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Propulsion VLCC

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Contents

Introduction.................................................................................................. 5

EEDI and Major Ship and Main Engine Parameters........................................ 6

Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)....................................................... 6

Major propeller and engine parameters..................................................... 7

320,000 dwt VLCC.................................................................................. 8

Main Engine Operating Costs 16.3 knots.................................................... 9

Fuel consumption and EEDI..................................................................... 9

Operating costs..................................................................................... 12

Main Engine Operating Costs 15.5 knots.................................................. 13

Fuel consumption and EEDI................................................................... 13

Operating costs..................................................................................... 16

Summary.................................................................................................... 17

Propulsion of VLCC

Introduction

the deadweight range of 250,000-

This also means that the inherent de-

following.

Fig. 1: A VLCC

Propulsion of VLCC

at a reduced optimum propeller speed.

Parameters

cargo capacity is used for comparison.

As the two-stroke main engine is direct-

nautical mile.

on 15 July 2011, the EEDI of a new ship

is reduced to a certain factor compared

13,889

S80ME-C9.2

Fig. 2: Main dimensions for a G80ME-C9.2 engine and for other existing VLCC engines

Propulsion of VLCC

5,000

G80ME-C9.2

1,800

1,960

3,010

1,890

2,840

1,736

2,656

S80ME-C8.2

5,680

5,374

5,020

2,835

14,071

14,879

13,586

S90ME-C8.2

Increased propeller diameter

G80ME-C9.2

Tdes = 21.0 m

M4

7G8

-C9

0 ME

.2

M3

9

E-C

.2

.2

-C9

0 M E 8. 2

7S8 0ME-C

6S9 .1

C7

MES90

M3

M4

0M

6G8

M1, M2

M1

C9.2

ME-

6S80

15.0 kn

14.0 kn

78r/min

G80ME-C9.2

Bore = 800 mm

Stroke = 3,720 mm

= 8.43 m/s (8.93 m/s)

Vpist

S/B

= 4.65

MEP = 21 bar

L1

= 4,450 kW/cyl. at 68 r/min

(L1

= 4,710 kW/cyl. at 72 r/min)

40

50

16.0 kn

15.5 kn

M2

20,000

15,000

Existing

Dprop = 9.5 m

(=45.2% Tdes)

16.5 kn

16.3 kn

25,000

10,000

Existing

Dprop = 10.0 m

(=47.6% Tdes)

15% sea margin

10% engine margin

5% light running

30,000

Possible

Dprop = 10.5 m

(=50.0% Tdes)

Possible

Dprop = 11.0 m

(=52.4% Tdes)

Propulsion

SMCR power

kW

4-bladed FP-propellers

35,000

constant ship speed coefcient = 0.28

72 r/min

M =

M1 =

M2 =

M3 =

M4 =

60

27,060 kW x 78.0 r/min

26,860 kW x 76.0 r/min

26,040 kW x 68.0 r/min

25,370 kW x 62.0 r/min

76r/min

6S80ME-C9.2

6S90ME-C7.1

6G80ME-C9.2

7G80ME-C9.2

70

M

M1

M2

M3

M4

=

=

=

=

=

31,570 kW x 78.0 r/min

31,570 kW x 78.0 r/min

30,380 kW x 68.0 r/min

30,090 kW x 65.7 r/min

7S80ME-C9.2

6S90ME-C8.2

7G80ME-C9.2

7G80ME-C9.2

80

90 r/min

Engine/propeller speed at SMCR

Fig. 3: Different main engine and propeller layouts and SMCR possibilities (M1, M2, M3, M4 for 16.3 knots and M1, M2, M3, M4 for 15.5 knots) for a

320,000 dwt VLCC operating at 16.3 knots and 15.5 knots, respectively.

sumption (SFOC).

cannot be accumulated.

K80ME-C9.

Propulsion of VLCC

following case study illustrates the potential for reducing fuel consumption by

are as follows:

90% SMCR will be about 0.7 knots

m

Design draught

21.0

Length overall

333.0

Length between pp

319.0

Breadth

m 60.0

Sea margin

15

Engine margin

10

Type of propeller

No. of propeller blades

Propeller diameter

22.5

higher.

Scantling draught

FPP

4

target

ship particulars assumed, we have

made a power prediction calculation

(Holtrop & Mennens Method) for different design ship speeds and propeller diameters, and the corresponding

SMCR power and speed, point M, for

propulsion of the VLCC is found, see

Fig. 3. The propeller diameter change

corresponds approximately to the constant ship speed factor = 0.28 [PM2 =

PM1 x (n2/n1)].

Referring to the two ship speeds of

16.3 knots and 15.5 knots, respectively, four potential main engine types and

pertaining layout diagrams and SMCR

points have been drawn-in in Fig. 3, and

the main engine operating costs have

been calculated and described below

individually for each ship speed case.

The layout diagram of the G80ME-C9.2

below or equal to 68 r/min is especially

suitable for VLCCs whereas the speed

Propulsion of VLCC

16.3 knots

The calculated main engine examples

are as follows:

Propulsion power

demand at N = NCR

kW

30,000

16.3 knots

1. 7S80ME-C9.2

Relative power

reduction

%

12

28,410 kW

28,410 kW

27,340 kW

27,080 kW

25,000

10

9

2. 6S90ME-C8.2

20,000

3. 7G80ME-C9.2

4. 7G80ME-C9.2

7

15,000

6

4.7%

3.8%

10,000

3

5,000

operating on the relatively high ship

speed of 16.3 knots, as often used

earlier. Furthermore, the corresponding

EEDI has been calculated on the basis

5

4

operating costs at N = NCR = 90%

11

2

0%

0%

7S80ME-C9.2 6S90ME-C8.2

N1

N2

Dprop:

10.0 m

10.0 m

0

7G80ME-C9.2 7G80ME-C9.2

N3

N4

10.8 m

11.0 m

Fuel consumption and EEDI

Fig. 4 shows the influence of the propeller diameter when going from about

10.0 to 11.0 m. Thus, N4 for the

7G80ME-C9.2 with an 11.0 m propeller diameter has a propulsion power

demand that is about 4.7% lower

compared with N1 and N2 valid for

the 7S80ME-C9.2 and 6S90ME-C8.2,

both with a propeller diameter of about

10.0 m.

Propulsion of VLCC

Expected SFOC

SFOC

g/kWh

174

173

172

171

170

engine efficiency, indicated by the Specific Fuel Oil Consumption, SFOC, for

the four cases. N3 = 90% M3 for the

7G80ME-C9.2 has an SFOC of 164.1

IMO Tier ll

ISO ambient conditions

LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg

also for the 7G80ME-C9.2, has a high-

Standard high-load

optimised engines

169

D prop

168

M1 7S80ME-C9.2 10.0 m

M2 6S90ME-C8.2 10.0 m

167

166

165

164

N1

N2

M4 7G80ME-C9.2 11.0 m

M3 7G80ME-C9.2 10.8 m

N4

N3

163

Savings

in SFOC

0%

stroke/bore ratio of this G-engine type.

160

25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 % SMCR

Engine shaft power

10 Propulsion of VLCC

1.0%

161

N = NCR M = SMCR

0.6%

162

demand at N (Fig. 4) with the SFOC

(Fig. 5), the daily fuel consumption is

found and is shown in Fig. 6. Compared with N1 for the 7S80ME-C9.2,

Fuel consumption

IMO Tier ll

of main engine

ISO ambient conditions

LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg

t/24h

120

113.1

113.0

t/24h

t/24h

Relative saving of

fuel consumption

%

12

107.7

t/24h

107.1

t/24h

11

110

100

10

90

80

70

60

and 0.6%).

DWT

-0.488

50

5.3%

4.8%

40

30

20

expected for VLCC operation on a ship

10

0%

0%

7S80ME-C9.2

N1

10.0 m

Dprop:

6S90ME-C8.2

N2

10.0 m

7G80ME-C9.2

N3

10.8 m

7G80ME-C9.2

N4

11.0 m

Energy Efciency Design Index (EEDI) 75% SMCR; 16.2 kn without sea margin

Reference and actual EEDI

CO2 emissions gram per dwt/n mile

3.0

EEDI reference

2.65

2.5

2.51 106%

Actual/Reference EEDI %

EEDI actual

110

2.65

2.51

106%

2.51

2.54

2.51

101%

2.50

100%

100

90

80

2.0

70

60

1.5

50

40

1.0

30

20

0.5

10

0

7S80ME-C9.2

1

10.0 m

Dprop:

6S90ME-C8.2

2

10.0 m

7G80ME-C9.2

3

10.8 m

7G80ME-C9.2

4

11.0 m

Fig. 7: Reference and actual Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for 16.3 knots

Propulsion of VLCC 11

Operating costs

Total annual main engine operating costs

IMO Tier ll

ISO ambient conditions

250 days/year

NCR = 90% SMCR

Fuel price: 700 USD/t

Million USD/Year

22

Relative saving

in operating costs

%

11

20

Maintenance

Lub. oil

18

10

9

Fuel oil

of 700 USD/t, are shown in Fig. 8. The

lube oil and maintenance costs are

shown too. As can be seen, the major

operating costs originate from the fuel

costs about 96%.

16

14

12

5.2%

10

4.7%

2

0

0.1%

0%

7S80ME-C9.2 6S90ME-C8.2 7G80ME-C9.2 7G80ME-C9.2

N1

N2

N3

N4

10.0 m

10.0 m

10.8 m

11.0 m

Dprop:

in Net Present Value (NPV), see Fig. 9,

NPV saving for the 7G80ME-C9.2 engines after some years in service. After

25 year in operation, the saving is about

16.7 million USD for N3 with 7G80ME-

10.8 m, and about 18.4 million USD for

N4 also with 7G80ME-C9.2, but with

the SMCR speed of 65.7 r/min and a

Fig. 8: Total annual main engine operating costs for 16.3 knots

Propulsion of 320,000 dwt VLCC 16.3 knots

Relative saving in main engine operating costs (NPV)

Saving in operating costs

(Net Present Value)

Million USD

25

IMO Tier ll

ISO ambient conditions

N = NCR = 90% SMCR

250 days/year

Fuel price: 700 USD/t

Rate of interest and discount: 6% p.a.

Rate of ination: 3% p.a.

20

15

N4

11.0 m

7G80ME-C9.2

N3

10.8 m

7G80ME-C9.2

10

5

N2

10.0 m

6S90ME-C8.2

N1

10.0 m

7S80ME-C9.2

10

15

20

25

Fig. 9: Relative saving in main engine operating costs (NPV) for 16.3 knots

12 Propulsion of VLCC

Lifetime

30 Years

15.5 knots

The calculated main engine examples

are as follows:

Propulsion power

demand at N = NCR

kW

30,000

Relative power

reduction

%

12

Inclusive of sea margin = 15%

15.5 knots

1. 6S80ME-C9.2

25,000

24,350 kW

11

24,170 kW

23,440 kW

10

22,830 kW

2. 6S90ME-C7.1

M2 = 26,860 kW x 76.0 r/min.

20,000

3. 6G80ME-C9.2

M3 = 26,040 kW x 68.0 r/min.

4. 7G80ME-C9.2

6.2%

15,000

5

3.8%

10,000

5,000

2

0.7%

SMCR have been calculated for the

above four main engine/propeller cases

7

6

0%

6S80ME-C9.2

N1

9.7 m

Dprop:

0

6S90ME-C7.1

N2

9.8 m

6G80ME-C9.2

N3

10.4 m

7G80ME-C9.2

N4

11.0 m

speed of 15.5 knots, which is probably

Fig. 10: Expected propulsion power demand at NCR for 15.5 knots

the future. Furthermore, the EEDI has

been calculated on the basis of the

75% SMCR-related figures (without

sea margin).

Fuel consumption and EEDI

Fig. 10 shows the influence of the

propeller diameter when going from

about 9.7 to 11.0 m. Thus, N4 for the

7G80ME-C9.2 with an 11.0 m propeller diameter has a propulsion power

demand that is about 6.2% lower compared with the N1 for the 6S80MEC9.2 with an about 9.7 m propeller

diameter. The choice of the one extra

cylinder for the 7G80ME-C9.2 has

made it possible to choose the large

11.0 m. propeller.

Propulsion of VLCC 13

Expected SFOC

SFOC

g/kWh

176

175

174

173

engine efficiency, indicated by the Specific Fuel Oil Consumption, SFOC, for

the four cases. N4 = 90% M4 with

IMO Tier ll

ISO ambient conditions

LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg

SFOC of 161.6 g/kWh compared with

Standard high-load

optimised engines

172

171

170

169

D prop

M1 6S80ME-C9.2 9.7 m

M2 6S90ME-C7.1 9.8 m

168

167

M3 6G80ME-C9.2 10.4 m

166

N1

N2

165

Savings

in SFOC

0%

N3

164

M4

163

0.3%

1.0%

162

N4

161

2.5%

160

7G80ME-C9.2 11.0 m

159

25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 % SMCR

Engine shaft power

N1 = NCR M1 = SMCR

14 Propulsion of VLCC

multiplying the propulsion power demand at N (Fig. 10) with the SFOC (Fig.

11), see Fig. 12. The total reduction

of fuel consumption of the 7G80ME-

Fuel consumption

of main engine

t/24h

110

96.9

t/24h

100

6S80ME-C9.2.

95.9

t/24h

92.3

t/24h

10

88.6

t/24h

90

80

Relative saving of

fuel consumption

%

11

IMO Tier ll

ISO ambient conditions

LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg

9

8

8.6%

70

60

50

40

30

DWT

-0.488

figure because of the relatively low ship

speed of 15.5 knots. Particularly, case

20

10

4.8%

1.0%

1

0%

6S80ME-C9.2 6S90ME-C7.1

N1

N2

9.8 m

Dprop: 9.7 m

6G80ME-C9.2 7G80ME-C9.2

N3

N4

10.4 m

11.0 m

Energy Efciency Design Index (EEDI)

75% SMCR; 15.4 kn without sea margin

Reference and actual EEDI

CO2 emissions

gram per dwt/n mile

3.0

Actual/Reference EEDI %

EEDI reference

2.5

2.51

2.51

2.40

95%

EEDI actual

2.51

2.37

95%

110

2.51

2.28

91%

100

2.19

87%

2.0

90

80

70

60

1.5

50

40

1.0

30

20

0.5

10

0

6S80ME-C9.2

1

Dprop: 9.7 m

6S90ME-C7.1

2

9.8 m

6G80ME-C9.2

3

10.4 m

7G80ME-C9.2

4

11.0 m

Fig. 13: Reference and actual Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for 15.5 knots

Propulsion of VLCC 15

Operating costs

Total annual main engine operating costs

IMO Tier ll

ISO ambient conditions

N = NCR = 90% SMCR

250 days/year

Fuel price: 700 USD/t

Million USD/Year

Relative saving

in operating costs

%

18

18

16

Maintenance

Lub. oil

16

Lube oil and maintenance costs are

also shown at the top of each column.

As can be seen, the major operating

costs originate from the fuel costs

14

about 96%.

12

12

10

10

Fuel oil

14

8.2%

with the 6S80ME-C9.2 with the propeller diameter of about 9.7 m used as basis, indicates an NPV saving after some

6

4.7%

0.9%

6S80ME-C9.2

N1

Dprop:

9.7 m

0

6S90ME-C7.1

N2

9.8 m

6G80ME-C9.2

N3

10.4 m

Fig. 14: Total annual main engine operating costs for 15.5 knots

16 Propulsion of VLCC

saving is about 14.3 million USD for the

6G80ME-C9.2 with the SMCR speed

of 68.0 r/min and propeller diameter

0%

7G80ME-C9.2

N4

11.0 m

of about 10.4 m, and about 25.1 million USD for the derated 7G80ME-C9.2

with the low SMCR speed of 62.0 r/min

and a propeller diameter of about 11.0 m.

Summary

Relative saving in main engine operating costs (NPV)

(Net Present Value)

speeds, have been applied as prime

Million USD

35

movers in tankers.

IMO Tier ll

ISO ambient conditions

N = NCR = 90% SMCR

250 days/year

Fuel price: 700 USD/t

Rate of interest and discount: 6% p.a.

Rate of ination: 3% p.a.

30

25

N4

11.0 m

7G80ME-C9.2

using even larger propellers has been

thoroughly evaluated with a view to using engines with even lower speeds for

propulsion of particularly VLCCs.

20

N3

10.4 m

6G80ME-C9.2

15

than the current designs, and thus high

efficiencies following an adaptation of

10

larger propeller, together with optimised

5

N2

9.8 m

6S90ME-C7.1

N1

9.7 m

6S80ME-C7.1

10

15

20

25

Lifetime

30 Years

operation in ballast conditions.

The new ultra long stroke G80ME-C9.2

engine type meets this trend in the

VLCC market. This paper indicates,

depending on the propeller diameter

Fig. 15: Relative saving in main engine operating costs (NPV) for 15.5 knots

4-9% when using G80ME-C9.2, compared with existing main engines applied so far.

The Energy Efficiency Design Index

(EEDI) will also be reduced when using G80ME-C9.2. In order to meet the

stricter given reference figure in the future, the design of the ship itself and

the design ship speed applied (reduced

speed) has to be further evaluated by

the shipyards to further reduce the

EEDI. Among others, the installation of

WHR may reduce the EEDI value.

Propulsion of VLCC 17

All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informational

purposes only and is especially not guaranteed in any way. Depending on the

subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to

changes and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This

will depend on the particular characteristics of each individual project, especially

specific site and operational conditions. CopyrightMAN Diesel & Turbo.

5510-0106-01ppr Aug 2012 Printed in Denmark

Teglholmsgade 41

2450 Copenhagen SV, Denmark

Phone +45 33 85 11 00

Fax

+45 33 85 10 30

info-cph@mandieselturbo.com

www.mandieselturbo.com

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