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A COMPLETE

PRACTICAL GRAMMAR

OF THE

UNGARIAN LANGUAGE,

CERCISES, SELECTIONS FROM THE BEST AUTHORS, AND VOCABULARIES.

TO WHICH IS ADDED A

ftoncal Mttcl) of Hungarian £ftrrature*

BY

J. tsiNK,

1/

RMER&Y ELECTED AS ORDINARY PROFESSOR OF TECHNICAL SCIENCES AT THE PROTESTANT SCHOOL OF KESMARK.

LONDON:

WILLIAMS AND NO EGA T E,

HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN.

1853.

^

Y K\

Tutus et intra

Spem veniae cautus, vitavi denique culpam,

Non laudem merui.

Horat. Epist. ad Pis.

When I resolved to start from the shores of quotidian life to

cross a small bay of the

vast literary ocean,

a fair wind of

public opinion promised a prosperous journey; the novelty of

the objects which my bark carried guaranteed a cordial welcome

From those whose spy -glasses were directed after some not yet

observed flag. I have reached the port, and discharged my

bark!

Viewing my route from this side of the bay, I now first

perceive, that in my passage over its dangerous shallows, I have

ventured on perilous voyage, being unassisted by the experience

of any previous navigator.

I have endeavoured to meet the desires of those who are inter-

ested in linguistic studies, either in increasing their knowledge

sxtensensively, or in seeking intensive augmentation of the

cognition of that medium through which minds communicate with

minds , and hearts learn to feel from hearts ; and I have tried to

meet the wishes of those who felt interested in the political life

Df the Hungarian nation, by tracing in a short sketch the past

Df the intellectual and mental development of the nation.

As the book is

also

intended

for learners,

I may be

allowed to make a few explanatory remarks.

The Division entitled Compositions" is purely a practical

one, in order to give the student some previous knowledge, before

he attempts the study of a Grammar; therefore, repeating the

more difficult objects, and regarding them from different points

of view, will not be thought prolix.

The words relating to this

part are all collected in a Vocabulary at the end of the first part.

The Theoretical Division contains a short but complete Gram-

IV

mar of the language.

The arrangement of the materials , per-

haps, may appear a new one, but it is,

therefore, not to

be rejected. I chose and rejected terms and reassumed them again,

when, I found no better ones; yet, I always had the alternative

before me either to force the language into the scholastical

forms, or to venture a partly new arrangement of Grammatical

materials ; being fully convinced, that, in either a short or a long

time, Philosophy will give something better than what we now in-

herit from Donatus and others.

In regard to Orthography,

I preferred following the principles established by the Hungarian

Academy , rather than to fluctuate driven by the whims of some

authors. I have not given any orthographical rules, for the words

being written as they are sounded and articulated, a little atten-

tion paid to the spelling of the words when practical exercises

are done, and a knowledge of the Grammatical forms, will com-

pensate for the absence of a Section on Orthography.

The second part contains Selections in prose and poetry

from authors whom the Academy and the nation have crowned

with reputation. As I was obliged to consider the student, I could

not choose any longer or more difficult literary productions. The

first Section of this part will not be deemed insufficient by those

who desire detailed arrangements of the causes which influence

the intellectual and mental development of a nation , and of the

events produced by these causes,

if it be considered that,

in

this

work, the

a very small

nor will this Section be thought superfluous by those

sketch had

to

be

forced into

frame;

who seek after Grammatical studies, for the learning of the lan-

guage of a nation itself excites the desire after some knowledge

of its intellectual life.

London 1852.

•9. Csinft*

CONTENTS OF THE FIRST PART.

INTRODUCTION.

§. 1. Orthophony, Orthoepy

Page.

1.

- Division of the sounds

2.

and words

 

9.

3.

Assimilation of sounds and articulations .

 

10.

- 4. Prolongation of the vowels

 

12.

- 5.

Contractions

13.

COMPOSITIONS.

 

I.

Verbs. Active and Neuter

.

.

.

.

15.

II.

Possessive forms of the Substantive

.

.

27.

III.

Affixes relative to place and directions .

37.

IV.

Expression of the

Verb to have"

 

.

.

43.

V.

Attributes of Substantives

 

48.

VI.

Transformation of the Verbal root.

 

.

.

54.

VII.

Irregularities in Verbal formations .

.

.

64.

VIII.

Participles

*

82.

IX.

The Verb hell, to want, to be obliged, must

 

84.

X.

Future

89.

IX. Pronouns

 

91.

XII.

Conjunctions

100.

VI

THEORY OF THE LANGUAGE.

A. Grammatical Forms

Ta^o.

107 $25.

I.

Verbs.

1. Verbal roots

2.

Conjugation

3. Derivation and Composition of Verbs .

II. Nominal Forms

1. Characteristic of the Objective Case

.

2. Characteristic of the Plural

3. Possessives Affixes

4. Paradigma of the different forms of a

Substantive

'

'"

107.

118.

162.

171.

172.

180.

182.

188.

5. Derivation and Composition of Sub-

III.

stantives

Attributes

1. Adjectives

2. Adverbs IV. Pronouns 1. Personal Pronouns

2. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns

3. Demonstrative Pronouns

4. Definite Pronouns

5. Indefinite Pronouns

V.

Prepositions

VI. Conjunctions

VII.

Interjections

.

199.

204.

205.

213.

216.

216.

218.

219.

220.

220.

220.

223.

224.

B. Syntax

I.

Of the combination of Speech without

225—279.

of the different Parts

the intermediation of

Grammatical forms

226.

A. Of the Article ax, a' and its Congruent

226.

B. Of Adjectives and Numerals with Sub-

stantives

229.

C. Of the Subject and Predicate

230.

VII

Page.

II. Of the combination of Parts of Speech by

 

means of Grammatical forms

 

234.

A.

Of the

Objective Case

234.

B.

Of the Possessive Affixes

235.

C. Of the Prepositional Affixes D. Of the Adjective terminations:

i. nyL

237.

 

s 9 u and it

263.

III.

Of the use of the

different forms of the

 

Verb, and the different Parts of Speech

for connecting sentences

265.

 

A.

Of the Forms of the Verb. 1. The Definite and Indefinite Forms

 

of the Active Voice

265.

 

2.

Moods and Tenses of the Verb

267.

3.

Participles

269.

4.

The Infinitve with Affixes .

271.

 

B. Of terms of periodical construction

272.

 

1. Of the relative Pronouns

.

 

283.

2.

Of the Conjunctions

275.

IV.

Of the Consequence of Parts of Speech, or the arrangement of words in a sentence .

277

READING EXERCISES.

287—320

VOCABULARY TO THE COMPOSITIONS.

287—320

CONTENTS OF THE SECOND PART.

SKETCHES OF THE HISTORY OF HUNGARIAN

LITERATURE.

Page.

L Literary development and the fate of the

 

language

 

3 28.

1.

§.

General remarks.

Period of the

 
 

first

settlement of the

nation

in

 

Pannonia

 

3.

2.

§. The

XI th and XII th Centuries

 

5.

3.

§. The

XIII th Century

8.

4.

§.

The

XIV tf ' Century

9.

5.

§. The

XV th

Century

10.

6.

§. The XVI. and XVII. Centuries

.

.

14.

7.

§. The XVIII th Century, until 1790 .

.

17.

8.

§. Preparatory steps towards the rise of

 
 

the nation. 1790—1830

 

19.

9.

§. The rapid progress in literature owing

 
 

to

the Academy. 1 831 1848

.

.

23.

//. Literary productions and authors .

 

2844.

1. Qualifications of literary productions .

 

.

28.

2. Athors and their works.

30 44.

SELECTIONS FROM HUNGARIAN CLASSICS.

L Prose writing

a.

Fables

and

4585.

an Allegory, from An-

Page.

b.

An Allegory, from Charles Kisfaludy

 

53.

e.

Fables, from Joseph Karman

54.

d. Fables, from Francis Kazinczy

.

.

55.

e.

Oratorial, from Francis Kolcsey .

.

56.

f.

Historical, from Joseph Peczely .

.

68.

11.

Poetry

 

85—116.

 

1. Remeny, Emlekezet (Hope, Remem- brance), from Fr. Kolcsey .

.

.

.

85.

2.

Szep Ilonka (Fair Helen), from

 

M.

 

Vorosmarty

86.

 

3.

Julius Caesar, from M. Vorosmarty .

 

91.

4. Az

elhagyott

anya (The forsaken

 
 

mother), from M. Vorosmarty .

.

.

95.

 

5.

A' hontalan (The homeless), by Voros-

 
 

marty

98.

 

6.

Szozat (Appeal), by Vorosmarty .

 

.

100.

7. A'

felkelt nemesseghez (To the in-

surgent nobility), from Berzsenyi

.

103.

8. A' Magyarokhoz (To the Hungarians),

from Berzsenyi

9. Jamborsag es kozepszer (Moderation

and Medium

[mediocritas]) , from

Berzsenyi

107.

10. (The church-yard), from

A' temeto

Berzsenyi

108.

11. Fohaszkodas (Sigh [prayer]), from

Berszenyi

110.

1 2. Vanitatum Vanitas, from Kolcsey

111.

1 3. Sziilofoldem szep hatara (My beautiful

country), a song by Charles Kisfaludy

1 14.

Epigramms, from Vorosmarty, Berzsenyi and Wattay

1 15.

Vocabulary to the selections

117.

FIRST PART.

DIVISION I

PRAXIS OF THE LANGUAGE.

INTRODUCTION.

1. §. Orthophony and Orthoepy.

Articulations, Sounds and Characters.

lhe Hungarian language has 7 different sounds, which, being either long or short ones*), produce

14 different forms of characters, called vowels;

and 24 different articulations, marked by as many

consonants.

The vowels are a, e, i, o, o, u, ii.

If these

be

the

marks

of protracted

sounds

in speaking,

a, e,

they are distinguished by an acute accent, as:

i,

6,

o,

ii,

ii;

instead

of

the

forms o,

u y

the

shorter forms 6, u, have been introduced recently.

*) As regards the use of the words long and short: by

long is meant the protraction or prolongation, by short the con-

traction , or quick pronunciation of the same sound ; thus o and 6,

the former short, the latter long,

sounded in half the time of the latter.

differ merely, the first being

When an Englishman,

mentions a long i and a short i,

sounds ; hence , in mile, the i will be long ,

we understand two distinct

the

syllable m i

may be protracted or not.

language, the duration

On the contrary, in the Hungarian or the abbreviation of the sound will

make the sound long or short.

Csink hung. Gram.

j[

The 24 consonants,

j> k,

I,

ly,

m,

n,

ny, p,

b, cs, cz, d, f, g, gy, h,

r,

s,

sz,

t,

ty,

v, z, zs,

or 5, Cs, Cz, D, F, G, Gy, H, I, K, L (Ly),

M, N, Ny, P, R, S, Sz, T,

Ty, V, Z, Zs, are

divided into 16 simple

I, m,

n, p, r, s>

t, v, z,

ones :

b, d,

f\

g,

h, j, k,

which have the same arti-

culation as the English ones ,

English y as a consonant (in young), s equal to sh,

except j equal to the

g always hard like g in guide , and r having

a strong trill; and into 8 compound ones:

gy, ly, ny, sz, ty , zs.

always

cs, cz,

For these there

are only

three articulations in the English language exactly

indentical with the Hungarian ones,

such as ch (in

chapter) identical with cs ,

the sharp

s (in

seven,

six) identical with sz,

and the articulation of z be-

fore

a

long

u

(in

seizure)

identical

with

zs.

For the other consonants there are no articulations in

the English language, and therefore the correct pronunciation must be acquired by hearing speakers who are well acquainted with the language.

The consonant cz is articulated like ts in the

English language, equal to the German z.

Approximate articulations for the consonant gy

are produced in the English language by

the con-

sonant d followed by a long u, as in due, duce etc.;

thus, in the Hungarian gyiilni, to catch fire, gyul, is so much like the English dule, that foreigners may

easily take them to be identical. The concurrence

of the

consonant d and j have the

articulation of

the English consonants d and y intimately combined.

The consonant ly

is identical with the French

il, i 11 e etc. preceded by another vowel, as in tra-

vail, feuille etc.

This identification goes even

so far, that, as in the French

language the 1 mou-

ille, which has the same articulation as the English

consonant y, has gained ground recently, the Hun-

garian

ly by many

excellent

speakers has been

assimilated to the French 1 mouille ;

writers Ij,

even by some

has been

which is nearly related to ly,

replaced by jj (= yy) ; as, vajjon, instead of valljon.

The Articulation of ny is

like the French gne

in campagne, champagne etc., and the English

n with a long u^ or the n in new.

Ty is the sharp

articulation of gy,

and very

nearly the

articulation of the consonants t and u,

as in the word tube;

only the Hungarian is

an

internal combination of the two consonants, while

the English remains a mere concurrence.

Thus the most difficult articulations are those of

gy and ty; the latter being a sharp articulation of

same relation to each

the former,

they are

in the

other

as

the English syllables du

and tu,

in the

words due and tube.

To these may be added the combination of dzs

in dzsida,

general.

which is

equal

to

the English

g

in

The fourteen

different marks

for

the sounds

may be arranged in the following scheme, d, identical with the English a in Father.

1*

4

a> identical with the French a in fatalite*).

e

is like the English a in fate ,

if the assonance of

e be avoided.

e

is identical with the English a in fat.

In mono-

i

i

syllables,

as te, meg,

etc.,

by m or a sharp

consonant,

if e is not followed

the sound of e is

softened,

English short e, is preferable;

and

the pronunciation

of e

like

the

the same in the

words tenni, enni, mennt, venni, and similar ones.

is equal to the English long e in dear, deed etc. is the short sound of the preceding one,

as

is

often the case with

the

syllable re in compound

English words; its sound takes the medium between

6 9

the English long e and short i,

with the French i in fine.

identical with the English long o in coal , loan etc.

and is identical

o , the short sound of the preceding (like the French short o).

o

is like the French eu in jeudi.

A veri deep and

unclear sound of a short e.

6

or

o is the

protracted

sound of the preceding,

equal to the German o in ode, ho he etc.

u y identical with the English u in bull.

u y

#,

identical with the long double o in the word food.

identical with the French u in

une,

(je)

fus etc.

*) Although some teachers of the Hungarian language have

recommended the short a to be sounded like the English a in

watch,

was etc.,

nevertheless good speakers make no other

distinction than that which is the natural consequence of the ab-

breviation of the same sound.

u,

5

u,

the protracted sound of the preceding, equal

to the German ii in ii b el.

The Hungarian language requires each articu-

lation and sound to be given distinctly and plainly;

there is no mute vowel or unarticulated consonant in

any word whatever;

even the concurrence of two

consonants is noticed by a distinct articulation of each

of them.*)

FOR PRACTICE.

Alma apple, asztal (ahstahl) table, arcz face, ablak

window, bercz (barets) mountain, bajnok**) champion,

csarnok hall,

csuda (choodah) wonder,

csillag

(chillagh) star, ddrda (dardah) spear, daru (dahroo) crane, dolog (dohlohg) thing, desz-ka board, elet (ale -at) life, eber (a-berr) sober, edes (a -dash)

sweet, ember (amm-berr) man, fej head, f& head,

capital principal, fujni (fooyny) to blow, fdtyol (the

first syllable exactly the

same as in English father)

*) As an Orthographical remark may be added , that instead

of the

are used.

be followed by other

consonants , it is nearly assimilated to the Latin i, used by poets

instead of j.

It seems to be like the Latin assimilation of j to i

double consonants: gygy , lyly , nyny , tyty , cscs, czcz,

lly , nny ,

tty ,

ccs,

ccz

after vowels ,

etc. the forms ggy,

••) If the consonant /,

in iambus, instead of jambus ; the only distinction is, that in the

Hungarian language j is precedet, in Latin followed by a vowel.

the veil, faggyii (fah-diie) tallow, fal wall, gazddg

(gahz - dahg) rich, gazda (gahz-dah) husbandman,

gor-be crooked, gyilles meeting, (assembly), gyertya

candle, gyongy pearl, gydva coward, gyo-gyi-ta-ni

to

cure, gya-log on

foot, kd-bo-ru war,

had

battle, ka-da-koz-ni to combat, hd-la thanks,

ho-dol-ni to do homage, koz-ni, to bring, haj hair,

hdj lard, ku-gom my younger sister, i-ga yoke, i-gaz true, i-ga-zi real, i-gen yes, jdr-ni to walk,

yrf (yo) good, jdm-bor pious, /egr (yaig)

ice, /<?/

mark, jel-szo apophthegm, parole, jd-ni to come,

ka-to-na soldier, kel-me wares,

kell

(to) need,

/a';jy girl, lil-lak, lilac, /rf horse, md-mor intoxication,

menni to go, me-resz bold, me-reg poison, ne-nye

the elder sister, nagy- ne-nye aunt, 0-ra hour,

watch, o-reg old,

J he,

aAws prudent, po-rosz

prussian, pdr-na cushion, penz money, pel -da

example, pal-los sword, rosz bad, rozs corn, ra-

vasz cunning, rit-ka rare, rit-kdn rarely, rd-zsa rose, rend order, range, ren-de-zes arrangement,

ren-del-ke-zes disposition,

direction,

sas eagle,

se-ta a walk, se-tal-ni to walk, se-lyem silk, sa-ru

a pair of slippers, sdncz sconce, entrenchment, silly

weight, su-lyoz-ni to weigh, su - lyos weighty, szesz

spirits (of wine etc.) szel-lem mind, szdz hundred,

szek chair, sza-bad free, sze-lid tame, gentle, ssrfr-

m

to

strew,

ta-ldn perhaps,

tud-ni to

know

(something) , tar-ta-lom contents, id- gas wide, roomy,

ten-ni

to

do,

tiir-ni

to

suffer, tu-re- de-lent

patience, tun-do-kol-ni to gleam, tisz-ta clear,

pure, tel winter, to lake (lacus), ud-var court,

ni

uz-

to

pursue,

ul-ni

to

sit ^

u-ral-kod-ni to

domineer, u-na-lom tediousness , vdr-ni to wait,

var-ni to sew, ver-ni (verr-ny) to beat, ver (vare) blood, ve-rez-ni (vare- as- ny) and ver-ze-ni to bleed, ve-gez-ni (vage - gaz - ny) to finish, ve-ge

end, ze-ne (zana) music, ze-nesz (zan-ase) musician,

zd~log forfeit, zon-go-ra (zohn - goh - rah) piano.

In

order to

facilitate the learning of the

pro-

nunciation of consonants and vowels which have

the same articulation and sounds as the English, the

following short arrangement of English words spelt in the Hungarian Alphabet, is subjoined.

spelt in English:*)

Engliish words,

spelt in Hungari

Bull

Bui

Chamber

Csember

Deed

Did

Did

Did

Danger

Dendzser

Eagle

igle

Fat

Fet

*) The only difference between

the English long a and the

Hungarian e,

which somewhat approaches the English short i, Hungarian e is a clear sound.

is,

that the English

a, has a terminative sound

whilst the

Fate

German

Loan

Lasting

Moon

Meek

Newly

8

(according to Walker)

Fet

Dzsermen

Lon

Ldsztin

Miin

Mik

Nyuli (among all other

similar pronunciations, that of Newly is the most approaching

the Hungarian Nyuli, which shows the articulation of the

consonant Ny or ny.

Oats

Ocz

Palm-tree

Pamtri

Pulpit

Pulpit

Raze

Rez

Rule

Rul

Sheep

Sip

Shall

Sell

Sea

Szi

Tore

Tor

Tulip

Tjulip

Tube

Tjub

Vetch

Vecs and Vets

Yare

Jer

Yellow

Jello

Your

Jur

You

ju

Zeal

Zil

Zero

Ziro.

2.

§.

Division of the sounds and

words.

In order to facilitate Etymological formations,

Grammarians have assumed the division of vowels

into hard and soft ones,

under the former being

understood the full and

deep

sounds of

a 9

o,

u 9

either long or short;

under the latter,

ones of e, i, o, u, either long or short.

the closed

The long

i may be

considered as a medium sound between

the two. According to this division of the vowels, the words of the Hungarian language are divided into

two different classes: hard sounding ones and soft

sounding ones. *) The former containing such vowels asa 9 d 9