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EVALUATION

VALIDATION OF COGNITIVE AND NON COGNITIVE TEST

By: Ni Wayan Mei Indrayani


Class : 2B2
NIM : 1429081052

ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM


POST GRADUATE PROGRAM
GANESHA UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION
2015

CHAPTER I
GRAND THEORY

1.1 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY


For the statistical consultant working with social science researchers the
estimation of reliability and validity is a task frequently encountered.
Measurement issues differ in the social sciences in that they are related to the
quantification of abstract, intangible and unobservable constructs.

In many

instances, then, the meaning of quantities is only inferred.


Let us begin by a general description of the paradigm that we are dealing
with. Most concepts in the behavioral sciences have meaning within the context
of the theory that they are a part of. Each concept, thus, has an operational
definition which is governed by the overarching theory. If a concept is involved
in the testing of hypothesis to support the theory it has to be measured. So the
first decision that the research is faced with is how shall the concept be
measured? That is the type of measure. At a very broad level the type of measure
can be observational, self-report, interview, etc. These types ultimately take shape
of a more specific form like observation of ongoing activity, observing videotaped events, self-report measures like questionnaires that can be open-ended or
close-ended, Likert-type scales, interviews that are structured, semi-structured or
unstructured and open-ended or close-ended.

Needless to say, each type of

measure has specific types of issues that need to be addressed to make the
measurement meaningful, accurate, and efficient.
Another important feature is the population for which the measure is
intended. This decision is not entirely dependent on the theoretical paradigm but
more to the immediate research question at hand.
A third point that needs mentioning is the purpose of the scale or measure.
What is it that the researcher wants to do with the measure? Is it developed for a

specific study or is it developed with the anticipation of extensive use with similar
populations?
Once some of these decisions are made and a measure is developed, which
is a careful and tedious process, the relevant questions to raise are how do we
know that we are indeed measuring what we want to measure? since the
construct that we are measuring is abstract, and can we be sure that if we
repeated the measurement we will get the same result?. The first question is
related to validity and second to reliability.

Validity and reliability are two

important characteristics of behavioral measure and are referred to as


psychometric properties.
It is important to bear in mind that validity and reliability are not an all or
none issue but a matter of degree.
Validity:
Very simply, validity is the extent to which a test measures what it is
supposed to measure. The question of validity is raised in the context of the three
points made above, the form of the test, the purpose of the test and the population
for whom it is intended. Therefore, we cannot ask the general question Is this a
valid test?. The question to ask is how valid is this test for the decision that I
need to make? or how valid is the interpretation I propose for the test? We can
divide the types of validity into logical and empirical.
The test should be tried out properly before the real test is administered.
Sutrisno Hadi as cited in Utami (2005) points out that the aim of trying out test:
- To avoid misunderstanding on the questions
- To drop the difficult and confusing words
- To substitute the easy questions with the ones that need deeper answer
- To add items, which are completely needed and drop away the irrelevant ones.
The criteria used for selecting the items were based on the validity and the
Reliability of items.
Content Validity:

When

we

want

to

find

out

if

the

entire

content

of

the

behavior/construct/area is represented in the test we compare the test task with the
content of the behavior. This is a logical method, not an empirical one. Example,
if we want to test knowledge on American Geography it is not fair to have most
questions limited to the geography of New England.
Gay, et.al (2009) points out that content validity is the degree to which a
test measures an intended content area. It means that the test must be
comprehensive and the content is in line with the purpose of measurement.
Content validity involves: (1) clear statement of the domain that are measured, (2)
composition or selection of a set of items. The reading comprehension test would
test the students comprehension of the reading text.
1. Item Validity
Gay, et.al (2009) state that item validity is concerned with whether the test
items represent measurement in the intended content area. The item validity is
measured by point-biserial correlation (Arikunto, 2005).
M p Mt

St

pbi

p
q

Remarks:
pbi

= correlation coefficient point beserial

Mp

= the mean score of students who answer the questions correctly

Mt

= the total mean score

St

= the score deviation

= the proportion of students who answer correctly

= the proportion who answer wrongly


The criteria:
An item is valid if pbi > rcv at 0.05 level of significance

2. Facility Value and Index of Discrimination


According to Nurkancana & Sunartana (1990), a test should not be too or
too difficult. An item which is too easy is not a good item. The same thing
happened if the test is too difficult; it is not good for students. A good item is an
item that can differentiate the good and the poor students. In this case, all items

should be examined from the point of view of their facility value and index of
discrimination.
According to Heaton (1988), facility value of an item simply shows how
or difficult the particular item proved in the test. The facility value is
expressed as the traction of the students who answered the item correctly. It is
calculated by the following formula:
FV =

R
N

Remarks :
R

: number of items

: number of students taking the test

Meanwhile to measure the index of discrimination (D) the formula used is:
D=

correctU correct L
n

Remarks ;
D

= index of discrimination

= number of students in one group

= upper half group

= lower half group

Face Validity:
Basically face validity refers to the degree to which a test appears to
measure what it purports to measure.
Criterion-Oriented or Predictive Validity:
When you are expecting a future performance based on the scores obtained
currently by the measure, correlate the scores obtained with the performance. The
later performance is called the criterion and the current score is the prediction.
This is an empirical check on the value of the test a criterion-oriented or
predictive validation.
Concurrent Validity:
Concurrent validity is the degree to which the scores on a test are related
to the scores on another, already established, test administered at the same time, or

to some other valid criterion available at the same time. Example, a new simple
test is to be used in place of an old cumbersome one, which is considered useful,
measurements are obtained on both at the same time. Logically, predictive and
concurrent validation are the same, the term concurrent validation is used to
indicate that no time elapsed between measures.
Construct Validity:
Construct validity is the degree to which a test measures an intended
hypothetical construct.

Many times psychologists assess/measure abstract

attributes or constructs. The process of validating the interpretations about that


construct as indicated by the test score is construct validation. This can be done
experimentally, e.g., if we want to validate a measure of anxiety. We have a
hypothesis that anxiety increases when subjects are under the threat of an electric
shock, then the threat of an electric shock should increase anxiety scores (note:
not all construct validation is this dramatic!)
A correlation coefficient is a statistical summary of the relation between
two variables. It is the most common way of reporting the answer to such
questions as the following: Does this test predict performance on the job? Do
these two tests measure the same thing? Do the ranks of these people today agree
with their ranks a year ago?
(rank correlation and product-moment correlation)
According to Cronbach, to the question what is a good validity
coefficient? the only sensible answer is the best you can get, and it is unusual
for a validity coefficient to rise above 0.60, though that is far from perfect
prediction.
All in all we need to always keep in mind the contextual questions: what
is the test going to be used for? how expensive is it in terms of time, energy and
money? what implications are we intending to draw from test scores?
Reliability:
Research requires dependable measurement. (Nunnally) Measurements
are reliable to the extent that they are repeatable and that any random influence

which tends to make measurements different from occasion to occasion or


circumstance to circumstance is a source of measurement error. (Gay) Reliability
is the degree to which a test consistently measures whatever it measures. Errors
of measurement that affect reliability are random errors and errors of
measurement that affect validity are systematic or constant errors.
Test-retest, equivalent forms and split-half reliability are all determined
through correlation
Test-retest Reliability:
Test-retest reliability is the degree to which scores are consistent over
time. It indicates score variation that occurs from testing session to testing session
as a result of errors of measurement. Problems: Memory, Maturation, Learning.
Equivalent-Forms or Alternate-Forms Reliability:
Two tests that are identical in every way except for the actual items
included. Used when it is likely that test takers will recall responses made during
the first session and when alternate forms are available. Correlate the two scores.
The obtained coefficient is called the coefficient of stability or coefficient of
equivalence. Problem: Difficulty of constructing two forms that are essentially
equivalent.
Both of the above require two administrations.
Split-Half Reliability:
Requires only one administration. Especially appropriate when the test is
very long. The most commonly used method to split the test into two is using the
odd-even strategy. Since longer tests tend to be more reliable, and since split-half
reliability represents the reliability of a test only half as long as the actual test, a
correction formula must be applied to the coefficient. Spearman-Brown prophecy
formula.
Split-half reliability is a form of internal consistency reliability.
Rationale Equivalence Reliability:
Rationale equivalence reliability is not established through correlation but
rather estimates internal consistency by determining how all items on a test relate
to all other items and to the total test.

Internal Consistency Reliability:


Determining how all items on the test relate to all other items. KudserRichardson-> is an estimate of reliability that is essentially equivalent to the
average of the split-half reliabilities computed for all possible halves.
Standard Error of Measurement:
Reliability can also be expressed in terms of the standard error of
measurement. It is an estimate of how often you can expect errors of a given size.
Reliability is the degree to which a test consistently measure whatever it
measures (Gay,et.al 2909). A test is said to be reliable if the test shows an exact
result. To measure the reliability of the test, the formula Kuder-Richardson
21(Arikunto, 2005) is used as follows :
KR 21 =

K
MK M
1

K 1
K .S 2

Remarks:
K

: number of items

M : mean
S2 : variance
The following is a chart which shows the summary of validation to prove
its validity and reliability
COGNITIVE TEST

1.2.1 RECEPTIVE SKILL READING COMPREHENSION


(A) Assessing the Reading Comprehension
The assessment was usually with test. Generally, there were two kinds of
tests that can be used in measuring the students ability, namely, oral test (it
usually used in test of listening and speaking) and written test (usually used for
making test of reading and writing). Brown (2004:165) argues that assessment, on
the other hand, is an ongoing process that encompasses a much wider domain.

Whenever a student responds to a question, offers a comment, or tries out a new


word or structure, the teacher subconsciously makes an assessment of the
students performance. Based on this, it can be mentioned that assessment used to
determine the quality of students works.
Elizabeth Pang S et al. (2004:215) defines that there are two forms of
reading assessment. The first is to find out how well children are reading in order
to help them improve (diagnosis). Diagnostic assessment is about giving feedback
and assistance to learners. The second is to measure how much progress has been
made. Both forms of assessment are needed for effective reading instruction. In
beginning reading, assessment is normally done by listening to students reading
aloud. Teachers assess word recognition and fluency in this way. Beyond this
stage, assessment should focus primarily on text comprehension. Text
comprehension is usually assessed through questions. Questions should focus on
main ideas and viewpoints, not minor details. Therefore, these terms are called
higher order questions.
ASSESMENT
Indicator

Technique

Instrument

Example
instrument

Written test
Answering

Text

the

What

is

the

following

main idea of the

questions

text?

according to the
text given.

NO

KRITERIA

SCORE

Correct answer 1

Incorrect

answer or no
answer

Assessment Guideline
Written :
1. For number I, for each correct answer scoring 1
I 10 x 1 = 10
Total = Maximum value = 10 xv1 = 10
Table 1. The Blue Print of Reading Comprehension Test
Basic

Text

Competency

Type

Indicators

Dime

TOTA

Items

nsions

Number

C3

items
4

1,6,11,16

supporting details of the text


Identify the specific

C2

2,7,12,17

information of the text


Find out the textual

C2

3,8,13,18

The students Narra Find out the main ideas and


are able to

tive

respond

Text

meaning and
the

references from the text

rhetorical
development
of monolog
text
accurately,
fluently and
contextually

Repo
rt
Text

Find out the meaning of

C1

4,9,14,19

certain words used in the text


Identify the language features

C1

5,10,15,2

used in the text


Find out the main ideas and

C3

0
21,26

supporting details of the text


Identify the specific

C2

22,27

information of the text


Find out the textual

C2

23,28

references from the text


Find out the meaning of

C1

24,29,

certain words used in the text


Identify the language features

C1

25,30

used in the text

(B) INSTRUMENT
School

: SMP HARAPAN NUSANTARA

Subject

: English

Class/Semester : IX/1
Skill
NAME

NO

: Reading

Read the following text then answer the questions that follow.
Ali Baba
Once upon a time there were 40 thieves who put their stolen money and
treasures in a cave. When they wanted to come in the cave, they said to the cave entrance,
Open Sesame! A poor man saw them while they were doing that, so he heard the
opening word. After they left he went towards the cave and opened it. He was surprised
to see a very large quantity of money in it. He took some of it and went back home soon.
After that he became a rich man and his brother wanted to know how he became
rich.
One day his brother followed him to solve that mystery. Next day the brother
went back to the cave and opened it. He found a lot of money but when he tried to get out
he could not. After a few minutes the thieves came in and saw the brother.
The boss asked him how he knew about the cave so he told them the story. They
killed the brother and went to nd Ali Babas house.
Next morning the thieves hid in big jars and went to Ali Babas house. The boss
and two of his men pretended that they were merchants. Ali Baba invited them to lunch.
After lunch they took a rest. The house maid went out and found 40 thieves in
the jars, so he boiled hot oil and poured it on their heads to kill them. After that Ali Baba
lived in happiness forever.

1. The main idea of the rst paragraph is.


A. there were 40 thieves who put their stolen money in a cave
B. the thieves were very surprise to see a large quantity of money
C. the thieves took some of the money in a cave
D. a thief saw a poor man came into the cave
2. Where did the thieves put their stolen money?
A. in a jar
B. at home

C. out of cave
D. in a cave

3. A poor man saw them While they put the stolen money. The underlined
word refers to the
A. . poor lady
B. thieves

C. rich man
D. wise person

4. A very large quantity of money has the similar meaning with money.
A. a little

C. some

B. a lot of

D. not so much

5. After that he became a rich man (par 2). Which of the words is an adjective?
A. after that

C. rich

B. became

D. man

6. The main idea of the third paragraph is. . ..


A. Ali Baba tried to solve a mystery
B. Ali Babas brother didnt want to go to the cave
C. the thieves saw Ali Babas brother in the cave
D. Ali Babas brother saw him go to the cave

7.

What did the poor man nd in the cave?


A. a beautiful girl

C. a golden treasure

B. a lot of money

D. a wise thief

8.

9.

10.

The boss asked 131 how ...(par 4). Him refers to the
A. poor person

C. poor persons brother

B. poor persons father

D. one of the thieves

At the end of the story Ali Baba was very happy. The italic word means....
A. poor

C. sad

B. delighted

D. unhappy

The following words are adverbs, except


A. rich man

C. next morning

B. one day

D. once upon a time

Read the following text then answer the questions that follow.
Beauty and the Beast
Once upon a time, there was a beautiful girl named Beauty. She lived with
her two sisters and her father in a small village. She was also a hard working girl.
She always help edher father in the farm.
One day, her father set out for the city. On his way, he saw an old castle.
He became curious to know who lived inside, and he went in. While he was
walking around the castle, hemet nobody inside, so he ate the food on the table
and picked a rose from the garden, for Beauty. Then, an angry beast appeared and
wanted to kill him unless Beauty came and lived with him.
After reaching his home, Beautys father told her the truth. Beauty loved
her father very much, so she didnt refuse what her father asked. She went to the
beast scastle and lived there only with the Beast. Her gloomy life began since
then. She often tried to run away but The Beast always successfully stopped her.
The Beast loved Beauty very much. Because of his treatment, Beauty began to
like him very much.
One day, when Beauty visiting her father in the village because of his
illness, she hada dream. She saw The Beast was dying. She suddenly came back to
The Beast castle. Seeing the dying Beast she began to cry. When her tear was

falling on to the Beast, he became a handsome prince. Beauty and The Beast got
married and lived happily ever after.
11. What is the topic of the text?
A. The story of a beautiful girl and his father.
B. The living of a poor man with his daughters.
C. A happy ending love story between two creatures.
D. An unhappy ending story between the Prince and Beauty.
12.

What kind of girl do you think Beauty was?


A. smart

C. shy

B. diligent

D. cruel

13.

One day, her father set out for the city. On his way, he saw. . . (par.2).
The

14.

underlined word refers to... .

A. Beauty

C. Beautys father

B. The Beast

D. Beautys sister

. . . , so she didnt refuse what her father asked (par. 3). The synonym of
the bold typed word is. . ..

15.

A. reject

C. give

B. remember

D. agree

He became curious to know who lived inside (par 2).


Which of the word is an adjective?

16.

A. lived

C. curious

B. became

D. inside

The main idea of the fth paragraph is... .


A. Beauty visited her father in the village
B. Beauty had a very bad dream about his father
C. Beautys tear changed The Beast into a handsome prince
D. Beauty began to cry as she saw the dying Beast

17. The Beast always stopped Beauty to run away because he her.
A. loved

C. refused

B. hated

D. rejected

18.

Because of his treatment, Beauty began to like very much (par. 4). The

19.

underlined word refers to... .


A. Beautys father

C. The Beast

B. Beauty

D. Beautys sisters

After reaching his home, Beautys father told her the truth. (par.3) The
underlined word has the similar meaning with something. . ..

20.

A. right

C. good

B. sad

D. bad

The following words express adverb of time.


A. Beautiful girl

C. Old castle

B. Small village

D. Once upon a time

Read the following text then answer the questions that follow.
ELEPHANTS
The elephant is the largest animal to walk on Earth. An elephant
can carry a loadorI200 pounds. They eat 300 pounds of food a day.
An elephant baby can weigh 200 pounds atbirth. Elephants can live up to 70
years.
Elephants can be trained to carry logs with their trunks, and have
been usedinthe forestry industry in Asia for many years. Elephants also use
their trunks for drinkingwater, bathing, and eating and communicating.
Recently it was discovered that elephants can communicate
over adistance ofseveral miles using infrasonic sounds inaudible to
humans.Elephants use their earsas acooling system. Blood ow

through veins in the ears and asthe elephant aps his ears,the blood cools and
ows through his body to cool off otherparts.
Elephants feet are large and round. They distribute the large
animal's weighteffectively. In the past, elephants were killed and
their feet were made intoumbrellastands and small tables for tourists.
Now elephants are protected by special laws.Thereare two kinds of elephants: the
African elephant and the Indian elephant. Africanelephants can be identied by
the larger ears. The Africanelephant grows up to 10 feet talland weighs as much as
12,000 pounds.
The Indian elephant grows up to 9 feet tall, and Weighs up to
8000pounds. Itseasier to identify because of its smaller ears. Most
circus elephants are Indianelephants.Another name for the Indian
elephant is the Asian elephant.
21. The idea that elephants eat a lot of food is found in paragraph...
A. one

C. three

B. two

D. four

22. An elephant cannot carry things without its


A. trunk

C. feet

B. ears

D. legs

23. Elephants also use their trunks for drinking water .. The underlined word
refers to... .
A. logs

C. years

B. elephants

D. industry

24. "Inaudible" means... .


A. can be heard

C. cant be seen

B. It's very noisy.

D. cant be heard

25. Hunters made umbrella holders out of elephants feet. The Words below are
nouns, except...
A. hunters

C. feet

B. made

D. umbrella

26. The idea about the kinds of elephants is found in paragraph... .


A. 2

C. 5

B.4

D. 3

27. An Indian Elephant has...than the African Elephant.


A. longer tail

C. bigger teeth

B. Stronger trunk

D. smaller ears

28. It's easier to identify because of its smaller ears (par.5). The bold typed word
refers to...
A. Indian elephant

C. pounds

B. African elephant

D. easier

29. Its easier to identify because of its smaller ears (par.5). The antonym of the
bold typed word is. ..
A. shorter

C. better

B. longer

D. larger

30. Elephants feet are large and round. They distribute the large animal's weight
effectively. Which of the words is an adverb?
A. large

C. effectively

B. round

D. animal
KUESIONER

Pilihlah salah satu jawaban dari pertanyaan-pertanyaan di bawah ini dengan mengisi
tanda silang (X) pada (a), (b), (c), atau (d) dengan sejujur-jujurnya sesuai dengan
pendapat anda!

1. Menurut Anda apakah pelajaran membaca penting bagi Anda dalam menambah
wawasan ?
a. Sangat penting.
b. Kurang penting.
c. Biasa saja.
d. Tidak penting.
2. Bagaimana perasaan Anda ketika membaca teks dalam Bahasa Inggris?
a. Sangat senang.
b. Senang.
c. Sedikit senang.
d. Tidak senang.
3. Dengan membacabagi saya untuk menambah kosa kata dalam Bahasa Inggris?
a. Mudah.
b. Sangat mudah.
c. Tidak mudah.
d. Sulit.
4. Bagaimana cara Anda memahami isi dari suatu reading text ?
a. Membacanya berulang-ulang dan menarik kesimpulan.
b. Hanya mencari jawaban atas pertanyaan yang diberikan setelah membaca wacana
tersebut.
c. Mencari kata-kata sulit dalam kamus.
d. Hanya membaca sekilas tanpa memahami teks tersebut.
5. Efektifkah bagi Anda diskusi dalam proses belajar mengajar?
a. Sangat efektif.
b. Efektif.
c. Kurang efektif.
d. Tidak efektif.
6. Menurut Anda apakah diskusi dapat membantu memahami suatu bacaan?
a. Dapat sekali.
b. Dapat.
c. Kurang dapat.
d. Tidak dapat.

7. Setujukah Anda jika Guru menerapkan teknik diskusi tersebut dalam proses
pembelajaran?
a. Sangat setuju.
b. Setuju.
c. Tidak setuju.
d. Ragu-ragu.
8. Bagaimanakah kemampuan belajar Anda setelah menggunakan teknik diskusi?
a. Sangat meningkat.
b. Meningkat.
c. Kurang meningkat.
d. Tidak meningkat.
9. Kegiatan diskusi dalam kelas akan. Bila adanya interaksi antara guru dan siswa.
a. Sangat efektif.
b. Efektif.
c. Kurang efektif.
d. Tidak efektif.
10. Menurut Anda tepatkah teknik diskusi digunakan untuk membantu anda lebih
memahami isi dari suatu bacaan?
a. Sangat tepat.
b. Tepat.
c. Biasa saja.
d. Tidak tepat.

PRODUCTIVE SKILL WRITING


(A) Writing Assessment
Assessment can be thought as the process of collecting information about
a given object of interest according to procedure that is systematic substantively
grounded. A product or an outcome of his process such as test score or a verbal

description is also referred to as an assessment (Bachman, 2004:7). Every subject


in teaching learning process need to assess; it include English subject.
Johnson and Johnson (2002:6) state that assessment is collecting
information about the quality or quantity of the change in students, group, teacher,
or administrator. Performance assessment is collecting information about
demonstration of achievement involving actually performing a task or a set of
task, such as: conducting an experiment, giving a speech, writing a story or
operating a mechine. After the intended outcomes of instruction are defined, the
procedures used to determine whether they were achieved must be selected. In
other to achieve purpose that match with the students performances; it can assess
with the appropriate assessment method. The purpose of assessing may be to (a)
diagnose students present level of knowledge and skill , (b) monitor progress
toward learning goals to help form the instructional program, and (c) provide
judge the final level of the students learning.
There are two ways in which students may be involved in the assessment
process are helping create the criteria and rubric used to assess a students work
and communicating to their interested stakeholders the result of their efforts to
learn. A criterion is a predetermined standard used to assess a performance.
Involving students in creating the criteria and rubrics for assessing students effort
does not mean turning over total control to students. A rubric is a list of indicators
of different levels of a criterion being used to assess a performance. A rubric is
usually a scale ranking from poor to good (Johnson and Johnson, 2002 :259). As
quoted from may (2002:88) write that the assessment is complex and
personalized, it is difficult to assess the efficacy of an investigation or of an
investigator because like complex human task. Since the assessment is complex, it
is must be effective to measure and reflect the students ability.
In supporting statement above, Brown (2004:218) asserts that writing was
a skill that was the exclusive domain of scribes and scholar in education or
religious institution. The ability to write to become an indispensable skill in our
global literate community. Writing skill at least at rudimentary levels, is a
necessary condition for achieving employment in many walks of life and is simply

take for granted in literate culture. In the field of second language teaching only a
half century ago experts were saying that writing was primarily a convention for
recording speech and for reinforcing grammatical and lexical features of language.
In relation to this study, the teacher focuses on assessing students ability
in composing a good descriptive paragraph. The students are ask to make a
descriptive paragraph based on the topic already given and they have to submit
their work, than the researcher analyzes and gives the score for students work by
using rubric which includes some components, such as: format, punctuation and
mechanics, content, organization, grammar, and sentence structure. The rubric is
taken from Oshima and Houge (2007:196)

SCORING RUBRIC : WRITING PARAGRAPH


CRORRING ASSPECT

Max.

Actual

Score

Score

FORMAT 5 POINTS

There is a title
The title is centered
The first line is indented
There are margins on both sides
Tidiness
Total
PUNCTUATION AND MECHANICS 5 POINTS
There is a period after every sentence
Capital letters are used correctly
The spellings are correct
Capitalization & other punctuations are used correctly
Total
CONTENT 20 POINTS
The paragraph fits the assignment
The paragraph is unity.
The paragraph is coherence.
Total
ORGANIZATION 40 POINTS
The paragraph begins with a clear identification about the

1
1
1
1
1
5
1
1
2
1
5
4
8
8
20
10

object to be described.
The paragraph contains vivid detail descriptions of place, 25
person, or thing that students want to describe so that the
reader can easily imagine or picture the object, or they

can feel the object with their five senses.


The paragraph ends with an appropriate concluding 5
sentence.
Total

40

GRAMMAR & SENTENCE STRUCTURE 30 POINS


Estimate a grammar and sentence structure score

30

Grand Total
Taken from Oshima and Houge(2007:196)

100

Table 1. The Blue Print of Writing Test


Basic Competency

Text

Indicators

Type
Expressing
meaning

Descripti
and

ve

Students are able to


write

descriptive

rhetorical steps

paragraph

in simple short

school

essays by using

generic structure.

various written
form
accurately,
smoothly
acceptable

and
to

interact within

about

based

on

their
the

Cognitive/Kn

Total

Items

owledge

items

number

Dimensions
C3 K3

the
surroundings in
the

form

of

descriptive

or

procedure text.

INSTRUMENT
NAME

CLASS

Instruction
Please write from your own word a simple descriptive paragraph about
your school the title is My School ,at least five until seven sentences with
good grammatical, punctuation, spelling and the generic structure correctly.
Kuesioner
Petunjuk pengerjaan

Jawablah semua pertanyaan dalam kuesioner di bawah ini sesuai dengan


keadaan anda yang sebenarnya dengan cara memberikan tanda silang pada

hurup A, B, C, atau D.
Terimakasih atas bantuan anda menjawab pertanyaan dalam kuesioner ini.
1. Apakah cara pembelajaran menulis paragraf melalui membaca dan
menemukan topic bacaan di perlukan?
a. Sangat perlu
b. Perlu
c. Kurang perlu
d. Tidak perlu
2. Bagaimana menurut anda topic yang diberikan untuk menulis paragraph ?
a. Gampang
b. Biasa saja
c. Sulit
d. Sangat sulit
3. Apakah anda mengalami kesulitan dalam menulis paragraf?
a. Sangat gampang
b. Gampang
c. Cukup sulit

d. Sangat sulit
4. Apakah anda pernah mengenal tentang cara menulis descriptive paragraph
a. Sangat mengenal
b. Mengenal
c. Kurang mengenal
d. Tidak mengenal
5. Bagaimana kesan anda mengenai menulis paragraph descriptive dengan
generic structure nya
a. Sangat menarik
b. Menarik
c. Cukup menarik
d. Tidak menarik
6. Apakah menurut anda menulis paragraph perlu diterapkan dalam
meningkatkan kemampuan siswa?
a. Sangat perlu
b. Perlu
c. Kurang perlu
d. Tidak perlu
7. Bagaimana sikap anda jika guru memberikan kesempatan untuk menulis
paragraph dalam proses pembelajaran bahasa inggris?
a. Sangat senang
b. Senang
c. Kurang senang
d. Tidak senang
8. Apakah pembelajaran dengan menulis paragraph membuat anda merasa
termotivasi untuk terlibat atau berpartisipasi dalam proses pembelajaran?
a. Sangat termotivasi
b. Termotivasi
c. Kurang termotivasi
d. Tidak termotivasi
9. Apakah dengan menulis paragraph ini membantu anda dalam meningkatkan
kemampuan bahasa inggris
a. Sangat membantu
b. Membantu
c. Cukup membantu
d. Tidak membantu
10. Apakah pembelajaran menulis paragraf bermanfaat bagi kemampuan anda?
a. Sangat bermanfaat
b. Bermanfaat
c. Tidak bermanfaat
d. Tidak bermanfaat
METACOGNITIVE TEST

1. Theories of Motivation
Etymologically, Dornyei (2001) expiains the term motivation comes from
the Latin word, movere (to move) and then absorbed in English language into
motivation which means providing motive or cause of motive that lead of
encouragement. Next, he points out motivation of a person depend on the strength
of his or her motive. So, the motivation cannot be separated from the concept of
motive. In essence it can be said that the motive is a cause of action. Moreover,
Steiner (1985) explains, the motive is sometimes stated to be the needs, desires,
impulses that arise in a person. The motive directed toward goals that can arise in
conditions in the conscious or unconscious condition.
2. Kinds of Motivation
Motivation has been formulated in a number of different definitions. Even
so, the substance is not much different. According to Brown (1980), motivation is
commonly thought of as an inner drive, impulse, emotion, or desire that moves
one to a particular action. Motivation was examined as a factor of attitudes
divided into two basic types of motivation, such as instrumental and integrative
motivation. Instrumental motivation refers to motivation to acquire a language as
means for attaining instrumental goals: furthering a career, reading technical
material, and translation. An integrative motivation is employed when a learner
wishes to integrate himself within the culture of the second language group, to
identify himself with and become a part of society. From the conclusion of this
study is that integrative motivation may indeed be an important requirement for
successful language learning and some claim that integrative motivation is
absolutely essential for successful second language learning.
Related to the kinds of motivation, Gardner & Labert in Ellis (l986) define
motivation in terms of the L2 learners overall goal or orientation, and attitude as
the persistence shown by the learner in striving for a goal. They argue that there is
no reason to expect a relationship between the two. The type of motivation is

distinct from the attitudes displayed to different learning tasks. However Gardner
suggests that attitudes are related to motivation by serving as supports of the
learners overal orientation. In this types of motivation, Brown in Ellis (1986) also
distinguishes motivation. He identities three types of motivation, such as:
(1) Global motivation which consists of a general orientation to the goal of
learning a L2, (2) situational motivation, which varies according to the situation in
which learning takes place (the motivation associated with classroom learning is
distinct from the motivation involved in naturalistic learning); (3) task motivation,
which is the motivation for performing particular learning tasks. So, it can be
concluded that motivation account for a substantial amount of the variance in the
learning rate and learning outcomes of different learners. It is also possible that
different factors may be responsible for different types of L2 competence.
Related to this, Lightbown & Spada (1993), motivation in second language
learning is a complex phenomenon which can be defined in terms of three factors,
they are learners communicative needs, attitudes towards the second language
community and social dynamic or power relationship between the languages. If
the learners need to speak the second language in a wide range of social situations
or to fulfill .professional ambitions, they will perceive the communicative value of
the second language and will therefore be motivated to acquire proficiency in it.
Likewise, if learners have favorable attitudes towards the Speakers of the
language, they will desire more contact with them. On the other hand, we should
keep in mind that an individuals identity is closely linked with the way he or she
speaks. It follows that when speaking a new language, one is adopting some of the
identity markers of another cultural group. Depending on the learners attitudes,
learning a second language can be a source of enrichment. If the speakers only
reason for learning a second language is external pressure, internal motivation
may be minimal and general attitudes towards learning may be negative. One
more factor which often affects motivation is the social dynamic or power
relationship between the languages. That is members of a minority group may
have different attitudes and motivation when learning the language of a majority
group than those majority group members learning a minority language. Even

though it is impossible to predict the exact effect of such societal factors on


second language learning, the fact that languages exist in social contexts cannot be
overlooked when we seek to understand the variables which affect success in
learning. Even children are sensitive to social dynamics and power relationships.
Another types of motivation is also defined by Bandura (2010).
Motivation can be divided into two terms, such as intrinsic motivation and
extrinsic motivation. In term of intrinsic motivation is a motivation that comes
from us or our self In students, by having this motivation, usually, those students
will learn the language for the best result, with our without price or punishment
from the teachers. Meanwhile, extrinsic motivation is a motivation that comes
from outside. For students, they usually learn language for some prices or afraid
of teachers punishment. From those terms of kind of motivation, it can be
concluded that intrinsic motivation is more important than extrinsic motivation,
especially for long term retention. By having intrinsic motivation, the students
will realize that they need to learn and they must learn for their own succeed.
They will do it with or without price, award or afraid of teachers punishment.
Concerning theory types of motivation, Ken & Param (2010) divided
motivation into seven types, such as: achievement motivation, affiliation
motivation, competence motivation, power motivation, attitude motivation,
incentive motivation and fear motivation. (1) achievement motivation is desire to
achieve something in life, and what we feel, we need to achieve is relative to who
we are as persons. What is easy for one to achieve could be difficult to another,
but achievement is rarely looked upon as a motivation factor. However, when you
have this desire to achieve, and when you recognize it as a driving force, nothing
is impossible once you put your mind to it. (2) affiliation motivation is a drive to
relate to people on a social basis. Persons with affiliation motivation perform
work better when they are complimented for their favorable attitudes and
cooperation. (3) Competence motivation is the drive to be good at something,
allowing the individual to perform high quality work. Competence motivated
people seek job mastery, take pride in developing and using their problem-solving
skills and strive to be creative when confronted with obstacles. They learn from

their experience. (4) Power Motivation. It is the drive to influence people and
change situations. Power motivated people wish to create an impact on their
organization and are willing to take risks to do so. (5) Attitude Motivation.
Attitude motivation is how people think and feel. It is their self confidence, their
belief in themselves, then attitude to life. It is how they feel about the fixture and
how they react to the past. (6) Incentive Motivation. It is where a person or a team
reaps a reward from an activity. It is You do this and you get that, attitude. It is
the types of awards and prizes that drive people to work a little harder. (7) Fear
Motivation. Fear motivation coercions a person to act.

3. Factors Affecting Motivation


According to Ebata (2001) three factors to build motivation towards
language-learning are self-confidence, experiencing success and satisfaction, and
good-teacher-learner relationships as well as relationships between learners. All
three factors are believed to be correlated to each other in the process of
motivation development. The factors are:
1.

Self confidence
Self-confidence is the most significant in language-learning- it provides
learners with the motivation and energy to become positive about their
own learning. It also creates them to acquire the targeted language, enjoy

2.

the learning process, and experience real communication.


Experience of success and satisfaction
Experience of success provides students with more power to pursue a new
goal. It allows language learners to understand the purpose of trying and
have pleasure in communicating with others. Some people might feel
successful when they can communicate their thoughts to people; others
might feel the sense of success when they complete a challenging task in a

3.

targeted language.
Good relationships among learners and between the learners and the
teacher
There are a number of methods that English teacher can use to motivate
students in class, and teachers should flexibly employ the most suitable

method for the class. Furthermore, teachers should develop a mutual


relationship with their learners. In order to develop a mutual relationship
with their learners, teachers need to understand students who are from
different backgrounds, have different interests, future goals, aims for
English learning most importantly different personalities. Once they
understand them better, teachers are able to apply specific teaching and
communicating strategies to each student, creating a relationship between
a teacher and student. Once a relationship develops, the classroom will
become comfortable and enjoyable enough for students to learn positively
from the teacher without any hesitation. Teachers need to acquire what
students pursue in teachers in order for students to be motivated in
language learning. They certainly have a strong relation with students
motivation status. It is understood that a teachers personality and behavior
towards students have a strong influence. In order to produce successful
language speakers, teachers should devote themselves to teaching.
In conclusion, motivation is vital in language learning. It makes language
learners positive about their own learning. It also acquires the targeted language,
enjoy the learning process, and experience real communication. Moreover,
experience of success and satisfaction has a strong connection with motivation.
By realizing their improvement and achievement, students always gain the feeling
of success. In order to make students become satisfied with a lesson, it is required
to produce a stress-free classroom and develop integrated-tasks lesson. It is
necessary that there is a trust between a teacher and the students so that much
communication in a targeted language is developed. These three factors: self
confidence, experiencing success and satisfaction, and good teacher-learner
relationships as well as relationships between learners play an essential role in
developing language learners motivation.
In relation to the factors that can affect motivation, Dimyati & Mudjiono
(1994) state that there are several factors that affect students motivation to learn
such as:
1. Students ideal or aspiration

Ideals can take place in a very long time. The ideal of the student will
strengthen the spirit of learning to achieve the students goal.
2. Students ability
The students capability will strengthen students motivation to perform
the task development. The capability includes some psychological
aspects, for example: observation, attention, memory, and thinking. So the
students who have a high learning ability usually more motivated in
learning because students often gain, success by strengthening the
motivation.
3. Students condition
Condition of the students includes physical and mental condition. A
student who is sick, hungry, tired or angry will interfere with their
attention in learning.
4. Environmental condition of the students
Environmental conditions are the elements that come from the outside of
the students. Their motivation can be formed by the environmental
condition of their family, school, community, and peer interaction. As a
member of the community, the students can be affected by their
surrounding environment. Meanwhile, at school, this can be done for
example by means the teachers must try to manage the classroom and
creating a fun learning environment in order to help students motivated in
learning.
5. Dynamic factor in learning
Students have feelings, concerns, desires, memories and thoughts which
are transformed by their life experience. Peer experience influence the
motivation and learning behavior. The natural environment, residence and
association are also changing. Cultural environments such as newspapers,
magazines, radio, and television increasingly reach out to students. All of
the elements can make affect the students motivation in learning.
6. The teachers effort in teaching learning process
The term teachers effort in this factor of motivation means how teachers
preparing themselves in teaching starting from mastering the material,
how to deliver the material and how to attract the students attention in
teaching and learning process.

According Wlodkowski & Jaynes (2010) state that motivation to learn is


influenced by several factors, among others:
1. Culture
Each ethnic group has its own values about learning. Japanese mothers
emphasize nationality effort rather than ability, compared with mothers
of American nationality prioritizes good school performance. Value
system affect adopted for the elderly will affect parental involvement
in depth in the efforts to inculcate the childs energy.
2. Family
Family factors provide an important influence on students' learning
motivation. Research conducted by Benjamin Bloom of the number of
young professionals (28 years to 35 years) who succeeded in his career
in various fields such as mathematics expert, neurology, and pianist
showed the same characteristics of the involvement of their parents.
They showed the direct involvement of parents in children's learning.
They saw the encouragement of parents is a priority in directing their
destination.
3. School
The role of teachers in motivating students is very important for them
in learning process. Some qualities of effective teachers in motivating
children are: teachers as a good manager, teachers expect their students
to become successful students, teachers provide learning materials that
match with the capacity of his/her students, teachers provide feedback
to the student, teachers provide a fair test, teacher explains the criteria
for assessment, teachers can stimulate the students in learning process,
and teachers help students to realize the growth of competence and
mastery of students.
Based on the above explanation, it be concluded that many factors the
students motivation in learning process such as, self confidence, experience of
success and satisfaction, good relationships among learners and the teachers,
students ideal or aspiration, students ability, students condition, environmental
condition of the students, dynamic factors in learning, the teachers effort in
teaching and learning process, culture and family.

4. Theory of Achievement Motivation by Gardner


Gardners in Dornyei (2001) motivation theory is the relationship between
motivation and orientation. In his view of motivation refers to a kind of central
mental or energy that subsumes effort and task enjoyment. Gardner argues that the
three components of motivation are effort, desire to learn the language and
attitude towards learning the language. These three components belong together
because the truly motivated individual displays all three. Attitudes toward the
learning situation are the assumption that it is the influence of the educational
context on the individuals attitudes that influence the individuals level of
motivation.
First, the motivated individual expends on the effort to learn the language.
The effort is driven by a desire to achieve language skill. There is persistent and
consistent attempt to learn the material by doing homework, by seeking out
opportunities to learn more, by doing extra work, etc. Second, the motivated
individual wants to achieve the goal. By having strategic plan they have a directed
step toward a specific target that is to be able to learn a language. Third; the
positive affect toward a native speaker. The motivated individual will enjoy the
task of learning the language and have a positive attitude to the native speakers.

CHAPTER II
RESULT OF READING COMPREHENSION TEST

No
1
2
3
4
5

Judges I
Relevan
Irrelevan

Judges II
Relevan
Irrelevan

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

D
30
=
= 0,857
ABCD
4 0 1 30

Judges II

Judges I
Irrelevan
Relevan

Irrelevan
A=4
B=0

Relevan
C=1
D = 30

RESULT OF READING TEST


RESPONDEN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

p1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0

p2
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0

p3
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0

p4
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

p5
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

p6
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

p7
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0

p8
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0

p9
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

p10
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0

p11
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1

p12
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0

p13
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

p14
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0

p15
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0

p16
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
Statistik
Simbol
p
q
Np
Yp
Mp
Mt
SD
pbi
r tabel
Keputusan

1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0

1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1

0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0

0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

X1
0,7941
0,2059
27
557
20,63
18,941
6,0148
0,5513
0,3

X2
0,7059
0,2941
24
494
20,583
18,941
6,0148
0,423
0,3

X3
0,7941
0,2059
27
568
21,037
18,941
6,0148
0,6843
0,3

X4
0,9118
0,0882
31
619
19,968
18,941
6,0148
0,5486
0,3

X5
0,8235
0,1765
28
558
19,929
18,941
6,0148
0,3546
0,3

X6
0,8824
0,1176
30
622
20,733
18,941
6,0148
0,816
0,3

X7
0,7647
0,2353
26
526
20,231
18,941
6,0148
0,3865
0,3

X8
0,4412
0,5588
15
337
22,467
18,941
6,0148
0,5208
0,3

X9
0,8529
0,1471
29
604
20,828
18,941
6,0148
0,7553
0,3

X10
0,6471
0,3529
22
447
20,318
18,941
6,0148
0,31
0,3

X11
0,3824
0,6176
13
297
22,846
18,941
6,0148
0,5108
0,3

X12
0,7353
0,2647
25
516
20,64
18,941
6,0148
0,4707
0,3

X13
0,8824
0,1176
30
622
20,733
18,941
6,0148
0,816
0,3

X14
0,7059
0,2941
24
515
21,458
18,941
6,0148
0,6483
0,3

X15
0,2353
0,7647
8
171
21,375
18,941
6,0148
0,2245
0,3

X16
0,4118
0,5882
14
303
21,643
18,941
6,0148
0,3758
0,3

valid

valid

Valid

valid

valid

valid

valid

Valid

valid

valid

valid

valid

valid

valid

invalid

valid

p17
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

p18
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1

p19
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

p20
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1

p21
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1

p22
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1

p23
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0

p24
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1

p25
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1

p26
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1

p27
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

p28
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0

p29
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

p30
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1

Yt
8
16
17
25
24
21
19
5
17
21
14
16
6
23
24
17
24
22
18
21
20
24
23

0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1

1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1

1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0

1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1

1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1

1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1

1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1

1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1

X17
0,7353
0,2647
25
513
20,52
18,941
6,0148
0,4375
0,3

X18
0,3824
0,6176
13
272
20,923
18,941
6,0148
0,2593
0,3

X19
0,3235
0,6765
11
211
19,182
18,941
6,0148
0,0277
0,3

X20
0,4118
0,5882
14
308
22
18,941
6,0148
0,4255
0,3

X21
0,7647
0,2353
26
531
20,423
18,941
6,0148
0,4442
0,3

X22
0,7941
0,2059
27
538
19,926
18,941
6,0148
0,3215
0,3

X23
0,3824
0,6176
13
291
22,385
18,941
6,0148
0,4504
0,3

X24
0,6176
0,3824
21
463
22,048
18,941
6,0148
0,6564
0,3

X25
0,7647
0,2353
26
524
20,154
18,941
6,0148
0,3635
0,3

X26
0,6471
0,3529
22
443
20,136
18,941
6,0148
0,269
0,3

X27
0,3235
0,6765
11
265
24,091
18,941
6,0148
0,5921
0,3

X28
0,3824
0,6176
13
272
20,923
18,941
6,0148
0,2593
0,3

X29
0,8824
0,1176
30
600
20
18,941
6,0148
0,4821
0,3

X30
0,5588
0,4412
19
405
21,316
18,941
6,0148
0,4443
0,3

valid

invalid

invalid

valid

Valid

Valid

valid

valid

valid

Invalid

valid

invalid

valid

valid

24
14
18
21
28
3
23
24
19
21
24

RESULT OF READING QUESTIONARIES


RESPONDEN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

p6

p7

p8

p9

p10

p11

p12

p13

p14

p15

p16

4
3
3
3
4
4
4
3
4
3
5
4
4
4
5
5
4
4
3
5
2
4
3
3
4

4
3
5
1
5
5
5
4
4
3
4
5
5
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
2
5
5
1
3

4
4
5
2
5
5
5
4
3
3
3
5
5
4
5
3
5
4
4
3
2
5
2
2
3

3
3
4
1
5
3
5
3
4
2
4
4
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
4
5
5

5
3
5
1
5
2
5
4
4
3
4
5
5
3
5
4
5
4
4
4
2
5
4
5
3

4
4
3
1
5
4
5
3
4
3
4
5
4
4
5
5
3
4
3
5
2
4
3
3
4

4
3
3
2
5
3
5
4
3
3
4
3
4
3
4
4
3
4
3
4
2
5
3
4
3

4
4
4
1
4
4
5
5
4
4
4
4
5
4
5
5
5
4
3
5
2
4
4
4
3

4
4
4
2
4
3
5
3
4
3
4
4
3
4
5
5
4
4
3
5
5
3
4
3
3

3
4
4
1
5
3
5
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
5
4
4
4
3
4
5
3
5
5
3

4
4
3
2
4
4
5
4
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
4
4
4
3
4
2
3
4
2
2

4
4
4
1
5
4
5
4
4
3
4
3
4
4
3
5
3
4
3
3
2
4
4
3
3

4
4
4
2
4
4
5
4
4
3
4
5
4
4
5
5
4
4
3
5
2
4
4
3
3

4
3
3
1
4
4
4
4
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
4
4
3
4
3
3
4
2
2

4
4
4
2
4
4
5
4
4
3
4
5
4
4
5
5
5
4
3
5
2
4
4
3
3

4
4
4
1
5
2
5
4
4
3
2
5
4
4
5
5
4
5
3
5
2
5
2
3
3

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

Statistik
Simbol
p
q
Np
Yp
Mp
Mt
SD
pbi
r tabel
Keputusan

p17

p18

3
4
3
5
2
5
3
3
4

1
4
5
1
5
1
1
1
5

4
4
4
3
2
3
4
3
5

4
1
4
5
5
4
5
5
5

4
4
4
4
1
4
1
1
5

3
4
3
5
2
5
4
3
4

4
4
3
4
5
5
5
4
5

4
4
3
1
2
5
1
1
1

3
4
3
5
5
5
3
5
4

X1
3,7059
1,2941
126
8523
67,643
65,324
11,954
0,3283
0,3

X2
3,6471
1,3529
124
8563
69,056
65,324
11,954
0,5127
0,3

X3
3,7353
1,2647
127
8557
67,378
65,324
11,954
0,2954
0,3

X4
3,7941
1,2059
129
8925
69,186
65,324
11,954
0,5732
0,3

X5
3,7353
1,2647
127
8767
69,031
65,324
11,954
0,5331
0,3

X6
3,7353
1,2647
127
9034
71,134
65,324
11,954
0,8353
0,3

valid

valid

Invalid

valid

valid

valid

valid

valid

valid

p19

p20

p21

p22

p23

p24

p25

p26

p27

3
5
3
5
5
5
5
5
5

4
4
3
4
2
4
4
3
4

4
4
2
2
5
2
4
5
5

4
4
3
5
2
5
2
2
5

4
4
3
4
3
4
4
3
4

4
4
3
5
2
5
4
4
5

4
5
3
5
2
5
4
4
4

X11
3,5588
1,4412
121
8588
70,975
65,324
11,954
0,743
0,3

X12
3,6176
1,3824
123
8831
71,797
65,324
11,954
0,876
0,3

X13
3,7941
1,2059
129
8652
67,07
65,324
11,954
0,2591
0,3

X14
3,5294
1,4706
120
8499
70,825
65,324
11,954
0,713
0,3

X15
3,9412
1,0588
134
9628
71,851
65,324
11,954
1,0535
0,3

X16
3,7941
1,2059
129
9099
70,535
65,324
11,954
0,7733
0,3

valid

valid

valid

invalid

Valid

valid

valid

p28

p29

p30

X7
X8
X9
X10
3,7353 3,5882 3,8824 3,9118
1,2647 1,4118 1,1176 1,0882
127
122
132
133
8727
8407
9260
8998
68,717 68,91 70,152 67,654
65,324 65,324 65,324 65,324
11,954 11,954 11,954 11,954
0,4878 0,4783 0,7528 0,3696
0,3
0,3
0,3
0,3

Yt

4
4
4
1
4
2
5
5
4
2
2
4
5
4
5
5
5
4
3
5
2
4
2
3
3
4
4

3
4
3
2
5
4
4
3
2
2
4
4
4
2
5
4
4
4
4
4
2
5
5
5
5
5
5

3
4
3
2
5
3
4
3
4
3
3
5
4
3
5
5
4
3
4
5
2
3
4
4
3
3
3

3
4
4
2
5
3
4
3
4
3
4
5
4
3
5
5
3
3
3
5
2
3
4
4
3
3
3

3
4
4
3
4
3
4
4
4
3
4
5
4
3
5
5
4
4
3
5
2
5
5
5
5
3
4

3
5
4
2
4
3
5
3
4
3
4
5
4
3
5
5
4
3
3
5
2
3
4
4
3
3
3

3
4
4
2
5
3
4
4
4
3
4
5
4
3
5
5
4
4
3
5
1
1
1
4
1
3
1

3
4
4
2
4
3
4
3
4
3
3
5
4
3
5
5
3
4
3
5
3
4
5
3
3
3
4

3
4
4
1
5
3
4
3
4
3
3
5
4
3
5
5
3
3
3
5
2
3
4
4
3
3
3

5
4
4
2
5
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
4
5
3
5
2
5
4
3
4
3
5

4
3
4
2
5
4
5
4
4
3
5
4
4
4
5
4
4
4
3
5
3
4
4
3
3
3
4

3
4
4
2
5
3
4
4
4
3
4
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
5
2
3
4
3
3
5
4

3
4
4
2
4
4
5
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
4
4
3
5
2
3
4
3
3
2
4

4
4
3
2
5
4
4
3
4
3
4
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
5
2
4
3
3
4
3
5

55
74
36
68
61
57
51
64
74
64
62
72
67
62
66
25
77
60
83
65
63
50
63
73
70
65
80

3
5
3
5
2
2
1

5
5
5
5
5
5
1

4
5
2
5
3
3
5

3
5
2
5
3
4
5

3
5
5
5
4
4
5

3
5
2
5
3
4
5

1
5
2
5
4
4
5

3
5
3
5
4
4
5

3
5
2
5
3
3
5

X17
3,5294
1,4706
120
8134
67,783
65,324
11,954
0,3188
0,3

X18
3,9412
1,0588
134
9324
69,582
65,324
11,954
0,6873
0,3

X19
3,6471
1,3529
124
8810
71,048
65,324
11,954
0,7863
0,3

X20
3,6471
1,3529
124
8106
65,371
65,324
11,954
0,0065
0,3

X21
4,0588
0,9412
138
9525
69,022
65,324
11,954
0,6425
0,3

X22
3,7059
1,2941
126
8765
69,563
65,324
11,954
0,6002
0,3

X23
3,4118
1,5882
116
8072
69,586
65,324
11,954
0,5226
0,3

X24
3,7647
1,2353
128
8425
65,82
65,324
11,954
0,0726
0,3

X25
3,5588
1,4412
121
8243
68,124
65,324
11,954
0,3681
0,3

valid

valid

valid

invalid

Valid

Valid

valid

invalid

valid

3
5
2
5
4
4
5

3
1
1
1
3
4
5

5
5
5
5
5
5
5

3
5
2
5
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5
5
5

X26
X27
X28
X29
X30
3,9706 3,5882
4 3,7353
4
1,0294 1,4118
1 1,2647
1
135
122
136
127
136
9239
8285
9381
9057
9000
68,437 67,91 68,978 71,315 66,176
65,324 65,324 65,324 65,324 65,324
11,954 11,954 11,954 11,954 11,954
0,5115 0,3449 0,6114 0,8614 0,1427
0,3
0,3
0,3
0,3
0,3
valid

valid

valid

valid

invalid

77
71
69
80
77
71
69

REFERENCES
Berk, R., 1979.

Generalizability of Behavioral Observations:

Interobserver Agreement and Interobserver Reliability.

A Clarification of
American Journal of

Mental Deficiency, Vol. 83, No. 5, p. 460-472.


Cronbach, L., 1990. Essentials of psychological testing. Harper & Row, New York.
Carmines, E., and Zeller, R., 1979. Reliability and Validity Assessment. Sage Publications,
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Gay, L., 1987. Eductional research: competencies for analysis and application. Merrill
Pub. Co., Columbus.
Guilford, J., 1954. Psychometric Methods. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Nunnally, J., 1978. Psychometric Theory. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Winer, B., Brown, D., and Michels, K., 1991.

Statistical Principles in Experimental

Design, Third Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.


Atkinson, R. 1966. Theories of Motivation. http://collegecengage. com/ education
/pbl/tc/motivate html. (Retrieved on December 29, 2010).
Atkinson,

R.
1966.
Theory
of
Achievement
Motivation
Answerbag.com/q_view/1964474 (Retrieved on January 16, 2011).

htlp://www.

Bandura. 2010. Definition of Motivation http://en.wikipediaorg/wild/Motivation. (Retrieved


on January 20, 2011).
Bergeson, Terry. 2001. Adaptations are Essential: Early Years Reading.
http:/
/www.
k8acce.sscenter
.org/
accessinaction
readingADAPTATION.pdf (Retrieved on January 8, 2011).

Available at:
/documents/

Brown, H.l980. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Butler. 2004. Using the POSSE Strategy to Enhance Science Instruction for Students with
Disabilities. Available at htlp:// www .ttac .odu. edu/ newsletter /PDF/ OLD /
AprilMayJune2004/Page2.pdf. (Retrieved on February 20, 2011).
Campbell, D. T. & Stanley, J. C. 1996. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for
Research.
Chicago:
Rand
Menally
&
Company.
Cleland. 2008. Theory of Needs. http :// en.wikipedia. org/wiki /Content_theory #
McClelland .E2.S0. 99s_Theory_of_Needs. (Retrieved on February 9, 2011).
Cleland. 2010. Need for Affiliation. http :// www .coe.uga .edu/epltt /motivation
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