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Computer Aided Manufacturing

Unit 1- Manufacturing Systems & CNC Machines

By

V. THULASIKANTH
Assistant Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department

SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203


Email Id: vtkvsk@gmail.com
Cell No: 7845385759

Syllabus

PURPOSE
To familiarize the components of computer aided manufacturing and to introduce CNC machines and
computer aided process planning.
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
To familiarize the students
1. Basics of manufacturing automation
2. CNC machines and its constructional features and part programming
3. Basics of computer aided inspection
4. Automated material handling systems
5. Computer aided production planning.

MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS AND CNC MACHINE


Manufacturing systems types, current trends, automation in manufacturing. Group technology part families, coding and classification - Production Flow Analysis, FMS - principle, CIM principle.
Fundamentals of CNC machines- principles of operation - features - Classification - Developments,
2
Machining Centers.

2. ELEMENTS OF CNC MACHINE


Interpolations - Open loop and closed loop control systems - CNC controllers - Direct Numerical
Control, Adaptive Control - Machine structures, slide ways, linear bearings, Recirculating ball screws,
Drives spindle and feed drives - Feed back devices,ATC and automatic pallet system.
3.PART PROGRAMMING
Types of part programming Manual part programming Fixed cycle, Subroutines, DO LOOP,
MACROS, NC codes-NC programming of simple turning and milling parts, Computer Aided Part
Programming -Introduction to CAM Softwares - NC Programming with interactive graphics.
4.COMPUTER AIDED INSPECTION AND HANDLING SYSTEMS
Computer Aided Inspection and Quality Control - Non contact inspection - Computer aided testing
Automated material handling systems (conveyor, automated guided vehicle, pallets etc.) - Automated
storage and retrieval systems.
5.COMPUTER AIDED PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL
Introduction to Computer aided production planning - Application of computers - Shop floor
monitoring - Materials requirement planning and Case study - Inventory control and Case study, JIT
approach and Case study.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Rao, P. N., Tewari N. K. and Kundra, T.K., Computer Aided Manufacturing, Tata McGrawHill, New Delhi, 2001.
2. Mikell P. Groover, Emory W. Zimmers Jr., Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing, Prentice Hall
of India Private Ltd., New Delhi, 1996.

3. Mikell P. Groover, Automation, Production systems and computer integrated


manufacturing, Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi, 2001.
REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Ibrahim Zeid, CAD/CAM Theory and Practice, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi,
2001.
2. James Madison, CNC Machining Hand Book, Industrial Press Inc., New York, 1996.
3. Barry Hawkes, The CAD/CAM Process, Wheeler Publishing, 1992.
4. Hans B. Kief and Frederick Waters, T., Computer Numerical Control - A CNC Reference Guide,

Macmillan / McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992.

MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

Manufacturing System
what is system.
A system has number of components,
combined together to achieve a goal.
Manufacturing is conversion of
material into final goods and services.

raw

Any manufacturing organization can also be


called as a Production system.

Manufacturing System

There are 3 main components in a


manufacturing system.
INPUT

Transformation
Process

OUTPUT

Manufacturing System

The manufacturing system can be seen as


interdependent group of sub-systems.
The sub-systems are related to its
successor and predecessor to achieve a
predetermined goal.

The sub-systems cannot work in vacuum.


They are in continuous interaction with
environment, both internal and external.

Manufacturing System

Internal Environment is a combination of


marketing, accounts, personnel and finance
activities.
Marketing and production have a very sensitive
relationship.
They should be properly designed to avoid a
source of perpetual conflict due to their
conflicting interests.

Manufacturing System

External Environment : Is combined


effect of various multiple things. Within
and without control over it.
The external environment is formed of
Customers, Competitors, Suppliers, Labor
Unions, Stock holders and etc.

Components of
Manufacturing System

Production Machines

Material Handling System

Computer Control System

Human Resources

Production Machines

In virtually all modern manufacturing systems,


most of the actual processing or assembly work
is accomplished by machines or with the aid of
tools
Classification of production machines:
1.
2.

3.

Manually operated machines are controlled or


supervised by a human worker
Semi-automated machines perform a portion of the
work cycle under some form of program control, and
a worker tends the machine the rest of the cycle
Fully automated machines operate for extended
periods of time with no human attention

Manually Operated Machine

Manually operated machines are controlled or supervised by a human worker.


The machine provides the power for the operation and the worker provides the
control. The entire work cycle is operator controlled.

Semi-Automated Machine

A semi-automated machine performs a portion of the work cycle under


some form of program control, and a worker tends to the machine for the
remainder of the cycle. Typical worker tasks include loading and
unloading parts

Fully-Automated Machine

Machine operates for extended periods (longer than one work


cycle) without worker attention (periodic tending may be
needed).

Material Handling System

In most manufacturing systems that process or


assemble discrete parts and products, the
following material handling functions must be
provided:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Loading work units at each station


Positioning work units at each station
Unloading work units at each station
Transporting work units between stations in multistation systems
Temporary storage of work units

Loading - Positioning - unloading

Loading involves moving the work unit into production m/c


or processing equipment.
Positioning is accomplished by workholder
A workholder is a device that accurately locates and orients
the part for the operation and resist any forces that may
occurring during processing
After completion of production process the work unit may
Unloaded.

Work Transport Between Stations

Two general categories of work transport


in multi-station manufacturing systems:
1.

Fixed routing
Work units always flow through the same
sequence of workstations
Most production lines exemplify this category

2.

Variable routing
Work units are moved through a variety of
different station sequences
Most job shops exemplify this category

(a) Fixed Routing and


(b) Variable Routing

Computer Control System

Typical computer functions in a manufacturing system:

Communicate instructions to workers (receive processing or


assembly instructions for the specific work unit)
Download part programs to computer-controlled machines
Control material handling system
Schedule production
Failure diagnosis when malfunctions occur and preventive
maintenance
Safety monitoring (protect both the human worker and
equipment)
Quality control (detect and reject defective work units produced
by the system)
Operations management (manage overall operations)

Human Workers

In manufacturing systems, humans perform some or all


of the value added work that is accomplished on the
parts or products
These human workers are called labor
Human workers are also needed for automated
manufacturing systems to manage or support the system
as computer programmers and operators in the case of
CNC machines.

Types 0f Manufacturing System

Manufacturing System
1) Intermittent : Job and Batch production
2) Continuous : Mass and Process Production

Types of Manufacturing System


Manufacturing System

Intermittent System

Job Production

Continuous System

Batch Production
Mass Production

Process Production

Intermittent System

As the name suggests, it is a non-continuous


manufacturing system.
This system requires regular adjustments.
In this, goods are prepared to fulfill orders,
rather than to stock.
The production facilities are flexible.
It is basically used for manufacturing things of
non-regular inputs and design of product.

Intermittent System

Aircraft mfg.

ship mfg.

Characteristics of Intermittent
System
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Items are produced for order.


Production process is flexible.
Capital investment may be low.
Change in location is easy.
Accuracy is low.
Less security of jobs.
Requires highly skilled staff.

JOB PRODUCTION.

It is production of one complete unit by a single


or multiple operators.
The ex. of job production are, bridge building,
dam, ship making.
The whole project is one operation.
This system requires highly skilled labors and
huge capital investments.
Future demand of the same is not assured.

BATCH PRODUCTION.

It is an extension of Job production system.


Here the work can be divided into number of
operations and activities.
After the work for the batch is over, the machine
is ready for another batch of similar (not same)
kind of manufacturing.
This requires high amount of planning.
The ex.:- Printing press, chemical products.

Batch PRODUCTION.

Continuous System

The items are produced for stocks.


A rough estimation of sales forecast is made
before carrying out the production.
Here, the inputs are of standardized nature, with
set line of production.
The production is in single flow and very low or
no WIP storage is required.
It is further divided into Mass and process
system of manufacturing.

Continuous System

Characteristics of Continuous
System
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Same product is produced continuously


Large scale of production is done.
Planning & Control operations are easy
Per unit cost of production is low.
More security of Jobs.
Storage is required only at limited place
Accuracy is high.

Mass Production.

Standard product is a basic characteristic of this


manufacturing system.
The goods are produced to stock rather than
consumer orders.
The system is made to produce only one type of
a product at a time.
It is basically used to make components and
assemblies of an item. Ex. Spark plugs.

Mass production

Process Production.

It is similar to Mass production.


This system is used to manufacture the goods
which are in continuous high demand.
The goods can either be a raw material for many
or itself a thing of high demand.
The whole process is made to manufacture a
specific product. Only a minor adjustment can
be done in case of emergency.
Ex. Oils, Petroleum products, plastics, etc.

Process Production
petrochemical plant

Advantages of Intermittent system


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

Items are produced for order.


Production process is flexible.
Wide range of products can be
manufactured
Capital investment may be low.
Change in location is easy.
It is a functional type of organization

Advantages of continuous system


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Same product is produced continuously


Large scale of production is done.
Planning & Control operations are easy
Per unit cost of production is low.
More security of Jobs.
Storage is required only at limited place
Accuracy is high.

Limitations of Intermittent system


1 Planning and control operations are complicated
and tedious.
2 Per unit cost is high.
3 Less security of jobs.
4 Requires highly skilled staff.
5 Storage is required at each operation.
6 Accuracy is low.
7 Equipment is used for limited time.

Limitations of Continuous System


1 Only a particular type of product is
produced.
2 Capital investment is high
3 Requires better co-ordination of activity
4 Change in location is difficult.

Product Life Cycle

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Challenges in Manufacturing

Manufacturing industries strive to reduce the cost of the product


continuously to remain competitive in the face of global competition.

COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING


Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is the application of computer technology to
the areas of manufacturing planning and control.
Till the advent of microprocessors and personal computers, manufacturing
automation was mainly through the so-called hard automation through hydraulic,
pneumatic or electric methods.
Programmable logic controllers (PLC) have now become a very convenient tool for
flexible automation.
PLCs are widely used in pneumatic, hydraulic, electric, and electronic automation.
CNC machine tools, robots, transfer machines, industrial drives etc. use PLCs.
Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is the effective use of computer technology
in manufacturing planning and control.
It is closely associated with certain functions in manufacturing engineering, such as
process planning and numerical control (NC) part programming.

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Applications of CAM for Manufacturing planning

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Applications of CAM for manufacturing Control


Application
Process
monitoring
and control
Quality
control

Description
This is concerned with observing and regulating the production
equipment and manufacturing processes in the plant. They

This includes a variety of approaches to maintain the highest


possible quality levels in the manufactured product. They include
the use of quality functional deployment techniques.
Shop floor This refers to the use of production management techniques to
control
collect data from factory operations, and the deployment of this
data to aid the control of production and inventory in the factory.
Inventory
This is concerned with maintaining the most appropriate levels of
control
inventory in the face of two opposing objectives: minimizing the
investment and storage costs of holding inventory; and maximizing
service to customers.
Just-in-time Just-in-time (JIT) production systems deliver the right number of
production components to downstream workstations, at the right time. JIT
systems
refers to both production operations and supplier delivery
operations.
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Automation in Manufacturing
Automation can be defined as a technology concerned with the application
of mechanical, electronic, and computer-based systems to operate and
control production.
Automated manufacturing systems operate in the factory on the physical
product.
They perform operations such as processing, assembly, inspection, or
material handling, in some cases accomplishing more than one of these
operations in the same system.
They are called automated because they perform their operations with a
reduced level of human participation compared with the corresponding
manual process. In some highly automated systems, there is virtually no
human participation.

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Examples of automated manufacturing systems include:


automated machine tools that process parts
transfer lines that perform a series of machining operations
automated assembly systems
manufacturing systems that use industrial robots to perform processing or
assembly operations
automatic material handling and storage systems to integrate manufacturing
operations

automatic inspection systems for quality control

Automated manufacturing systems can be classified into three basic types


(1) fixed automation.

(2) programmable automation, and


(3) flexible automation.
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Fixed Automation. Fixed automation is a system in which the


sequence of processing (or assembly) operations is fixed by the
equipment configuration.
high initial investment for custom-engineered equipment
high production rates
relatively inflexible in accommodating product variety
The economic justification for fixed automation is found in products
that are produced in very large quantities and at high production
rates.

Programmable Automation:. In programmable automation. the


production equipment is designed with the capability to change the
sequence of operations to accommodate different product
configurations.

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The operation sequence is controlled by a program, which is a set


of instructions coded so that they can be read and interpreted by
the system.

New programs can be prepared and entered into the equipment to


produce new products.
Some or the features that characterize programmable automation
include.

high investment in general purpose equipment


lower production rates than fixed automation
flexibility to deal with variation and changes in product configuration
Most suitable for batch production
Programmable automated production systems arc used in low- and
medium-volume production.

Flexible Automation. Flexible automation is an extension of


programmable automation.
A flexible automated system is capable of producing a variety of parts or
products with virtually no time lost for changeovers from one part style to
the next.

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There is no lost production time while reprogramming the system


and altering the physical setup (tooting, fixtures, machine settings).
Consequently, the system can produce various combinations and
schedules of parts or products instead of requiring that they be made
in batches.

The features of flexible automation can be summarized as follows;


high investment for a custom-engineered system
continuous production of variable mixtures of products
medium production rate,
flexibility to deal with product design variations

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Automation of the manufacturing support systems is aimed al reducing the


amount of manual and clerical effort in product design, manufacturing
planning and control, find the business functions of the firm.

Reasons for Automating


To increase the productivity
To reduce labor cost
To mitigate the effects of labor shortages
To reduce or eliminate routine manual and clerical tasks

To improve worker safety


To improve product quality
To reduce manufacturing lead time
To avoid the high cost of not automating

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Group Technology
Group technology is a manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts
are identified and grouped together to take advantage of their
similarities in design and production.
Similar parts are arranged into part families. where each part family
possesses similar design and/or manufacturing characteristics.
The improvement is typically achieved by organizing the production
facilities into manufacturing cells that specialize in production of certain
part families.
Grouping the production equipment into machine cells, where each cell
specializes in the production of a part family is called cellular
manufacturing.
Parts in the medium production quantity range are usually made in
batches.
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Disadvantages of batch production:


Downtime for changeovers
High inventory carrying costs
GT minimizes these disadvantages by recognizing that although the
parts are different, there are groups of parts that possess similarities.
When to Use GT and Cellular Manufacturing
1. The plant currently uses traditional batch production and a
process type layout:
This results in much material handling effort, high in process
inventory, and long manufacturing lead times.
2. The parts can be grouped into part families:

Each machine cell is designed to produce a given part family, or a


limited collection of part families, so it must be possible to group
parts made in the plant into families.
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Problems in Implementing GT
1. Identifying the part families
Reviewing all of the parts made in the plant and grouping them into
part families is a substantial task

2. Rearranging production machines into GT cells


It is time-consuming and costly to physically rearrange the
machines into cells, and the machines are not producing during the
changeover

Part Family
A collection of parts that possess similarities in geometric shape
and size, or in the processing steps used in their manufacture

Two categories of part similarities can be distinguished:


(1) design attributes, which are concerned with part characteristics
such as geometry, size, and material
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(2) manufacturing attributes, which consider the sequence of processing


steps required to make a part.
(3) Both design and manufacturing attributes

Ten parts are different in size, shape, and material, but quite similar in terms
of manufacturing
All parts are machined from cylindrical stock by turning; some parts require
57drilling and/or milling

Traditional Process Layout

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Cellular Layout Based on GT


Each cell specializes in producing one or a limited number of
part families

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Ways to Identify Part Families


1. Visual inspection
Using best judgment to group parts into appropriate families, based on the
parts or photos of the parts

2. Parts classification and coding


Identifying similarities and differences among parts and relating them by
means of a coding scheme

3. Production flow analysis


Using information contained on route sheets to classify parts

Parts Classification and Coding


Identification
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of similarities among parts and


similarities by means of a numerical coding system

relating the

Coding Scheme Structures


1. Hierarchical structure (monocode)
Interpretation of each successive digit depends on the value of the
preceding digit
2. Chain-type structure (polycode)
Interpretation of each symbol is always the same
No dependence on previous digits
3. Mixed-code structure
Combination of hierarchical and chain-type structures

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Opitz Classification System


The Opitz coding scheme uses the following digit sequence:

12345 6789 ABCD


The first five digits, 12345, are called the form code.
It describes the primary design attributes of the part, such as external
shape (e.g., rotational vs. rectangular) and machined features (e.g.,
holes, threads, gear teeth, etc.
The next four digits, 6789are called supplementary code.
It describes some of the attributes that would be of use in
manufacturing (e.g., dimensions, work material, starting shape, and
accuracy).
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The extra four digits, ABCD, are referred to as the secondary

code
It is intended to identify the production operation type and
sequence.
The secondary code can be designed by the user firm to serve its
own particular needs.

Second type of coding is MULTY CLASS CODING it is 18


digit

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OPTIZ

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Production flow analysis (PFA)


Production flow analysis (PFA) is a method for identifying part
families and associated machine groupings that uses the
information contained on production route sheets rather than on
part drawings.

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Benefits of Group Technology in Manufacturing


Standardization of tooling, fixtures, and setups is encouraged.
Material handling is reduced.
Parts are moved within a machine cell rather than the entire factory.
Process planning and production scheduling are simplified.
Work-in-process and manufacturing lead time are reduced.
Improved worker satisfaction in a GT cell

Higher quality work

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Flexible Manufacturing System


A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a form of flexible automation
in which several machine tools are linked together by a materialhandling system, and all aspects of the system are controlled by a
central computer.

FMS technology can be applied in situations similar to those identified


for group technology and cellular manufacturing; specifically,
Presently, the plant either (1) produces parts in batches or (2) uses
manned GT cells and management wants to automate .

The parts or products made by the facility are in the mid-volume,


mid-variety production range.

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Components of FMS Systems

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Robotics
Material Handling / Transport
Machines
Manual / Automated Assembly Cells
Computers
Controllers
Software
Networks

What are The Features of FMS?


An FMS is distinguished from an automated production line by its ability

to process more than one product style simultaneously.


At any moment, each machine in the system may be processing a

different part type.


FMS can let us make changes in production schedule in order to meet the

demands on different products.

Distinguishing Characteristics:
An automatic materials handling subsystem links machines in the system

and provides for automatic interchange of work pieces in each machine


Automatic continuous cycling of individual machines
Complete control of the manufacturing system by the host computer
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Lightly manned, or possibly unmanned

There are three levels of


manufacturing flexibility.
1-Basic Flexibilities

Machine flexibility - the ease with which a machine can


process various operations

Material handling flexibility -a measure of the ease with


which different part types can be transported and properly
positioned at the various machine tools in a system

Operation flexibility - a measure of the ease with which


alternative operation sequences can be used for processing a part
type

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2-System flexibilities:
Volume flexibility
Expansion flexibility
Routing flexibility
Process flexibility
Product flexibility

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3-Aggregate flexibilities
Program Flexibility
Production Flexibility
Market Flexibility

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Benefits of FMS
FMS systems are intended to solve the
following problems:
Reduced work in process
Increased machine utilization
Better management control

Reduced direct and indirect labor


Reduced manufacturing lead-time
Consistent and better quality
Reduced inventory

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Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)


CIM is the manufacturing approach of using computers to control the entire
production process.
The integration allows individual processes to exchange information with each
other and initiate actions.
Through the integration of computers, manufacturing can be faster and less errorprone, although the main advantage is the ability to create automated
manufacturing processes.
Typically CIM relies on closed-loop control processes, based on real-time input
from sensors.

CIM is a management philosophy in which the functions


of design and manufacturing are rationalized and
coordinated using computer, communication
and
information technologies.
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In a CIM system functional areas such as design, analysis, planning,
purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control, and distribution are linked through
the computer with factory floor functions such as materials handling and
management, providing direct control and monitoring of all the operations.

Some factors involved when considering a CIM implementation are the


production volume, the experience of the company or personnel to make the
integration, the level of the integration into the product itself and the integration of
the production processes.

CIMS Benefits:
Increased machine utilization
Reduced direct and indirect labour
Reduce mfg. lead time
Lower in process inventory
Scheduling flexibility.
CIM represents a new production approach that will allow the
factories to deliver a high variety of products at a low cost and with
short production cycles.

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