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Bio 20B Final Study Guide

Hormones and the Endocrine System

1. Hormone define
A hormone is a molecule that is produced in one part of the body but which acts on
a target cell in another part of the body.
2. How are the endocrine and nervous systems related? How are their
responses different?
Endocrine system = all hormone secreting cells in the body. Endocrine is one of two
communication systems in body. Nervous = wired, Endocrine = wireless
3. Give an example of a negative feedback loop that involves a hormone.

4. What kinds of molecules can act as hormones? Give an example of

Proteins and peptides: ADH, oxytocin, insulin
Amines (derived from amino acids): Thyroxine, epinephrine (adrenaline)
Steroids: testosterone, estrogen, progesterone
5. Why does it matter whether a hormone is water soluble or lipid soluble?
Which types of hormones are lipid soluble?
Lipid soluble hormones can usually enter the cell
Amines (derived from amino acids): Thyroxine, epinephrine (adrenaline) water or
lipid soluble
Steroids: testosterone, estrogen, progesterone lipid soluble
6. What are the roles of the hypothalamus and the pituitary glands in the
endocrine system?

Hypothalamus is the main integration center between the endocrine and nervous
- contains two sets of neurosecretory cells that secrete hormones that are either
stored in or regulate the pituitary gland
Posterior Pituitary extension of hypothalamus, stores and secretes ADH and
oxytocin which are made in the hypothalamus
- Composed of two distinct glands that are fused
- Anterior and Posterior pituitary
7. What hormones do the hypothalamus and pituitary glands release?
Anterior Pituitary- synthesizes and secretes at least 7 types of hormones: FSH
Prolactin LH MSH TSH Endorphin ACTH GH
Posterior Pituitary extension of hypothalamus, stores and secretes ADH and
oxytocin which are made in the hypothalamus
8. How are the anterior and posterior pituitary glands different in
structure and function? How is their relationship with the hypothalamus
Anterior Pituitary- Portal blood vessels connect hypothalamus to anterior
pituitary, derived from gut tissue, makes & stores its own hormones
Posterior Pituitary Neurons from hypothalamus extend to post. pituitary,
derived from neural tissue, stores hormones made in hypothalamus
9. How is human growth factor different?
10. What causes pituitary giants, dwarfs?
Abnormal production of GH
Pituitary giants result from excessive GH during childhood and acromegaly if high
levels continue in adulthood
Pituitary dwarfism results from insufficient GH secretion during childhood. Can be
treated with synthetic GH if diagnosed before puberty. Stature is usually less than
4ft tall.
11. What hormones are involved in the flight or fight response?
Catecholamines synthesized from tyrosine in adrenal medulla (acute stress)
Epinephrine (adrenaline)
Norepinephrin (noradrenalin)
12. What does the adrenal gland do?
The adrenal cortexthe outer part of the glandproduces hormones that are vital
to life, such as cortisol (which helps regulate metabolism and helps your body
respond to stress) and aldosterone (which helps control blood pressure).

13. Long term vs. short term stress response compare and contrast
Acute stress (fight or flight)
Chronic stress (longer term)
Epinephrine (adrenaline)
Cortisol (steroid)
Increased HR, BP, BR, MR
Break down fats & proteins for long term
Breaks down glycogen for fast action EN
Shunt blood to vital areas (muscles)
Immune system suppressed
Connected to nervous system
14. Which hormones are released for the short versus long term stress
response and where are they released from?
Short term: epinephrine (adrenaline) from medulla
Long term: cortisol (steroid) from cortex
15. What is an endocrine disruptor?
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that may interfere with the bodys endocrine
system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and
immune effects in both humans and wildlife.
1. What is the role of the skeleton
The skeleton provides structural support, protection, assisting in movement, storage
of minerals, and production of blood cells.
2. Tendons, ligaments, define
Tendons link bones to skeletal muscle
Ligaments link bones to bones or bones to cartilage
3. Hydrostatic, exoskeleton, endoskeleton define, compare, contrast
In organisms with hydrostatic skeletons, the muscles contract to change the shape
of the coelom, which then produces movement due to the pressure of the fluid
inside the fluid-filled cavity.
Exoskeleton- a hard outer structure that provides both structure and protection to
creatures such as insects, Crustacea, and Nematoda
Endoskeleton- the internal skeleton of an animal, which in vertebrates is
comprised of bone and cartilage
4. Muscles how do they interact with skeletal system
Tendons link bones to skeletal muscle
Ligaments link bones to bones or bones to cartilage
When muscles contract, the bones to which they are attached act as levers and
cause various body parts to move.

5. Sliding filament theory very important, should know the details here
1) Acetylcholine stimulates Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum
2) Ca2+ stimulates troponin to push tropomyosin off binding site
3) Myosin head binds to actin and changes its conformation/shape (power stroke)
*Myosin bound to ATP when relaxed and ADP when contracted
4) Ca2+ is pumped back into SR
5) Another ATP binds to Myosin head and releases myosin from actin return to
resting state

6. What is rigor mortis?

Muscle rigidity, usually temporary, following death.
7. Types of muscle fibers define, compare, contrast (we may skip this is
we run out of time.)
Animal Development
1. Cell potency
Terms that describe how far down the road of determination a cell has gone
Totipotent (all capable) cell can differentiate into anything
Pluripotent (many capable) cell can differentiate into most cell types but NOT
new embryos Multipotent (several capable) cell can differentiate into several
related cell types
Unipotent (one capable) cell can produce only its same cell type
2. Stages of development (animals and plants)
Determination setting the fate of a cell; will cell become a heart cell? a brain
Differentiation the process by which different cell types arise to perform
different functions; how does it turn into a heart cell? A brain cell?

Morphogenesis ( origin of form ) how differentiated cells get organized

Growth increase in body size, organ size, by cell division and/or cell enlargement
3. Differential gene expression
The expression of different genes within different cell types. All cells have whole
genome but they express those genes differently.
4. Cytoplasmic segregation
Cytoplasmic segregation unequal cytokinesis; some factor is unevenly distributed
within the cytoplasm
o Can lead to differential gene expression: Cytoplasmic determinants such as
proteins, mRNAs, transcription factors ---->Genes
o Results in polarity: animal pole, vegetal pole
5. Induction
Induction Cell to cell communication; a factor is made and transported to induce
other cells to differentiate
6. Morphogens & French Flag Model
Morphogen- 1) Must directly target cells rather than triggering a secondary signal
2) Different concentrations of signal must cause different effects

7. Sonic Hedgehog function

Morphogen = Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)
Morphogen secreted from zone of polarizing activity
The thumb forms when Shh is absent. The pinky forms when there is a lot of Shh.

8. Maternal effect genes, segmentation genes, hox genes - temporal order,

what they do
Maternal Effects Genes anterior posterior (and dorsal ventral) axis
Segmentation Genes boundaries and polarity of each segment
Hox Genes which organ will be made at given location, determine identity of
The products of these genes (ex: mRNA, proteins) set up morphogen gradients
which lead to differential gene expression
9. Bicoid, Nanos, hunchback function in detail
1) Bicoid & nanos mRNA diffuse into future anterior end of egg
2) Bicoid translated into protein sets up gradient from anterior to posterior
3) Nanos mRNA transported to posterior end---> protein
4) Hunchback mRNA starts off evenly distributed but nanos inhibits translation of
hunchback while bicoid increases translation = concentration gradient
5) Hunchback is made at anterior end & triggers development of anterior
structures (head)
10. Stem cells - embryonic and pluripotent
Stem Cells rapidly dividing undifferentiated cells that can differentiate into
diverse cell types
1) Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) Group of cells in the blastocyst of mice and
humans; can give rise to most cell types but not new organism
2) Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS) induce adult skin cells back to an
undifferentiated state; can make many cell types
11. How are stem cells made and how are they used, what are advantages
of induced pluripotent?
Bone marrow site of production of blood & immune cells
o Hematopoietic Stem Cells Blood Cells
o Mesenchymal Stem Cells bone, connective, muscle cells
In Humans: Cancer Treatment: Stem Cell transplant
In animals: arthritis in dogs, diabetes, Parkinsonslike disease, sickle cell anemia
Adult Pluripotent Stem Cells advantages:
1) Avoid controversy of ESCs
2) Avoid Immune system problems from introducing nonself tissue into another
12. What is a model organism?
A model organism is a species that has been widely studied, usually because it is
easy to maintain and breed in a laboratory setting and has particular experimental
Plant Introduction

1. Why are plants interesting?

They can make their own food through photosynthesis.
2. Why are plants important to humans?
Plants provide food and oxygen for humans and most living organisms. They also
take in CO2 to help reduce green house gases and global warming.
3. Why is phylogeny important?
Plants are very diverse so we use a phylogeny to organize them which allows us to
compare their physiology and ecology.
4. How is plant diversity organized?
Non-vascular plants vs. vascular plants
Vascular structures were key to allowing plants to colonize terrestrial
environments= the circulatory system of the plant

5. Structure of plant cell, Fig 5.7, also in notes

6. 3 Cell types(characteristics, examples)

Majority of cells in plant
Alive when mature
Cell walls are thickened
Metabolically active
at corners
Important for storage,
Contain a lot of pectin
(jams & jelly)
Large vacuoles
Found at bases of leaves
Thin cell walls
& nonwoody stems
Most of fruit is made of
Sway in the wind
Most of a leaf is made of support
Celery strings are

Thickened secondary cell
Major function =
Undergo apoptosis after
secondary cell wall formed
Mainly perform functions
after dead
Contain lignin
Two Types

7. 3 tissues, how they are manifested in different organs

1) Dermal forms the outer covering of the plant (epidermis) and usually consists
of a single cell layer
2) Vascular the plumbing; transports water & nutrients from site of
production/intake to where needed
o Xylem Transports water & mineral ions from roots to rest of plant
o Phloem transport of carbohydrates (sugars) from sites of production to
sites of use or storage
3) Ground forms most of the plant body; function in storage support,
8. Structure of root, stem, and leaf

9. Basic plant body plan (nodes, internodes, apical & axillary buds, etc.)
10. Cell division and development: meristems, woody stems of trees
Meristems- cells that remain totipotent and clustered in specific regions
Apical meristem- primary growth
Lateral meristem- secondary growth
Root meristem- primary growth

11. Monocots vs. Eudicots