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Alcohol consumption
Prolonged use of NSAIDS
After major surgery Stomach
Traumatic injury
severe infection

Helicobacter pylori

Colonizes the stomach

Inflammation of the lining of the stomach

Signs / Symptoms
Chronic gastritis Laboratory exam
Diagnostic exam Pallor Fecalysis
Endoscopy Rapid heart beat Urinalysis
Stomach biopsy Feeling faint or short of breath Complete blood count
Severe chest or stomach pain
Vomiting large amounts of blood
Foul-smelling bowel movements

Antacid (cimetidine, ranitidine,
Proton pump inhibitors (
omeprazole, lansoprazole,
Anus Congenital defect

Abnormal development of the fetus

Imperforate anus is the absence of a normal

anal opening

Diagnosis Signs / Symptoms

Missing or misplaced opening to the anus
Physical examination No passage of first stool within 24 - 48 hours
Ultrasound of the after birth
perineum Stool passes out of the vagina, base of penis,
scrotum, or urethra
Swollen belly area

Surgical treatment:
Perineal anoplasty
Colon Congenital defect

Lack of nerve cells in part of the intestine

Improper muscle movement in the bowel

Blockage in the large intestine

Abdomen to become swollen

Diagnostic exam Signs / Symptoms

Abdominal x-ray Newborns and infants include:
Rectal biopsy Difficulty with bowel movements
Failure to pass meconium shortly after birth
Anal manometry
Barium enema Poor feeding
Older children:
Constipation that gradually gets worse
Fecal impaction
Slow growth
Swollen belly

Pull-through surgery- surgical removal
(resection) of the abnormal section of
the colon
Name of Drug Classification and Side Effects /
Mechanism of Indication and Contraindication Adverse Nursing Responsibility
Action Dosage Reaction
Ranitidine Maintenance Contraindicated in CNS: vertigo, 1. Assess patient for abdominal
Hydrochloride H 2 receptor therapy for patients malaise, pain. Note presence of blood in
antagonist. duodenal or hypersensitive to headache. emesis, stool, or gastric aspirate.
gastric ulcer drug and those with
Competitively acute porphyria. EENT: blurred 2. Remind patient to take once-
inhibits action of Use cautiously in vision. daily prescription drug at
histamine on the patients with bedtime for best results.
H2 at receptor hepatic Hepatic:
sites of parietal dysfunction. Adjust jaundice. 3. Instruct patient to take without
cells, decreasing dosage in patients regard to meals because
gastric acid with impaired renal Other: absorption isn't affected by food.
secretion. function. burning and
itching at 4. Advise patient to report
injection site, abdominal pain and blood in
anaphylaxis, stool or emesis.