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RCC design B.C.

Punmia

RETAINING WALL
A retaining wall or retaining structure is used for maintaining the ground surfgaces at
defrent elevations on either side of it. Whenever embankments are involed in construction ,retaining
wall are usually necessary. In the construction of buildins having basements, retaining walls are
mandatory. Similsrly in bridge work, the wing walls and abutments etc. are designed as retaining
walls , to resist earth pressure along with superimposed loads. The material retained or supported by
a retaining wall is called backfill lying above the horizontal plane at the elevation of the top of a wall is
called the surcharge, and its inclination to horizontal is called the surcharge angle
In the design of retaining walls or other retaining structures, it is necessary to compute the
lateral earth pressure exerted bythe retaining mass of soil. The equation of finding out the lateral
earth pressure against retaining wall is one of the oldest in Civil Engineering field. The plastic state of
strees, when the failure is imminent, was invetigated by Rankine in1860. A Lot of theoretical
experiment work has been done in this field and many theory and hypothesis heve benn proposed.

18.2 TYPE OF RETAINING WALLS


Retaining walls may be classified according to their mode of resisting the earth
pressure,and according to their shape. Following are some of commen types of retaining walls (Fig)
1
2
3
4

Gravity walls
Cantilever retaining walls
Counterfort retainig walls.
Buttresssed walls.

a. T- shaped

b. L- shaped

A gravity retaining wall shown in fig 1 is the one in which the earth pressure exrted by the
back fill is resisted by dead weight of wall, which is either made of masonry or of mass concrete .
The stress devlop in the wall is very low ,These walls are no proportioned that no tension is devloped
any where, and the resultant of forces remain withen the middle third of the base.

The cantilever retaining wall resist the horizontal earth pressure as well as other vertical pressure by way of beending of va

ressure by way of beending of varios components acting as cantilever s.A coomon form of cantilever retaining waal

etaining waal

DESIGN OF L SHAPED CANTILEVER RETAINING WALL


Horizontal back fill
Hieght of cantilever wall from ground level
=
Unit weight of Earth
=
Angle of repose
=
Safe Bearing capacity of soil
=
Coffiecent of friction
=
Concrete
Mwt. of concrete
m = 13.33
2
Steel
st =
fe = 415 N/mm
cbc =
Nominal cover
=
Foundation depth
=

3.00
18
30
180
0.5
20
25000
230
7
25
1.00

m
KN/m3
Degree
KN/m3

N/m
N/mm2
N/mm2
mm
m
3

200
0 mm@
0 mm c/c

8 mm@
300 mm c/c

0 mm@
mm c/c

0 mm@
0 mm c/c

0 mm@
0 mm c/c

0 mm@
0 mm c/c

0 mm@
0 mm c/c

0 mm@
mm c/c

`
DESIGN SUMMARY
Stem thickness

290 mm
-400 mm
Key
290

At top
Heel width
x

10
10
10

mm@
mm@
mm@

80
160
320

mm c/c
mm c/c
mm c/c

Distribution
Tamprecture

8
8

mm @
mm @

180
300

mm c/c
mm c/c

Main
Distribution

16
8

mm@
mm @

80
100

mm c/c
mm c/c

Footing width

At footing
Toe width
2400 mm

200 mm
2500 mm
290 mm

Reinforcement Summary
STEM:- Main
(from top of
Retaining
100% Reinforcement
upto
wall)

m 2.29

50% Reinforcement upto

m 1.74

25% Reinforcement upto

m Top

TOE:-

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

10 mm
320 @ c/c

mm
@ c/c
4000
mm

3000

1.74

8
300 @ c/c
###
###
8 mm

10 mm
160 @ c/c

2.29

180 @ c/c
720

###

###

290

###

Heel
720

200

2500

8
300

###
###
16
80

mm
@ c/c

@ c/c

300
2400
300

2500

2.29

### mm
### @ c/c
mm

10
320 @ c/c

1.74

#REF!

10 mm
160 @ c/c
10
80
Out side
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

mm
@ c/c

Heel

-400

-400
mm 180 @ c/c

mm

###

Toe
### mm
### @ c/c

10
80

Earth side

mm
@ c/c

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

DESIGN OF L SHAPED CANTILEVER RETAINING WALL with horizontal back fill


Hieght of cantilever wall from ground level
Unit weight of Earth
Angle of repose

q0

Safe Bearing capacity of soil


Coffiecent of friction
Concrete
Steel
Nominal cover
Foundation depth

fe

1 Design Constants:- For HYSD Bars

st =

cbc =

k=

m*c

m*c+st
j=1-k/3
1

R=1/2xc x j x k
0.5

=
=
=
=
=
=

Cocrete M =

230 N/mm2
7

=
=
=

m
kN/m3
Degree

0.289

20

230

x 0.904

18000 N/m2

M 20
415
25 mm
1.00 m

m
13.33
13.33 x

kN/m2

wt. of concrete =

N/mm2
=

3.00
18
30
180
0.5

### N/m3

25

kN/m3

13.33
= 0.289
= 0.904

x 0.289 = 0.913

2 Diamension of base:height of wall above base, H =


3.00 + 1.00 = 4.00 meter
The ratio of length of slabe (DE) to base width b is given by eq.
q0
180
1
=
1
= -0.14
=
2.2 y H
2.2 x
18 x 4.00
. Eq (1)
Keep = -0.14
The width of base is given by Eq.
Ka
b = 0.95 H x
Ka =
(1- a)x(1+3 a)
b =

0.95

4.00

1-sin
1+sin

0.333
-0.14 )x(
1

sin 30
1
- 0.5
1
+ 0.5

+ -0.42 )

= 0.5
= 0.33

2.70

The base width from the considration of sliding is given by Eq.


0.7HKa
0.7
x 4.00 x 0.333
=
=
1.64
m
(1-)
(
1
- -0.14 )x 0.5
This width is excessive. Normal practice is to provide b between 0.4 to 0.6 H .

b =

Taking value of H =

0.6

0.60

4.00 =

2.40

Hence Provided b =
m
2.40
The wall will be unsafe against sliding. This will be made safe by providing a shear Key at base .
Width of toe slab =

xb

Hence width of heel slab

=
=
=

4 Thickness of stem:Heigth AB

Let the thickness of stem

-0.14 x
H/12
=
2.40 4.00

2.40
4.00
0.30

= -0.34 m Provided toe slab = -0.40


m
/
12
= 0.33 or say
= 0.30 m for design
purpose
- -0.40 = 2.50 m

0.30
H13

3.70 m consider 1 m length of retaining wall

Kxy x
0.33 x
18 x( 3.70
=
6
6
6
50.65 x
10

Effective depth required


=
=
= 236
Rxb
0.913 x 1000
Keep d
=
= 240
240 mm and total thickness
Assuming that 10 mm bar will be used. a nominal cover of =
50 - 5
Reduce the total thickness
=
200 mm at top so that effective depth of
to

Maximum Bending momentat B =

)3

50.65

50
45
150

= 290
mm
mm

mm
+
=
=

5 Stability of wall:Full dimension wall is shown in fig 1a


Let W 1 = weight of rectangular portion of stem
w2 = weight of triangular portion of stem
w3 = weight of base slab
w4 = weight of soil on heel slab.
The calculation are arrenged in Table
Detail
w1
1
x
0.20 x 3.70 x
w2 1/2
x
0.09 x 3.70 x
w3
1
x
2.40 x 0.30 x
w4
1
x
2.10 x 3.70 x
Total resisting moment

213.00

Ka x y x H2

139.86

w =

181.00

18
2

x( 4.00 )2

Over turning moment Mo =

48

0.33

F.S. against over turning

F.S. against sliding

w
PH

=
0.5 x
48

213
64
181.00

4.0
3.0

Moment (KN-m)

0.100
0.245
1.200
1.35
total MR

1.85
1.02
21.60
188.81
213.00

=
64

48

kN

kN-m

3.33

>

1.5

Hence safe

1.89

>

1.5

Shear key Not


required

Pressure distribution
64 =
net moment M = 213.00 Distance x of the point of application of resultant, from toe is
149
M
=
= 0.82 m
x =
181
w
b
2.40
Eccenticity e =
x
=
- 0.82 = 0.38 m
2
2
Pressure p1 at
6e
181
6x 0.38
W
=
1+
=
x 1+
=
b
b
2.40
2.40
toe
Pressure p1 at
6e
181
6x 0.38
W
=
1=
x
1=
b
b
2.40
2.40
Heel
Pressure p at the junction of stem with toe slab is
146.00 - 4.00
p = 146.00 x -0.40 = 169.67
2.40
Pressure p at the junction of stem with Heel slab is
146.00 - 4.00
p = 146.00 x 2.50 =
-1.92
2.40
6

lever arm

kN-m
x

Earth pressure p =
Over turning

25
25
25
18

force(kN)
= 18.50
=
4.16
= 18.00

kN-m

149
b
6

2.40
6

<

0.40

= 0.40
Hence safe

146.0 <
kN -m2
4
<
kN -m2

180

kN-m2 <

180

Hence safe

kN-m2 <

180

Hence safe

180

Hence safe
Hence safe

Design of Bottom slab:The upward pressure distribution on the slab is shown in fig 1b .The weight of soil above the
toe slab is neglicted . Thus two forces are acting on it
(1) Up ward soil pressure
(2) Down ward weight of slab
Down ward weight of slab per unit area = 0.30 x
1
x 1.00 x 25 = 7.50 kN-m2
Hence net pressure intensities will be = 146.00 - 7.50 =
138.5 kN-m2 under D
And at under E
= 4.00 - 7.50 =
-3.50 kN-m2
Total S.F. =
0.50 x( 138.50 + -3.50 ) x 2.40 = 162.00 kN
-3.50
+
2.00 x 138.50
2.40
x from E =
x
= 1.62 m
-3.50
+
138.50
3
B.M. at E =
162.00 x 1.62
= 262.56 kN-m

262.56 x
10 6

Effective depth required =


=
= 536
mm
Rxb
0.913 x 1000

Keep effective depth d

=
=

Reduce the total thickness to


BM x 106

Ast =

st x j x D

550
200

mm and total thickness


=
0.20 m at edge
mm or
262.56
x
10 6
=
2297
230 x 0.904 x 550

550 +

50
=
say =

600
0.6

mm2

3.14xdia2
3.14 x 16 x 16
=
= 201
4
4
=
1000 / 2297 =
Spacing A x1000 / Ast
201 x
80
mm

80
Hence Provided
mm c/c
16 mm bar, @
45 x
16 = 720 mm
Let us check this reinforcement for development length Ld=45 =
Providing
25 mm clear side cover actual length available =
-400 25 =
-425
-425 <
Hence
not
safe
720
0.12
600 + 200
Distribution steel
=
x 1000 x
=
480
100
2
3.14 x (
8
)'2
D2
Using 8 mm bars, Area
=
=
=
50
mm2
4
4
1000 x
50
mm c/c
= 105 mm say = 100
Spacing =
480
using

16

mm bars

8 Reinforcement in the stem:We had earliar assume the thickeness of heel slab as
While it has now been fixed as

0.6
H13
6

Rxb

m only.

Hence revised H1=

0.33

18

210

140

4.00 -

0.30 m
0.6

= 3.40

x( 3.40 )
=
39.30 kN-m
6
39.30
x
10 6
Effective depth required =
=
= 207 mm
0.913
x
1000
Keep effective depth d =
= 210 + 50
= 260
210 mm and total thickness
Reduce the total thickness to
0.20 m at edge
=
200 mm or
BM x100
39.30
x
10 6
=
Ast =
=
mm2
901
st x j x D
230 x 0.904 x 210
3.14 x ( 10 )'2
D2
Using 10 mm bars, Area
=
=
=
79
mm2
4
4
1000 x
79
= 87 mm say =
80
mm c/c
Spacing =
901
79
Actual AS provided = 1000 x
=
982
mm2
80
Continue alternate bars in the toe slabto serve as tensile reinforcement ther.Discontinue the remaining
half bars after a distance of 45= 45
x
10
= 450 mm beyond B, In th etoe slab.
Between A and B some of bars can be curtailed. Cosider a section at depth below the top of stem
M =

Kay

The effective depth d' at section is = 140


d'

Ast' =
d' =

if Ast = 1/2 Ast


=

245

H
210
- 140
3.40

mm and d' =(
h

H1

3.40

140 +
140 +
2
140 x

(where h In meter)
=( 140

+ 20.59 x h )

H =( Ast d )1/3

or

Ast' d' 1/3


h
= A d
H1
st
reinforcement at depth h
effective depthat depth h
Ast'
1
than
=
Ast
2

Hence

Subsituting d

H3
d'

Ast

Now As

where

140

Ast
d
h
H1

= reinforcement at depth H1
= effective depthat depth H1
1
d' 1/3
=
x
2
d

20.6 x h ) we get
20.6 x
h 1/3
x
245
20.6 x

1/3

3.40

1
4

2
x
245
h =
0.431 x ( 140 + 20.6 x h )1/3
2.50
-0.01
m
0.431 x ( 140 + 20.6 x h) 1/3- h =
h =
This can be solved by trial and error,
Solving (3) by trial, we get h = 2.50 m.Thus half bars can be curtailed can be curtailed at this point
.Howerver, the bars should be extented by a distance of 12 =
12 x 10 =
120 mm
Or d =
210 mm whichever is more beyond the point.
h =
2.5
- 0.21 = 2.29 m. Hence curtailed half bars at at height of

2.29 m below the top . If we wish to curtailed half of the remaining bars so that remaining
Ast'
1
remaining reinforcement is one forth of that provided ar B, we have
=
Hence from .(2)
Ast
4

h
H1

d'
d

1/3

h =

H1

140
4

+ 20.6
x

245

20.6 x
h 1/3
h =
3.40
x
245
h =
0.342 x (
20.6 x h )1/3
1.95 m
0.342 x ( 140 + 20.6 x h) 1/3- h =
-0.01
h =
This can be solved by trial and error,
Solving (4) by trial, we get h = 1.95 m.Thus half bars can be curtailed can be curtailed at this point
.Howerver, the bars should be extented by a distance of 12 =
12 x 10 =
120 mm
Or d =
210 mm whichever is more beyond the point.
h =
1.95 0.21 = 1.74 m. Hence stop half bars the remaining bars

1.74
m below the tonanagh
by
x

140 x
4
140 +

Check for shear:Shear force =

kayH2

p=

= 0.33 x

2
34.68 x 1000
tv
=
=

1000 x 250
Distribution and temprechure reinforcement:Average thickness of stem
=

Using

Distribution reinforcement
mm bars, Area

x
50
276
for tempreture reinforcement provide
spacing

1000

D2
=
4

18
2

0.14

<

0.18

260

+
2

200

x 3.40 =

182

mm say =

mm bars =

kN

Permissible shear stress table 3.1

0.12
x 1000 x
100
)'2
3.14 x (
8
4

34.68

230
230
=

mm
=

276
50.24

mm2
mm2

at the inner face of wall,

180 mm c/c along its length


300 mm c/c both way in outer face

9 Design of shear key:The wall is in unsafe in sliding, and hence shear key will be provided below the stem as shown in fig.
Let the depth of key =a intensity of passive pressure P p devloped in front of key depend upon
the soil pressure P in front of the key
Pp = KpP =
3.00 x 169.67 = 509.00 kN/m3
Kp=1/ka = 3.00
total passive pressure Pp = Pp x a =
509.00 a
18
Sliding force at level D1C1
=
0.33 x
x(
4
+
a
)2
2.00
or PH
=
3.00 x(
4
+
a
)2
.(2)
Weight of the soil between bottom of the base and D 1C1 = 2.40 ax 18 = 43.20 a
181.00 + 43.20 a
Refer force calculation table

W =
Hence equilibrium of wall, permitting F.S. = 1.5
against sliding we have
w+Pp
0.5 x ( 181.00 + 43.20 a)+ 509.00 a
1.5
=
=
PH
3
x(
4
)
+ a2
0.5
x
(
+
43.20
a)+
181.00
509.00 a
1.5 x(
4
+
a)2
=

1.5 x(

a)2

a)2

=
=
=

181.00 + 43.20 a
181.00 + 43.20 x

x
1.5
21.6 a+ 509.00 a
4.5
2
20.11
(
4
+ a)
=
+ 118 a
16 +
8 a + a2
= 117.91 a8
a + 20.11 - 16
a2
= 109.9 a 4.11
+
or a =
a2 - 109.9 a
-4.11
or a = -0.037 m say
=
-40 mm
However, provided minimum value of a = 300 mm. Keep width of key 290 mm (equal to stem width)
it should be noted that passive pressure taken into account above will be devloped only when length
a1 given below is avilable in front of key ;

where (45 + /2) =


a1 = a tan =
a tan x
45
+
= a kp
shearing angle of passive resistance
2
a1 =
0.3 x ( 3.00 )1/2

a1 = 0.5196 m
Actual length of the slab available = DE = -0.40
Hence satisfactory.
Now size of key =
300 x 290 mm
PH =
3.00 x(
4.00 +
a
)2
=
3.00 x(
4.00 + 0.30 )2
PH =
55.47 kN
=
509.00 a
=
509.00
x
0.30
=
Hence
152.70 kN
=

193.96

90.50

Bending stress

=
=

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

-13.78
300
-13.78
1/6
-0.14

x
x
x
x

0.30

kN

Actual force to be resisted by the key at F.S. 1.5 is

shear stress

= 1.5PH - W
= 1.5 x 55.47 = -13.78
kN

1000
= -0.046 N/mm2
1000
150 x 1000
1000 x(
300 )2
N/mm2
Hence safe

0.5

193.96

ck fill

Eq (1)

0.33
m

y at base .
for design
purpose

Kn-m

mm

..(1)

..(2)

Hence safe
Shear key Not
required

Hence safe
Hence safe
Hence safe

Hence safe

Hence safe

of soil above the

mm
m

mm2

mm
mm2

mm

the remaining

op of stem

,,,'(1)

..(3)
-0.01
at this point

at at height of

nce from

.(2)
1/3

..(4)
-0.01
at this point

remaining bars

r stress table 3.1

nner face of wall,


s length
way in outer face

m as shown in fig.
ey depend upon

.(2)

culation table

qual to stem width)


only when length

assive resistance

m
ce satisfactory.

0.20
0 mm @
mm c/c

c/c

0 mm@

mm C/C

0 mm@

mm C/C

0 mm@

mm C/C

0 mm @
mm c/c

0 mm @
mm c/c

3.70

0 mm @
mm c/c

0 mm @
mm c/c

0 mm @
mm c/c

0 mm@
0.29
0.29

2.40
0 mm @
mm c/c

mm C/C

0.20

0.20
A

0.20
A

H= ###

H= 4.00

H1=3.70 m

3.00 m

H1=

3.00 m

W1

W2

2.40
0.00

2.50

heel
C

W1

W2
E

2.50
B

a1
m

Kay(H+a)

###

###

2.40

D1

P=

###

b=
###

C
0.30

Toe
2.40

W2

0.30

P=

Toe

2.40
###

2.50

0.30

b=

3.70 m

W1

###

toe
### D

3.00 m

###

b
-0.40

3.70 m

Pp =

Kpp

C1

###

###
0.20
A
Outer side face
8 mm
@ 300 c/c

Earth side Face


`
8 mm
@ 300 c/c

10 mm@ 320 C/C

4.00 m

###

H=

mm@ 180 C/C


###

3000
#REF!

8 mm
@ 180 c/c

@ 300 c/c

10 mm@ 160 C/C


8

mm

@ 300 c/c

10 mm@ 80

C/C

N.S.L.

mm
@ ### c/c

###

### mm@ ### C/C

###

290
###

Toe

Heel

Earth side Face


Reinforcement Detail

###
200

200
Foundation level
16 mm
@ 80 c/c

mm

290

### mm
@ ### c/c

Outer side face


Reinforcement Detail

290

mm
c/c

mm
c/c

Table 1.15. PERMISSIBLE DIRECT TENSILE STRESS


Grade of concrete

Tensile stress N/mm2

M-10

M-15

M-20

M-25

M-30

M-35

M-40

1.2

2.0

2.8

3.2

3.6

4.0

4.4

Table 1.16.. Permissible stress in concrete (IS : 456-2000)


Permission stress in compression (N/mm2) Permissible stress in bond (Average) for
Grade of
plain bars in tention (N/mm2)
Bending cbc
Direct (cc)
concrete
(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
in kg/m2
Kg/m2 (N/mm2)
Kg/m2
--M 10
3.0
300
2.5
250
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

5.0
7.0
8.5
10.0
11.5
13.0
14.5
16.0

500
700
850
1000
1150
1300
1450
1600

4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0

400
500
600
800
900
1000
1100
1200

0.6
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

60
80
90
100
110
120
130
140

Table 1.18. MODULAR RATIO


Grade of concrete

Modular ratio m

M-10

M-15

M-20

M-25

M-30

M-35

M-40

31
(31.11)

19
(18.67)

13
(13.33)

11
(10.98)

9
(9.33)

8
(8.11)

7
(7.18)

Table 2.1. VALUES OF DESIGN CONSTANTS


Grade of concrete
Modular Ratio

cbc N/mm
m cbc

kc
(a) st =
jc
140
N/mm2 Rc
(Fe 250) P (%)
c
kc
(b) st = j
c
190
Rc
N/mm2
Pc (%)
kc
(c ) st =
jc
230
Rc
N/mm2
(Fe 415) P (%)
c
kc
(d) st =
jc
275
Rc
N/mm2
(Fe 500)

M-15
18.67
5
93.33
0.4
0.867
0.867
0.714
0.329
0.89
0.732
0.433
0.289
0.904
0.653
0.314
0.253
0.916
0.579

M-20
13.33
7
93.33
0.4
0.867
1.214
1
0.329
0.89
1.025
0.606
0.289
0.904
0.914
0.44
0.253
0.916
0.811

M-25
10.98
8.5
93.33
0.4
0.867
1.474
1.214
0.329
0.89
1.244
0.736
0.289
0.904
1.11
0.534
0.253
0.916
0.985

M-30
9.33
10
93.33
0.4
0.867
1.734
1.429
0.329
0.89
1.464
0.866
0.289
0.904
1.306
0.628
0.253
0.914
1.159

M-35
8.11
11.5
93.33
0.4
0.867
1.994
1.643
0.329
0.89
1.684
0.997
0.289
0.904
1.502
0.722
0.253
0.916
1.332

M-40
7.18
13
93.33
0.4
0.867
2.254
1.857
0.329
0.89
1.903
1.127
0.289
0.904
1.698
0.816
0.253
0.916
1.506

Grade of concret

(d) st =
275
N/mm2
(Fe 500)

Pc (%)

0.23

0.322

0.391

0.46

0.53

0.599

Table 3.1. Permissible shear stress Table c in concrete (IS : 456-2000)


100As

Permissible shear stress in concrete tc N/mm2


M-15
0.18
0.22
0.29
0.34
0.37
0.40
0.42
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44

bd
< 0.15
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00 and above

M-20
0.18
0.22
0.30
0.35
0.39
0.42
0.45
0.47
0.49
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51

M-25
0.19
0.23
0.31
0.36
0.40
0.44
0.46
0.49
0.51
0.53
0.55
0.56
0.57

M-30
0.20
0.23
0.31
0.37
0.41
0.45
0.48
0.50
0.53
0.55
0.57
0.58
0.6

M-35
0.20
0.23
0.31
0.37
0.42
0.45
0.49
0.52
0.54
0.56
0.58
0.60
0.62

M-40
0.20
0.23
0.32
0.38
0.42
0.46
0.49
0.52
0.55
0.57
0.60
0.62
0.63

200
1.20

175 150 or less


1.30
1.25

Table 3.2. Facor k


Over all depth of slab

300 or more

1.00

275
1.05

250
1.10

225
1.15

Table 3.3. Maximum shear stress c.max in concrete (IS : 456-2000)


M-15
1.6

Grade of concrete

c.max

M-20
1.8

M-25
1.9

M-30
2.2

M-35
2.3

M-40
2.5

Table 3.4. Permissible Bond stress Table bd in concrete (IS : 456-2000)


Grade of concrete M-10
bd (N / mm2)
--

M-15
0.6

M-20
0.8

M-25
0.9

M-30
1

M-35
1.1

M-40
1.2

M-45
1.3

Table 3.5. Development Length in tension


Grade of
concrete
M 15
M 20
M 25
M 30
M 35
M 40
M 45
M 50

Plain M.S. Bars


bd (N / mm2)
kd = Ld
0.6
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

58
44
39
35
32
29
27
25

H.Y.S.D. Bars
bd (N / mm2)
kd = Ld
0.96
1.28
1.44
1.6
1.76
1.92
2.08
2.24

60
45
40
36
33
30
28
26

M-50
1.4

Value of angle
Degree

sin

cos

tan

10

0.174

0.985

0.176

15

0.259

0.966

0.268

16

0.276

0.961

0.287

17

0.292

0.956

0.306

18

0.309

0.951

0.325

19

0.326

0.946

0.344

20

0.342

0.940

0.364

21

0.358

0.934

0.384

22

0.375

0.927

0.404

23

0.391

0.921

0.424

24

0.407

0.924

0.445

25

0.422

0.906

0.466

30

0.500

0.866

0.577

35

0.573

0.819

0.700

40

0.643

0.766

0.839

45

0.707

0.707

1.000

50

0.766

0.643

1.192

55

0.819

0.574

1.428

60

0.866

0.500

1.732

65

0.906

0.423

2.145