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Propulsion of VLCC

Contents

Introduction.................................................................................................. 5
EEDI and Major Ship and Main Engine Parameters........................................ 6
Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)....................................................... 6
Major propeller and engine parameters..................................................... 7
320,000 dwt VLCC.................................................................................. 8
Main Engine Operating Costs 16.3 knots.................................................... 9
Fuel consumption and EEDI..................................................................... 9
Operating costs..................................................................................... 12
Main Engine Operating Costs 15.5 knots.................................................. 13
Fuel consumption and EEDI................................................................... 13
Operating costs..................................................................................... 16
Summary.................................................................................................... 17

Propulsion of VLCC

Introduction

propulsion of ships to the widest pos-

in reduced propulsion power utilisa-

The size of Very Large Crude Carriers,

sible extent at any load.

tion. The design ship speed at Normal

VLCCs, see Fig. 1, is normally within


the deadweight range of 250,000-

Continuous Rating (NCR), including


This also means that the inherent de-

15% sea margin, used to be as high as

320,000 dwt and the ships overall

sign CO2 index of a new ship, the so-

16.0-16.5 knots. Today, the ship speed

length is about 330-335 m.

called Energy Efficiency Design Index

may be expected to be lower, possibly

(EEDI), will be reduced. Based on an

15.5 knots, or even lower. However, so

Recent development steps have made

average reference CO2 emission from

far only few, if any, have specified lower

it possible to offer solutions which will

existing tankers, the CO2 emission from

installed power for new VLCCs.

enable significantly lower transporta-

new tankers in gram per dwt per nauti-

tion costs for VLCCs as outlined in the

cal mile must be equal to or lower than

A more technically advanced develop-

following.

the reference emission figures valid for

ment drive is to optimise the aftbody

the specific tanker.

and hull lines of the ship including

One of the goals in the marine industry

bulbous bow, also considering opera-

today is to reduce the impact of CO2

This drive may often result in opera-

tion in ballast condition making it pos-

emissions from ships and, therefore,

tion at lower than normal service ship

sible to install propellers with a larger

to reduce the fuel consumption for the

speeds compared to earlier, resulting

propeller diameter and, thereby, ob-

Fig. 1: A VLCC

Propulsion of VLCC

taining higher propeller efficiency, but


at a reduced optimum propeller speed.

EEDI and Major Ship and Main Engine


Parameters

the specific ship type and the specified


cargo capacity is used for comparison.

Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)


As the two-stroke main engine is direct-

The Energy Efficiency Design Index

The main engines 75% SMCR (Speci-

ly coupled with the propeller, the intro-

(EEDI) is conceived as a future manda-

fied Maximum Continuous Rating) fig-

duction of the Green ultra long stroke

tory instrument to be calculated and

ure is as standard applied in the calcu-

G80ME-C engine with even lower than

made as available information for new

lation of the EEDI figure, in which also

usual shaft speed will meet this drive

ships. EEDI represents the amount of

the CO2 emission from the auxiliary en-

and target goal. The main dimensions

CO2 in gram emitted when transporting

gines of the ship is included.

for this engine type, and for other exist-

one deadweight tonnage of cargo one

ing VLCC engines, are shown in Fig. 2.

nautical mile.

According to the rules finally decided


on 15 July 2011, the EEDI of a new ship
is reduced to a certain factor compared

tially calculated on the basis of maxi-

to a reference value. Thus, a ship built

fluence on fuel consumption when

mum cargo capacity, propulsion power,

after 2025 is required to have a 30%

choosing the new G80ME-C engine

ship speed, SFOC and fuel type. How-

lower EEDI than the reference figure.

compared with existing VLCC engines.

ever, certain correction factors are ap-

The layout ranges of 6 and 7G80ME-

plicable, e.g. for installed Waste Heat

C9.2 engines compared with existing

Recovery systems. To evaluate the

engines are shown in Fig. 3.

achieved EEDI, a reference value for

13,889

S80ME-C9.2

Fig. 2: Main dimensions for a G80ME-C9.2 engine and for other existing VLCC engines

Propulsion of VLCC

5,000

G80ME-C9.2

1,800

1,960

3,010

1,890

2,840

1,736

2,656

S80ME-C8.2

5,680

5,374

5,020

2,835

14,071

14,879

For tankers, the EEDI value is essen-

dwt VLCC, this paper shows the in-

13,586

Based on a case study of a 320,000

S90ME-C8.2

320,000 dwt VLCC


Increased propeller diameter
G80ME-C9.2

Tdes = 21.0 m

M4

7G8

-C9
0 ME

.2

M3

9
E-C

.2

.2
-C9
0 M E 8. 2
7S8 0ME-C
6S9 .1
C7
MES90

M3

M4
0M
6G8

M1, M2

M1

C9.2

ME-

6S80

15.0 kn

14.0 kn
78r/min

G80ME-C9.2
Bore = 800 mm
Stroke = 3,720 mm
= 8.43 m/s (8.93 m/s)
Vpist
S/B
= 4.65
MEP = 21 bar
L1
= 4,450 kW/cyl. at 68 r/min
(L1
= 4,710 kW/cyl. at 72 r/min)
40

50

16.0 kn
15.5 kn

M2

20,000

15,000

Existing
Dprop = 9.5 m
(=45.2% Tdes)
16.5 kn
16.3 kn

25,000

10,000

Existing
Dprop = 10.0 m
(=47.6% Tdes)

SMCR power and speed are inclusive of:


15% sea margin
10% engine margin
5% light running

30,000

Possible
Dprop = 10.5 m
(=50.0% Tdes)

Possible
Dprop = 11.0 m
(=52.4% Tdes)

Propulsion
SMCR power
kW
4-bladed FP-propellers
35,000
constant ship speed coefcient = 0.28

72 r/min
M =
M1 =
M2 =
M3 =
M4 =
60

SMCR (15.5 kn)


27,060 kW x 78.0 r/min
26,860 kW x 76.0 r/min
26,040 kW x 68.0 r/min
25,370 kW x 62.0 r/min

76r/min

6S80ME-C9.2
6S90ME-C7.1
6G80ME-C9.2
7G80ME-C9.2

70

M
M1
M2
M3
M4

=
=
=
=
=

SMCR (16.3 kn)


31,570 kW x 78.0 r/min
31,570 kW x 78.0 r/min
30,380 kW x 68.0 r/min
30,090 kW x 65.7 r/min

7S80ME-C9.2
6S90ME-C8.2
7G80ME-C9.2
7G80ME-C9.2

80
90 r/min
Engine/propeller speed at SMCR

Fig. 3: Different main engine and propeller layouts and SMCR possibilities (M1, M2, M3, M4 for 16.3 knots and M1, M2, M3, M4 for 15.5 knots) for a
320,000 dwt VLCC operating at 16.3 knots and 15.5 knots, respectively.

Major propeller and engine parameters

The efficiency of a two-stroke main en-

Furthermore, the application of new

In general, the larger the propeller diame-

gine particularly depends on the ratio of

propeller design technologies, NPT

ter, the higher the propeller efficiency and

the maximum (firing) pressure and the

propellers, motivates use of main en-

the lower the optimum propeller speed

mean effective pressure. The higher the

gines with lower rpm. Thus, for the

referring to an optimum ratio of the pro-

ratio, the higher the engine efficiency,

same propeller diameter, these propel-

peller pitch and propeller diameter.

i.e. the lower the Specific Fuel Oil Con-

ler types are claimed to have an about

sumption (SFOC).

6% improved overall efficiency gain at

When increasing the propeller pitch for

about 10% lower propeller speed.

a given propeller diameter with optimum

Furthermore, the higher the stroke/bore

pitch/diameter ratio, the correspond-

ratio of a two-stroke engine, the high-

Hence, the advantage of the new lower

ing propeller speed may be reduced

er the engine efficiency. This means,

speed engines can be utilised also in

and the efficiency will also be slightly

for example, that an ultra long stroke

case a correspondingly larger propeller

reduced, of course depending on the

engine type, as the G80ME-C9, may

cannot be accumulated.

degree of the changed pitch. The same

have a higher efficiency compared with

is valid for a reduced pitch, but here the

a shorter stroke engine type, like a

propeller speed may increase.

K80ME-C9.

Propulsion of VLCC

320,000 dwt VLCC

range from 68 to 72 r/min is particularly

For a 320,000 dwt VLCC tanker, the

suitable for e.g. container vessels.

following case study illustrates the potential for reducing fuel consumption by

It should be noted that the ship speed

increasing the propeller diameter and

stated refers to NCR = 90% SMCR in-

introducing the G80ME-C9.2 as main

cluding 15% sea margin. If based on

engine. The ship particulars assumed

calm weather, i.e. without sea margin,

are as follows:

the obtainable ship speed at NCR =


90% SMCR will be about 0.7 knots
m

Design draught

21.0

Length overall

333.0

If based on 75% SMCR, as applied for

Length between pp

319.0

calculation of the EEDI, the ship speed

Breadth

m 60.0

will be about 0.1 knot lower, still based

Sea margin

15

on calm weather conditions, i.e. with-

Engine margin

10

out any sea margin.

Design ship speed

kn 16.3 and 15.5

Type of propeller
No. of propeller blades
Propeller diameter

22.5

higher.

Scantling draught

FPP
4
target

Based on the above-stated average


ship particulars assumed, we have
made a power prediction calculation
(Holtrop & Mennens Method) for different design ship speeds and propeller diameters, and the corresponding
SMCR power and speed, point M, for
propulsion of the VLCC is found, see
Fig. 3. The propeller diameter change
corresponds approximately to the constant ship speed factor = 0.28 [PM2 =
PM1 x (n2/n1)].
Referring to the two ship speeds of
16.3 knots and 15.5 knots, respectively, four potential main engine types and
pertaining layout diagrams and SMCR
points have been drawn-in in Fig. 3, and
the main engine operating costs have
been calculated and described below
individually for each ship speed case.
The layout diagram of the G80ME-C9.2
below or equal to 68 r/min is especially
suitable for VLCCs whereas the speed

Propulsion of VLCC

Main Engine Operating Costs


16.3 knots
The calculated main engine examples
are as follows:

Propulsion of 320,000 dwt VLCC 16.3 knots

Expected propulsion power demand at N = NCR = 90% SMCR


Propulsion power
demand at N = NCR
kW
30,000

16.3 knots
1. 7S80ME-C9.2

M1 = 31,570 kW x 78.0 r/min

Relative power
reduction
%
12

Inclusive of sea margin = 15%


28,410 kW

28,410 kW
27,340 kW

27,080 kW

25,000

10
9

2. 6S90ME-C8.2

M2 = 31,570 kW x 78.0 r/min.

20,000

3. 7G80ME-C9.2

M3 = 30,380 kW x 68.0 r/min.

4. 7G80ME-C9.2

7
15,000

6
4.7%

M4 = 30,090 kW x 65.7 r/min.


3.8%

10,000

SMCR have been calculated for the

3
5,000

above four main engine/propeller cases


operating on the relatively high ship
speed of 16.3 knots, as often used
earlier. Furthermore, the corresponding
EEDI has been calculated on the basis

5
4

The main engine fuel consumption and


operating costs at N = NCR = 90%

11

2
0%

0%

7S80ME-C9.2 6S90ME-C8.2
N1
N2
Dprop:
10.0 m
10.0 m

0
7G80ME-C9.2 7G80ME-C9.2
N3
N4
10.8 m
11.0 m

Fig. 4: Expected propulsion power demand at NCR for 16.3 knots

of the 75% SMCR-related figures (without sea margin).


Fuel consumption and EEDI
Fig. 4 shows the influence of the propeller diameter when going from about
10.0 to 11.0 m. Thus, N4 for the
7G80ME-C9.2 with an 11.0 m propeller diameter has a propulsion power
demand that is about 4.7% lower
compared with N1 and N2 valid for
the 7S80ME-C9.2 and 6S90ME-C8.2,
both with a propeller diameter of about
10.0 m.

Propulsion of VLCC

Fig. 5 shows the influence on the main

Propulsion of 320,000 dwt VLCC 16.3 knots


Expected SFOC
SFOC
g/kWh
174
173
172
171
170

engine efficiency, indicated by the Specific Fuel Oil Consumption, SFOC, for
the four cases. N3 = 90% M3 for the
7G80ME-C9.2 has an SFOC of 164.1

IMO Tier ll
ISO ambient conditions
LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg

g/kWh, whereas the N4 = 90% M4,


also for the 7G80ME-C9.2, has a high-

Standard high-load
optimised engines

er SFOC of 164.8 g/kWh because of

169

D prop

168

M1 7S80ME-C9.2 10.0 m
M2 6S90ME-C8.2 10.0 m

167
166
165
164

N1
N2

M4 7G80ME-C9.2 11.0 m

The 164.8 g/kWh SFOC of the N4 for

M3 7G80ME-C9.2 10.8 m

the 7G80ME-C9.2 is 0.6% lower com-

N4
N3

163

Savings
in SFOC
0%

g/kWh. This is because of the higher


stroke/bore ratio of this G-engine type.

160
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 % SMCR
Engine shaft power

10 Propulsion of VLCC

7S80ME-C9.2 with an SFOC of 165.8

1.0%

161

N = NCR M = SMCR

pared with N1 for the nominally rated

0.6%

162

Fig. 5: Expected SFOC for 16.3 knots

the higher mean effective pressure.

When multiplying the propulsion power


demand at N (Fig. 4) with the SFOC
(Fig. 5), the daily fuel consumption is
found and is shown in Fig. 6. Compared with N1 for the 7S80ME-C9.2,

Propulsion of 320,000 dwt VLCC 16.3 knots

Expected fuel consumption at N = NCR = 90% SMCR


Fuel consumption
IMO Tier ll
of main engine
ISO ambient conditions
LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg
t/24h
120
113.1
113.0
t/24h

t/24h

Relative saving of
fuel consumption
%
12

107.7
t/24h

107.1
t/24h

11

the total reduction of fuel consumption

110

of the 7G80ME-C9.2 at N4 is about 5.3 %

100

10

(see also the above-mentioned 4.7%

90

80

The reference and the actual EEDI

70

figures have been calculated and are

60

and 0.6%).

shown in Fig. 7 (EEDIRef = 1,218.8 x


DWT

-0.488

50

, 15 July 2011). As can be

5.3%
4.8%

seen for all four cases, the actual EEDI

40

figures are higher than or equal to the

30

20

reference figure. However, this is to be


expected for VLCC operation on a ship

10

speed as high as 16.3 knots.

0%

0%
7S80ME-C9.2
N1
10.0 m
Dprop:

6S90ME-C8.2
N2
10.0 m

7G80ME-C9.2
N3
10.8 m

7G80ME-C9.2
N4
11.0 m

Fig. 6: Expected fuel consumption at NCR for 16.3 knots

Propulsion of 320,000 DWT VLCC 16.3 knots


Energy Efciency Design Index (EEDI) 75% SMCR; 16.2 kn without sea margin
Reference and actual EEDI
CO2 emissions gram per dwt/n mile
3.0
EEDI reference
2.65

2.5

2.51 106%

Actual/Reference EEDI %
EEDI actual

110

2.65
2.51

106%

2.51

2.54

2.51

101%

2.50
100%

100
90
80

2.0

70
60

1.5

50
40

1.0

30
20

0.5

10
0

7S80ME-C9.2
1
10.0 m
Dprop:

6S90ME-C8.2
2
10.0 m

7G80ME-C9.2
3
10.8 m

7G80ME-C9.2
4
11.0 m

Fig. 7: Reference and actual Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for 16.3 knots

Propulsion of VLCC 11

Operating costs

Propulsion of 320,000 dwt VLCC 16.3 knots


Total annual main engine operating costs

The total main engine operating costs

IMO Tier ll
ISO ambient conditions
250 days/year
NCR = 90% SMCR
Fuel price: 700 USD/t

Annual operating costs


Million USD/Year
22

Relative saving
in operating costs
%
11

20

Maintenance
Lub. oil

18

10
9

Fuel oil

per year, 250 days/year, and fuel price


of 700 USD/t, are shown in Fig. 8. The
lube oil and maintenance costs are
shown too. As can be seen, the major
operating costs originate from the fuel
costs about 96%.

16

14

12

with the 7S80ME-C9.2 or 6S90ME-

C8.2 used as basis with the propeller

5.2%

10

4.7%

2
0

0.1%
0%
7S80ME-C9.2 6S90ME-C8.2 7G80ME-C9.2 7G80ME-C9.2
N1
N2
N3
N4
10.0 m
10.0 m
10.8 m
11.0 m
Dprop:

The relative savings in operating costs


in Net Present Value (NPV), see Fig. 9,

diameter of about 10.0 m, indicates an


NPV saving for the 7G80ME-C9.2 engines after some years in service. After
25 year in operation, the saving is about
16.7 million USD for N3 with 7G80ME-

C9.2 with the SMCR speed of 68.0 r/

min and propeller diameter of about


10.8 m, and about 18.4 million USD for
N4 also with 7G80ME-C9.2, but with
the SMCR speed of 65.7 r/min and a

Fig. 8: Total annual main engine operating costs for 16.3 knots

propeller diameter of about 11.0 m.


Propulsion of 320,000 dwt VLCC 16.3 knots
Relative saving in main engine operating costs (NPV)
Saving in operating costs
(Net Present Value)
Million USD

25
IMO Tier ll
ISO ambient conditions
N = NCR = 90% SMCR
250 days/year
Fuel price: 700 USD/t
Rate of interest and discount: 6% p.a.
Rate of ination: 3% p.a.

20

15

N4
11.0 m
7G80ME-C9.2
N3
10.8 m
7G80ME-C9.2

10

5
N2
10.0 m
6S90ME-C8.2
N1
10.0 m
7S80ME-C9.2

10

15

20

25

Fig. 9: Relative saving in main engine operating costs (NPV) for 16.3 knots

12 Propulsion of VLCC

Lifetime
30 Years

Main Engine Operating Costs


15.5 knots
The calculated main engine examples
are as follows:

Propulsion of 320,000 dwt VLCC 15.5 knots

Expected propulsion power demand at N = NCR = 90% SMCR


Propulsion power
demand at N = NCR
kW
30,000

Relative power
reduction
%
12
Inclusive of sea margin = 15%

15.5 knots
1. 6S80ME-C9.2

25,000

24,350 kW

11

24,170 kW
23,440 kW

M1 = 27,060 kW x 78.0 r/min

10
22,830 kW

2. 6S90ME-C7.1
M2 = 26,860 kW x 76.0 r/min.

20,000

3. 6G80ME-C9.2
M3 = 26,040 kW x 68.0 r/min.
4. 7G80ME-C9.2

6.2%

15,000

5
3.8%

10,000

The 6S90ME-C7.1 has been chosen as

case 2 as often used in the past.


5,000

2
0.7%

The main engine fuel consumption and


SMCR have been calculated for the
above four main engine/propeller cases

7
6

M4 = 25,370 kW x 62.0 r/min.

operating costs at N = NCR = 90%

0%

6S80ME-C9.2
N1
9.7 m
Dprop:

0
6S90ME-C7.1
N2
9.8 m

6G80ME-C9.2
N3
10.4 m

7G80ME-C9.2
N4
11.0 m

operating on the relatively lower ship


speed of 15.5 knots, which is probably

Fig. 10: Expected propulsion power demand at NCR for 15.5 knots

going to be a more normal choice in


the future. Furthermore, the EEDI has
been calculated on the basis of the
75% SMCR-related figures (without
sea margin).
Fuel consumption and EEDI
Fig. 10 shows the influence of the
propeller diameter when going from
about 9.7 to 11.0 m. Thus, N4 for the
7G80ME-C9.2 with an 11.0 m propeller diameter has a propulsion power
demand that is about 6.2% lower compared with the N1 for the 6S80MEC9.2 with an about 9.7 m propeller
diameter. The choice of the one extra
cylinder for the 7G80ME-C9.2 has
made it possible to choose the large
11.0 m. propeller.

Propulsion of VLCC 13

Fig. 11 shows the influence on the main

Propulsion of 320,000 dwt VLCC 15.5 knots


Expected SFOC
SFOC
g/kWh
176
175
174
173

engine efficiency, indicated by the Specific Fuel Oil Consumption, SFOC, for
the four cases. N4 = 90% M4 with

IMO Tier ll
ISO ambient conditions
LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg

the 7G80ME-C9.2 has a relatively low


SFOC of 161.6 g/kWh compared with

Standard high-load
optimised engines

the 165.8 g/kWh for N1 = 90% M1 for

172

the 6S80ME-C9.2, i.e. an SFOC reduc-

171

tion of about 2.5%, mainly caused by

170

the derating potential used for the one

169

D prop
M1 6S80ME-C9.2 9.7 m
M2 6S90ME-C7.1 9.8 m

168
167

M3 6G80ME-C9.2 10.4 m

166

N1
N2

165

Savings
in SFOC
0%

N3

164

M4

163

0.3%
1.0%

162

N4

161
2.5%

160
7G80ME-C9.2 11.0 m

159
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 % SMCR
Engine shaft power
N1 = NCR M1 = SMCR

Fig. 11: Expected SFOC for 15.5 knots

14 Propulsion of VLCC

cylinder bigger 7G80ME-C9.2 engine.

The daily fuel consumption is found by


multiplying the propulsion power demand at N (Fig. 10) with the SFOC (Fig.
11), see Fig. 12. The total reduction
of fuel consumption of the 7G80ME-

Propulsion of 320,000 dwt VLCC 15.5 knots

Expected fuel consumption at N = NCR = 90% SMCR


Fuel consumption
of main engine
t/24h
110
96.9
t/24h

100

C9.2 is about 8.6% compared with the


6S80ME-C9.2.

95.9
t/24h

92.3
t/24h

10

88.6
t/24h

90
80

The reference and the actual EEDI

Relative saving of
fuel consumption
%
11

IMO Tier ll
ISO ambient conditions
LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg

9
8

8.6%

70

figures have been calculated and are

shown in Fig. 13 (EEDIRef = 1,218.8 x

60

, 15 July 2011). As can be

50

seen for all four cases, the actual EEDI

40

30

DWT

-0.488

figures are now lower than the reference


figure because of the relatively low ship
speed of 15.5 knots. Particularly, case

20

4 with 7G80ME-C9.2 has a low EEDI

10

about 87% of the reference figure.

4.8%

1.0%

1
0%

6S80ME-C9.2 6S90ME-C7.1
N1
N2
9.8 m
Dprop: 9.7 m

6G80ME-C9.2 7G80ME-C9.2
N3
N4
10.4 m
11.0 m

Fig. 12: Expected fuel consumption at NCR for 15.5 knots

Propulsion of 320,000 DWT VLCC 15.5 knots


Energy Efciency Design Index (EEDI)
75% SMCR; 15.4 kn without sea margin
Reference and actual EEDI
CO2 emissions
gram per dwt/n mile
3.0

Actual/Reference EEDI %

EEDI reference
2.5

2.51

2.51
2.40
95%

EEDI actual
2.51

2.37
95%

110
2.51

2.28
91%

100
2.19
87%

2.0

90
80
70
60

1.5

50
40

1.0

30
20

0.5

10
0

6S80ME-C9.2
1
Dprop: 9.7 m

6S90ME-C7.1
2
9.8 m

6G80ME-C9.2
3
10.4 m

7G80ME-C9.2
4
11.0 m

Fig. 13: Reference and actual Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for 15.5 knots

Propulsion of VLCC 15

Operating costs

Propulsion of 320,000 dwt VLCC 15.5 knots


Total annual main engine operating costs

The total main engine operating costs

IMO Tier ll
ISO ambient conditions
N = NCR = 90% SMCR
250 days/year
Fuel price: 700 USD/t

Annual operating costs


Million USD/Year

per year, 250 days/year, and fuel price


Relative saving
in operating costs
%

18

18

16

Maintenance
Lub. oil

16

of 700 USD/t, are shown in Fig. 14.


Lube oil and maintenance costs are
also shown at the top of each column.
As can be seen, the major operating
costs originate from the fuel costs

14

about 96%.

12

12

The relative savings in operating costs

10

10

Fuel oil

14

8.2%

in Net Present Value, NPV, see Fig. 15,


with the 6S80ME-C9.2 with the propeller diameter of about 9.7 m used as basis, indicates an NPV saving after some

6
4.7%

0.9%

6S80ME-C9.2
N1
Dprop:
9.7 m

0
6S90ME-C7.1
N2
9.8 m

6G80ME-C9.2
N3
10.4 m

Fig. 14: Total annual main engine operating costs for 15.5 knots

16 Propulsion of VLCC

engines. After 25 years in operation, the


saving is about 14.3 million USD for the
6G80ME-C9.2 with the SMCR speed
of 68.0 r/min and propeller diameter

0%

years in service for the G80ME-C9.2

7G80ME-C9.2
N4
11.0 m

of about 10.4 m, and about 25.1 million USD for the derated 7G80ME-C9.2
with the low SMCR speed of 62.0 r/min
and a propeller diameter of about 11.0 m.

Summary

Propulsion of 320,000 dwt VLCC 15.5 knots


Relative saving in main engine operating costs (NPV)

Traditionally, super long stroke S-type

Saving in operating costs


(Net Present Value)

engines, with relatively low engine


speeds, have been applied as prime

Million USD
35

movers in tankers.

IMO Tier ll
ISO ambient conditions
N = NCR = 90% SMCR
250 days/year
Fuel price: 700 USD/t
Rate of interest and discount: 6% p.a.
Rate of ination: 3% p.a.

30

25

Following the efficiency optimisation


N4
11.0 m
7G80ME-C9.2

trends in the market, the possibility of


using even larger propellers has been
thoroughly evaluated with a view to using engines with even lower speeds for
propulsion of particularly VLCCs.

20
N3
10.4 m
6G80ME-C9.2

15

VLCCs may be compatible with propellers with larger propeller diameters


than the current designs, and thus high
efficiencies following an adaptation of

10

the aft hull design to accommodate the


larger propeller, together with optimised

5
N2
9.8 m
6S90ME-C7.1
N1
9.7 m
6S80ME-C7.1

10

15

20

25

Lifetime
30 Years

hull lines and bulbous bow, considering


operation in ballast conditions.
The new ultra long stroke G80ME-C9.2
engine type meets this trend in the
VLCC market. This paper indicates,
depending on the propeller diameter

Fig. 15: Relative saving in main engine operating costs (NPV) for 15.5 knots

used, an overall efficiency increase of


4-9% when using G80ME-C9.2, compared with existing main engines applied so far.
The Energy Efficiency Design Index
(EEDI) will also be reduced when using G80ME-C9.2. In order to meet the
stricter given reference figure in the future, the design of the ship itself and
the design ship speed applied (reduced
speed) has to be further evaluated by
the shipyards to further reduce the
EEDI. Among others, the installation of
WHR may reduce the EEDI value.

Propulsion of VLCC 17

All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informational
purposes only and is especially not guaranteed in any way. Depending on the
subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to
changes and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This
will depend on the particular characteristics of each individual project, especially
specific site and operational conditions. CopyrightMAN Diesel & Turbo.
5510-0106-01ppr Aug 2012 Printed in Denmark

MAN Diesel & Turbo

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2450 Copenhagen SV, Denmark
Phone +45 33 85 11 00
Fax
+45 33 85 10 30
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