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The value of this parameter ranges from 1 to 3. In coverage forecast and capacity
simulation, this parameter is usually set to 3. The larger the value of this parameter, the
less the resources of each RB for data transmission, the lower the throughput of each
RB, and the lower the calculated peak throughput.
Figure 1.3 Symbols used by PDCCH

Figure 1.4 Setting the Control Channel Overhead parameters

2.3.4 IOT and Open Loop Power Control


In coverage forecast, the downlink interference of neighboring cells can be calculated
according to the interference power of neighboring cells. The uplink interference of
neighboring cells is related to the location and transmit power of the UE. U-Net uses
Interference Over Thermal (IOT) to indicate the uplink interference. You can set
Actual IOT (UL) on U-Net to configure the uplink interference.
Actual IOT (UL) has direct impact on the uplink signal quality in coverage forecast.
The larger the value of Actual IOT (UL), the larger the uplink interference and the
poorer the uplink signal quality. Figure 1.1 lists the IOT values in various scenarios. In
some planning scenarios, you need to adjust the value of the parameter according to
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the actual situations. The value of Actual IOT (UL's) obtained in capacity simulation
can be used in coverage forecast.
Ensure that the IOT value ensures certain cell edge rate and edge modulation and
coding scheme (MCS).

RB quantity used by cell edge UEs = UL edge rate/[RE quantity of each RAB
(144) x MCS]/TDD efficiency for FDD

Throughput/RB = UL cell edge rate/Uplink RB quantity

Throughput rate/RB = SINR (that is, the required SINR to reach a certain rate or
MCS)

Calculate the IOT according to SINR and RB quantity supported by cell edge UEs.
Use the full transmit power for cell edge UEs.

Receiver power of one RB = Po + Alpha x PL PL = 23 10 x log(RB quantity


used by uplink cell edge UEs) PL

IOT = Receiver power of one RB SINR Uplink noise of one RB

The preceding formulas are based on the uplink cell edge rate, MCS, and path loss and
use FDD as an example. The calculation results are as follows:
Figure 1.1 Recommended IOT values
ISD

UL Edge
Rate

Cell Edge
MCS

Edge Path
Loss

Require
d SINR

IOT

500

256 Kbps

0.4 (4th tier)

126 dB

-0.75 dB

12

1000

128 Kbps

0.5 (5th tier)

133 dB

-1.5 dB

1732

64 Kbps

0.6 (6th tier)

140 dB

-2.5 dB

Right-click Cells under Transceiver and choose Open Table from the shortcut menu.
The window shown in Figure 1.2 is displayed.
Figure 1.2 Setting the IOT value

By default, U-Net V300R007 adopts open loop power control. To obtain the transmit
power of an RB, you need to set Po and Alpha.
Power/RB = Po + Alpha x PL (downlink path loss)
Figure 1.3 lists the default values of Po and Alpha:

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Figure 1.3 Recommended values of open loop power control parameters


ISD

Po

alpha

500 m

-68

0.7

1000 m

-75

0.7

1732 m

-85

0.8

Ensure that the IOT value supports a certain RB quantity on cell edge, and nearby
locations can reach the highest tier of MCS, that is, no interference in the case of
single point.

2.3.5 RS Power, PA, and PB


RS Power indicates the power of the reference signal on a subcarrier (unit: dBm). The
value of RS Power has direct impact on pilot-related studies, such as RSRP and RS
SINR. Using the value of RS Power and the offset of each channels power from the
RS power (such as PA, PBCH to RS, SCH to RS, PCFICH to RS, PDCCH to RS,
or PHICH to RS), you can calculate the power of PDSCH or other channels and the
studies of each channel type. Therefore, RS Power is a key parameter in capacity
simulation.
Figure 1.1 lists the default values of PBCH to RS, SCH to RS, PCFICH to RS,
PDCCH to RS, and PHICH to RS.
Figure 1.1 Offset of each channel from the RS channel
Channel Type

Default Offset

PBCH to RS

SCH to RS

PCFICH to RS

PDCCH to RS

PHICH to RS

To obtain the offset of the PDSCH power on the central band and the PDSCH power
on the edge band from the RS power, set CCU PA and CEU PA. The value range is as
follows: [-6, -4.77, -3, -1.77, 0, 1, 2, and 3]. The default value of CCU PA is 6, and
the default value of CEU PA is 1.77. You are advised not to change the default
values.
The value of RS Power depends on the Max Power value, bandwidth, antenna port
quantity, and PB configuration. The pilot structure of an antenna varies according to
the antenna configuration, and the PB configuration varies according to the pilot
structure. The following section describes the involved pilot structures and PB values
in detail.

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Figure 1.2 Mapping of downlink pilot locations (normal CP)

The transmit power of the data channel is in EPRE mode. The ratio of the transmit
power of PDSCH and that of the RS channel is as follows: PDSCH EPRE: RS EPRE =
A or B .

A indicates the ratio of the average data subcarrier power and the average pilot
subcarrier power of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols
without a pilot.

B indicates the ratio of the average data subcarrier power and the average pilot
subcarrier power of the OFDM symbols with a pilot.
The relationship between B and A is as follows:
Figure 1.3 Relationship between B and A for one-way, two-way, and four-way
antennas

PB

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B / A
One Antenna
Port

Two and Four


Antenna Ports

5/4

4/5

3/5

3/4

2/5

1/2

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The value of PB is in radio resource control (RRC) mode. PB is a cell-level

/ A .
parameter. Its value range is [0, 1, 2, and 3]. The value of PB maps that of B
Figure 1.4 lists the mapping between the values of the two parameters. You can obtain
the relationship between the RS power and transmit antenna quantity and the
relationship between the antenna port quantity when the total transmitter power and
bandwidth are constant.
Figure 1.4 Default values of RS Power and PB
Port
Quantit
y (Tx)

Downlink
Bandwidt
h

Maximum
Transmitter
Power of
Single
Antenna
Port (W)

RS
Power(dBm)

PB

PA

20 MHz (100
RB)

40

15.2

20 MHz

20

15.2

20 MHz

10

12.2

On U-Net, antenna quantity refers to the quantity of antenna ports. For example, to
connect the eight-way antenna to two ports in capacity simulation, set TxNumber of
the eNodeB to 2, and set the related MCS threshold.
You can refer to the following formula when setting RS Power. This formula is
tenable when PA is 3.
RS Power = (Max Power/Antenna port quantity)/(12 x RB quantity) x (1 + PB )
In the preceding table, the default bandwidth is 20 MHz, and the default total transmit
power is 40 W. Modify the value of RS Power if the bandwidth or transmit power is
different. For example, if the bandwidth is 10 MHz and the transmitter power remains
unchanged, add 3 dB to the value of RS Power.
Figure 1.5 Setting RS Power and PB

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2.3.6 DL MIMO Scheme


3GPP R9 defines eight transmission modes for downlink MIMO.

Single antenna port, port 0: This is mode 1, used in eNodeB 1T scenarios.

Open loop transmit diversity: This is mode 2, used in eNodeB 2T/4T/4T/8T


scenarios.

Open loop spatial multiplexing: This is mode 3. It adopts the larger delay CDD
technology and is used in eNodeB 2T/4T/4T scenarios. Mode 3 can fall back to
mode 2.

Closed loop spatial multiplexing: This is mode 4, used in eNodeB 2T/4T/4T/8T


scenarios. Mode 4 can fall back to mode 2.

MU-MIMO: This is mode 5, used in eNodeB 2T/4T/4T scenarios. Mode 5 can


fall back to mode 2.

Closed loop spatial multiplexing, single transmission layer: This is mode 6,


used in eNodeB 2T/4T24T scenarios.

Single antenna port, port 5: This is mode 7. It is defined in 3GPP R8 and


applicable to single layer BF. Mode 7 can fall back to mode 1 or mode 2.

Single layer BF and dual layer BF: This is mode 8. It is defined in 3GPP R9. Dual
layer BF refers to Dual layer transmission, 7 and 8 of port, and single layer BF
refers to Single antenna port, 7 or 8 of port. Single layer BF can also be used
for MU-BF. Mode 8 can fall back to mode 1 or mode 2.

The UEs that support 3GPP R8 but do not support uplink transmit antenna
selection can be handed over between modes 2, 3, and 7 in self-adaptation mode.

The UEs that support 3GPP R9 and uplink transmit antenna selection can be
handed over between modes 2, 3, and 8 in self-adaptation mode.

Besides the preceding modes, U-Net also supports the following modes: open loop
adaptation (modes 2 and 3), closed loop self adaptation (modes 4 and 6), and openclosed loop self adaptation (modes 2, 3, 4, and 6), and BF & MIMO self adaptation.
Figure 1.1 Downlink MIMO mode

No model is set for mode 5 on U-Net, and the fallback of mode 5 is not taken into account. The
performance of each MIMO mode is described in the MCS threshold table.

Some UEs do not support mode 7 or 8. If BF is selected in the cell table, select
Support BF in the MIMO TerminalLTE Properties dialog box.

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If Not Support is selected, the MIMO mode is mode 2 even if mode 7 or 8 is


selected in the cell table.

If TM7 is selected, the MIMO mode is mode 7 even if mode 8 is selected in the
cell table.

Figure 1.2 Setting UE Properties

2.4 Traffic
2.4.1 Setting UE Properties
Note the BF support mode and antenna quantity when you set the UE parameters.
When calculating the downlink throughput, U-Net selects the MCS threshold
according to the BF support mode and antenna quantity. Therefore, the downlink
throughput may be incorrect if these parameters are incorrect.
For the setting rules, see section 2.2.2"Antenna Configuration on eNodeB." For details
about how to set the BF support mode, see section 2.3.6"DL MIMO Scheme."
If the check box of Input RB Number is selected, you can obtain the RB quantity
supported by the UE from this window.
Choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > LTE. Double-click MIMO TerminalLTE
or Mobile TerminalLTE. The MIMO TerminalLTE Properties dialog box is
displayed.

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Figure 1.1 Setting the antenna type of a UE

2.4.2 Setting the MCS Efficiency


By default, the MCSs of all MIMO modes supported by U-Net map the MCS
efficiency in the PDSCH MCS and PUSCH MCS tables. Therefore, if you use the
MCS thresholds of the MIMO modes supported by U-Net, do not modify the MCS
tables. If you want to use custom MCS tables and custom MCS thresholds, you can
modify the MCS tables.
Choose Traffic Parameters > Service > LTE > PDSCH MCS & PUSCH MCS.

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The following MCS tables are recommended:


Figure 1.1 PDSCH MCS

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Index

Modulati
on

Modulation
Order

Coding
Rate

Bear
Efficienc
y

QPSK

0.115

0.23

QPSK

0.155

0.31

QPSK

0.19

0.38

QPSK

0.245

0.49

QPSK

0.3

0.6

QPSK

0.37

0.74

QPSK

0.44

0.88

QPSK

0.515

1.03

QPSK

0.59

1.18

10

QPSK

0.665

1.33

11

16QAM

0.3325

1.33

12

16QAM

0.37

1.48

13

16QAM

0.425

1.7

14

16QAM

0.4775

1.91

15

16QAM

0.54

2.16

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Index

Modulati
on

Modulation
Order

Coding
Rate

Bear
Efficienc
y

16

16QAM

0.6025

2.41

17

16QAM

0.6425

2.57

18

64QAM

0.4283333

2.57

19

64QAM

0.455

2.73

20

64QAM

0.505

3.03

21

64QAM

0.5533333

3.32

22

64QAM

0.6016667

3.61

23

64QAM

0.65

3.9

24

64QAM

0.7016667

4.21

25

64QAM

1.08

4.52

26

64QAM

1.205

4.82

27

64QAM

0.8533333

5.12

28

64QAM

0.8883333

5.33

29

64QAM

0.925

5.55

Figure 1.2 PUSCH MCS

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Index

Modulati
on

Modulation
Order

Coding
Rate

Bear
Efficien
cy

QPSK

0.095

0.19

QPSK

0.125

0.25

QPSK

0.155

0.31

QPSK

0.2

0.4

QPSK

0.245

0.49

QPSK

0.305

0.61

QPSK

0.36

0.72

QPSK

0.425

0.85

QPSK

0.485

0.97

10

QPSK

0.545

1.09

11

QPSK

0.61

1.22

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Index

Modulati
on

Modulation
Order

Coding
Rate

Bear
Efficien
cy

12

16QAM

0.305

1.22

13

16QAM

0.35

1.4

14

16QAM

0.395

1.58

15

16QAM

0.445

1.78

16

16QAM

0.4975

1.99

17

16QAM

0.5325

2.13

18

16QAM

0.565

2.26

19

16QAM

0.6275

2.51

20

16QAM

0.6875

2.75

21

16QAM

0.7475

2.99

22

64QAM

0.498333

2.99

23

64QAM

0.538333

3.23

24

64QAM

0.581667

3.49

25

64QAM

0.623333

3.74

26

64QAM

0.663333

3.98

27

64QAM

0.706667

4.24

28

64QAM

0.735

4.41

29

64QAM

0.855

5.13

2.4.3 Setting the MSC Threshold


The MCS threshold on U-Net is changed from tier-fixed MCS to AMC. To ensure the
correctness of the TBS/RB after the tier selection of SINR in the capacity forecast, you
can use the default MCS thresholds of U-Net or customize an MCS threshold in
capacity simulation. The customization method is as follows:
Choose Traffic Parameters > Terminals > Reception Equipment.

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Figure 1.1 Configuring a MCS threshold

Select the reception equipment (eNodeB for the uplink equipment and UE for the
downlink equipment), and modify the MCS threshold. By default, the first and second
lines are modified. You can also create a new MCS threshold.
To ensure that a correct MCS threshold is selected, set the parameters related to the
MCS threshold correctly in capacity simulation.

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Reception Equipment: Set the downlink reception equipment in the UE


parameter window, and set the uplink reception equipment in the cell parameter
table. Ensure that the UE is selected correctly in capacity simulation.

Set PDSCH MCS/PUSCH MCS.

Mobility: Set Mobility according to the MCS threshold in coverage forecast.

MIMO: Set the antenna quantities of the eNodeB and UE. For example, set this
parameter to DL 2*2, which indicates configuring a two-way antenna for the
eNodeB and a two-way antenna for the UE.

Set DL MIMO Scheme for the downlink equipment.


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This section describes an actual case. In the cell parameter table, set the uplink
reception equipment to Default Cell Reception Equipment, and set the downlink
reception equipment to Default UE Reception Equipment.
Figure 1.2 Setting the uplink and downlink equipment

Set the MCS and MCS threshold. For details about how to set the MCS, see section
2.4.2"Setting the MCS Efficiency.". For details about how to set the MCS threshold,
see Figure 1.1. In the Default UE Reception Equipment Properties dialog box, set
Mobility to 30Km/h, MIMO to 2x2, and DL_MIMO_Scheme to TM2. Ensure the
antennas of the eNodeB and UE are set correctly. For details about how to set the
antennas, see section 2.2.2"Antenna Configuration on eNodeB" and section 2.4.1
"Setting UE Properties." In section 2.2.2 "Antenna Configuration on eNodeB," Tx
Number is set to 2, indicating a two-way antenna is configured for the eNodeB. In
section 2.4.1 "Setting UE Properties," Number of Reception Antenna Ports is set to
2, indicating a two-way antenna is configured for the UE.
Ensure that the mobility speed is correctly set. The procedure is as follows: Right-click
Predictions and choose New from the shortcut menu. The New Prediction Group
dialog box is displayed.

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Figure 1.3 Setting the mobility rate for coverage forecast (1)

Select the studies, and click Next. The Group Properties dialog box is displayed.
Select the Condition tab. Set Mobility to 30km/h to ensure that the mobility rate is
consistent with that of the MCS threshold. If the mobility rate in antenna configuration
or UE configuration is inconsistent with that of the MCS threshold, the MCS threshold
cannot be correctly read, and the studies cannot be correctly calculated.

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Figure 1.4 Setting the mobility rate for coverage forecast (2)

2.4.4 Setting the Service Rate


Max Throughput indicates the required throughput rate of the UE. Currently, full
buffer services are used in most capacity simulations. Therefore, set Max Throughput
to as large a value as possible, such as 100 Mbps or 200 Mbps, to ensure that all
resources can be used up.
During the simulation of real services, set the mobility rate according to the specific
service. If the quantity of UEs is insufficient and the service rate is low, the resources
may be redundant, and the throughput of the cell may be low.
If the guaranteed bit rate (GBR) service is used, select GBR. After GBR is selected,
U-Net automatically raises the priority of the UEs whose throughput does not reach
the value of Min Throughput to ensure that the average service rate of the UEs
reaches the value of Min Throughput.

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Figure 1.1 Setting the Service Rate

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FAQs

3.1 How Do I Do If the Link Estimation


Result Is Inconsistent with the Coverage
Forecast Result on U-Net When the
Parameter Settings Are Consistent?
Analysis: If the link estimation result is inconsistent with the coverage forecast result
on U-Net when the parameter settings are consistent, the possible causes are as
follows:
1.

Different methods are used to calculate the antenna gain.

Link estimation: Use the maximum antenna gain of the eNodeB and do not take the
fading of the antenna in every direction into account.
Coverage forecast on U-Net: Calculate the antenna gain according to the actual
antenna file and take the fading of the antenna in every direction and the impacts of the
azimuth and downtilt into account. Therefore, the antenna gain obtained on the cell
edge is usually not the maximum value.
2.

Different downlink interference models are used.

Link estimation: The downlink interference margin is a simulation result of the radio
transmission technology (RTT) in the case of different loads. The link estimation
result varies according to the downlink interference margin.
Coverage forecast on U-Net: The downlink interference margin is calculated according
to the current network configuration.
3.

The transmit power of each RB is inconsistent due to different uplink transmit


power and RB quantity.

Link estimation: The maximum transmit power in the link estimation table is used as
the uplink transmit power. The RB quantity is calculated according to the service rate
on cell edge and the tier of the MCS.
Coverage forecast on U-Net: Uplink open loop power control is used. The transmit
power of each RB is calculated according to the P0 and Alpha in the protocol. The
formula for calculating the RB quantity used in each uplink location is as follows:

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Min[Bandwidth x Load, MaxPower/(Po + Alpha x PL)]


4.

The uplink IOT in coverage forecast is different from that in link estimation.

Link estimation: The maximum coverage distance is used in link estimation. The
background noise increase on cell edge is used as the IOT, which is different in indoor
and outdoor scenarios.
Coverage forecast on U-Net: The cell-level IOT is used in coverage forecast, which is
the same in indoor and outdoor scenarios. It can be calculated according to the uplink
transmit power of the actual UE.
Therefore, the link estimation result is different from the coverage forecast result on
U-Net. Do not compare them directly.

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4
1.
2.

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References

Guide to the Template for Setting LTE Engineering Parameters


Shadow Fading in Coverage Forecast and Capacity Simulation

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