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Emily Summers

AS OCR Biology Revision Pack


UNIT f211 Cells, exchange, transport
Module 1 Cells
Cell Structure
1.

State the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a light microscope, a transmission electron microscope
and a scanning electron microscope.

Maximum
Resolution
Maximum
Magnification
2.

Light Microscope
0.2 micrometres

TEM
0.0001 micrometres

SEM
0.005 micrometres

X 1500

Over x 1,000,000

Under x 1, 000, 000

Explain the difference between magnification and resolution

Magnification How much bigger the image is than the specimen.


Magnification = Length of Image / Length of specimen
Resolution How well a microscope distinguishes between two points that are close
together.

3.

Explain the need for staining samples for use in light and electron microscopy

In Light microscopes and TEMs the beam of lights/electrons pass through the object,
and there is an image produced as some parts of the specimen absorb more
light/electrons than others, but sometimes the specimen is transparent so it will look
white because light/electrons pass through so the object is stained

Light Microscope
Dye- usually methylene blue/eosin

4.

Electron Microscope
Specimen dipped in metal like lead, the
metal ions scatter electrons to contrast.

Calculate the linear magnification of an image

Magnification = Length of Image / Length of specimen


5.

Outline the functions of the structures.

Emily Summers

Picture

Description

Function

Large and contains


chromatin. Enclosed by a
nuclear envelope
double membrane.
Nuclear pores go through
the envelope. Nucleolus
inside.

Nucleus contains the


cells genetic material.
Chromatin contains DNA
and proteins which
regulate cell activities.
Instructions for making
proteins.

Flattened membranous
sacs called cisternae,
rough is studded with
ribosomes, smooth is not.

RER transports proteins


and SER is involved in
lipid synthesis.

Stack of flat, membrane


bound stacks. [Pitta
bread!]

Golgi body receives


proteins from ER and
modifies them.
Packages proteins into
vesicles to transport
them exocytosis

Sausage shaped. Double


membrane separated by
fluid filled space. Inner
membrane is folded to
form cristae and the
middle part of the
mitochondria is called the
matrix.
In plant cells. Double
membrane. Membranous
sacs called thylakoids,
plural=granum.
Plural=grana.

Site of aerobic
respiration, ATP is
produced.

Site of photosynthesis,
carbohydrate molecules
made.

Emily Summers

Spherical sacs
surrounded by a single
membrane, with no clear
internal structure.
Contains enzymes.

TINY.
Bound to ER to make
RER and also in
cytoplasm. Consist of two
subunits.

Site of protein synthesis,


they are like an
assembly line where
mRNA from the nucleus
is used to make proteins
from amino acids.
Eukaryotic- 80S
Prokaryotic- 70S

Small tubes of
microtubules. A pair can
be found next to the
nucleus in animal cells.
Also in some protocytists.

Involved in cell division


to make spindles which
move chromosomes in
nuclear division.

Membrane bound sac


found in plants filled with
cell sap.

Keep the plant


supported, rigid and
turgid. Also like a
garbage disposal for
plants.

Network of protein fibres

Enzymes break down


cells. E.g. white blood
cell lyosomes break
down invading
microorganisms and
lyosome in the sperms
head breaks down the
material surrounding the
egg.

Support, movement.
E.g. Chromosome
movement in mitosis.

Emily Summers

Thick layer, in plants.


Made of cellulose in
eukaryotic cells and
murein in prokaryotic
cells.
Thin, flexible layer around
all eukaryotic cells. Made
of phospholipids and
proteins.

Gives the cell strength


and rigidity

It separates the cell


contents from external
environment and even
controls movement of
substances in and out of
the membrane with
receptor cells.

Enclosed jelly like


substance within the cell
membrane.

In eukaryotic cells it
contains organelles, in
prokaryotic cells it
contains enzymes
needed for metabolic
reactions.

Circular and loose.


Unprotected, unlike in
eukaryotic cells.

Genetic instructions

Small circle of DNA

Exchange DNA easily


and quickly between
eukaryotic cells. Used in
genetic engineering.

A thick polysaccharide
layer outside of the cell
wall

Useful for sticking cells


together, and as a food
reserve. Protects
against phagocytosis
and chemicals.

Plasmid

Emily Summers

Rigid tail that rotates.


The motor is embedded
in the cell membrane and
is driven by a H+ gradient
across the membrane.
Clockwise rotation drives
the cell forwards, while
anticlockwise rotation
causes a chaotic spin.
This is the only known
example of a rotating
motor in nature

Propels the cell

A tightly-folded area of
the cell membrane

Contains membrane
bound proteins needed
for respiration

6.

Explain the importance of the cytoskeleton in providing mechanical strength to cells, aiding transport within cells and
enabling cell movement.

Keep cells organelles in position with support


Strengthen the cell to maintain its shape
Transport material within the cell
Help the cell to move, e.g. cilia and flagella by protein filaments.

7.

Compare and contrast, with the aid of diagrams and electron micrographs, the structure of prokaryotic cells and
eukaryotic cells.

Prokaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic cells are smaller (0.2-2.0 m)
Dont have a nucleus, DNA floats free in
cytoplasm and is circular
Less organelles and no membranous ones
70S Ribosomes
8.

Eukaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic cells are bigger 10-100 m
DNA is protected in nucleus and is linear
Many organelles, plant & animal
80S Ribosomes

Compare and contrast, with the aid of diagrams and electron micrographs, the structure and ultrastructure of plant cells
and animal cells.

Emily Summers

Cell
Membranes
9.

Describe, with
the aid of
diagrams, the

fluid mosaic model of membrane structure

Below 0 degrees the


phospholipids have little kinetic
energy so cant move a lot, the
membranes
rigid and
10.
Describe the roles of the components of the cell membrane; phospholipids,
cholesterol, glycolipids,
proteins and
glycoproteins
phospholipids are closely packed.
Phospholipid molecules form a bilayer that is fluid
as they
always
Channel
proteins
and carrier
in protein
the membrane
move, with hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic proteins
tails the
denature
increasehave
permeability
molecules are scattered and can move. Some of
these to
proteins
a
of the membrane and ice crystals
carbohydrate chain attached to them, and these are called
can form to pierce the membrane
glycoproteins. Some lipids have a carbohydrateand
chain
attached
to them
make
it highly permeable
which are called glycolipids. Cholesterol is present
membrane
wheninit the
eventually
thaws. to

provide mechanical stability.


11. Outline the effect of changing temperature on membrane structure and permeability

0-45 degrees phospholipids can


move and arent packed tightlypartial permeability. Plipids move
more as they have more kinetic
energy + membrane
permeability.
+ 45 degrees the bilayer melts
and membrane is more
permeable. Water in cell expands

Emily Summers

12. Explain the term cell signalling.

Cell Signalling How cells communicate with each other,

One cell releases a messenger molecule (e.g. a hormone)


The molecule travels to another cell (E.g. in blood)
The messenger molecule is detected by the cell as it binds to a receptor on Its
cell membrane

13. Explain the role of membrane-bound receptors as sites where hormones and drugs can bind.

Membrane bound proteins can act as receptors for messenger molecules


Receptor proteins have specific shapes so messenger molecule shapes are
complementary on binding.
Different cells have different receptor types and respond to different messenger
molecules
A cell that responds to a messenger molecule is a target cell
Drugs either trigger a response in the cell or block the receptor to stop it working
14.

Explain what is meant by passive transport (diffusion and facilitated diffusion including the role of membrane proteins), active
transport, endocytosis and exocytosis.

Diffusion the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of


lower concentration
Facilitated diffusion uses carrier and channel proteins
7

Emily Summers

Active transport Moves substances against a concentration gradient using ATP


Endocytosis Cells take substances in, with part of a cells cell membrane surrounding
it, the membrane pinches off to make a vesicle inside the cell containing the substance.
Exocytosis Cells secrete substances. Vesicles with these substances pinch off from
golgi body sacs and move towards the cell membrane. The vesicles fuse with the cell
membrane and release their contents outside of the cell.
15.

Explain what is meant by osmosis, in terms of water potential.

Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane


from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower water
potential

16. Recognise and explain the effects that solutions of different water potentials can have upon plant
and animal cells.

Emily Summers

Hypertonic- Solution with


lower water potential than cell,
net movement of water
molecules is out so the cell will
shrink/cerenate.
Hypotonic- Solution with
higher water potential than
cell. Net movement of water is
into the cell so it will
burst/haemolyse.
Isotonic- Same. No net
movement, water in and out is
equal.

Cell Division, Diversity and Cellular Organisation

Emily Summers

Explain the meaning of the term homologous pair of chromosomes

Humans have 46 chromosomes in total 23 pairs. One chromosome in each pair comes
from the mother, and then the other comes from the father. Same size, same genes
although they can have different versions of the genes (alleles).

1. A bud forms at the cell


surface
2. The cell undergoes
interphase
3. The cell undergoes
mitosis
4. Nuclear division is
complete budding cells
nucleus has an identical
copy of parent cell dna
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5. The bud separates off
from the parent cell
with a genetically
identical yeast cell

Emily Summers

Meiosis:
1. Gametes are found in all
sexually reproducing
organisms
2. Male & Female join at
fertilisation forming a
zygote dividing into a
new organism
3. (Sperm and Egg)
4. (Pollen grains and
ovules)
5. Normal body cells of
plants and animals have
diploid (2n) number of
chromosomes, each cell
contains two of each
chromosome from each
parent
6. Gametes have the
haploid number of
chromosomes (n)
theres one copy of
each chromosome
7. At fertilisation the
haploid male gamete
and female fuse to
make a cell with the
diploid number of
chromosomes, half from
sperm half from egg.

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Produces cells genetically


different- genetic variation, it
creates variation.

Emily Summers
Define the term stem cell

Stem cells are cells that are not specialized and can differentiate into specialized cells
with mitosis and the correct stimulation.
Define the term differentiation, with reference to the production of erythrocytes (red blood cells) and neutrophils derived from stem
cells in bone marrow, and the production of xylem vessels and phloem sieve tubes from cambium.

Bones are living organs containing nerves and blood vessels, and the main bones have
marrow in the middle, adult stem cells divide and differentiate to replace worn out
erythrocytes and neutrophils to fight infection.
In plant cells stem cells
are in the cambium. In the
root and stem the stem
cells of the vascular
cambium divide to
differentiate into the xylem
and phloem, the vascular
cambium then forms a ring
inside the root and shoots.
These cells divide and
grow from the ring differentiating and moving away from the cambium.
Describe and explain, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, how cells of multicellular organisms are specialised for particular
functions, with reference to erythrocytes (red blood cells), neutrophils, epithelial cells, sperm cells, palisade cells, root hair cells and
guard cells.

Neutrophills protect the body against illness, they are flexible so they can engulf
pathogens and they have lots of lysosomes with digestive enzymes that can break
down the pathogens.
Erythrocytes carry oxygen in the blood and they have a
biconcave disc shape to give a large surface area to
volume ratio for gaseous exchange, they dont have a
nucleus so they have more room for haemoglobin.
Epithelial cells cover organ surfaces and cilia can beat to
move particles, and other like microvilli can fold in the cell
membrane to increase surface area to volume ratio
Sperm cells have a flagellum that enables them to swim
to the egg and they have lots of mitochondria to provide
energy to swim, the acrosome contains digestive
enzymes so the sperm can penetrate the egg surface.
Explain the meaning of the terms tissue, organ and organ system.

12

Emily Summers

A tissue is a group of similar cells that are specialized to work together to carry out a
particular function.
E.g. Ciliated epithelium, xylem tissue, squamous epithelium tissue, phloem tissue
Organs are groups of different tissues that work together to form a function.
E.g. Lungs squamous epithelium, ciliated epithelium, elastic connective tissue and
vascular tissue.
Organ systems are different organs working together for a different function, e.g. the
respiratory system is made of all of the organs, tissues and cells involved in breathing
like the lungs, trachea, larynx, nose, the diaphragm and mouth.
Discuss the importance of cooperation between cells, tissues, organs and organ systems.

Mulitcellular organisms work efficiently as they have different cells that are specialized
for various functions
It is beneficial because every different cell can carry out a specialized function in a more
efficient way than unspecialized cells could.
Each cell depends on the other cells for the functions it cannot carry out
So cells, tissues and organs in multicellular organisms cooperate to keep the organism
alive and working well.
E.g. Muscle cells can move well but to do so they need oxygen, so they need
erythrocytes to carry oxygen to them from lungs.
Module 2 Exchange and Transport
Exchange Surfaces & Breathing
Explain, in terms of surface area:volume ratio, why multicellular organisms need specialised exchange surfaces and single-celled
organisms do not.

Smaller organisms have a higher surface area to volume ratio, so single celled
organisms can diffuse substances directly in or out of the cell across the cell surface
membrane.
However, diffusion in multicellular organisms is too slow because:

13

Some cells are deep in the body, so large diffusion distance from external
environment

Emily Summers

Large animals have a smaller surface area to volume ratio so it is difficult to


exchange enough substances to supply a large volume of animal through a small
outer surface
A lot of multicellular organisms are active so many cells are respiring and so they
need a constant rapid supply glucose and oxygen.
Describe the features of an efficient exchange surface, with reference to diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide across an
alveolus.

a large surface area

a thin permeable surface

a moist exchange surface

Describe the features of the mammalian lung that adapt it to efficient gaseous exchange.

On inhalation the air enters the trachea


The trachea divides into two bronchi, and one bronchus goes to each lung
The bronchus divides into bronchioles, which end in small air sacs called alveoli where
gaseous exchange occurs.
The ribcage, intercostals muscles and diaphragm work together to move air in/out
Describe the distribution of cartilage, ciliated epithelium, goblet cells, smooth muscle and elastic fibres in the trachea, bronchi,
bronchioles and alveoli of the mammalian gaseous exchange system

Goblet cells secrete mucus which traps pathogens and dust in the inhaled air, the cilia
on the surface of cells beat rhythmically to waft mucus at the back of the throat where
its swallowed and the stomachs acidity kills any pathogens.
Elastic fibres in the walls of the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli aid ventilation.
They stretch and recoil to push air out when exhaling.
Smooth muscle is in the walls of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles and it can relax to
dilate the lumen, to allow air in/out easily.
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Emily Summers

Rings of cartilage are in the trachea walls and bronchi to give support and flexibility to
stop them collapsing on inhalation and pressure dropping.

Part of lung

Smooth

Elastic

Muscle

Fibres

Yes

Bronchi
Larger

Trachea

Cartillage

Goblet Cells

Epithelium

Yes

Yes

Ciliated

Small pieces Yes

Yes

Yes

Ciliated

None

Yes

Yes

Yes

Ciliated

None

Yes

Yes

No

Ciliated

None

No

Yes

No

No cilia

None

No

Yes

No

No cilia

Large-C
shape

Bronchiole
Small
Bronchiole
Smallest
Bronchiole
Alveoli

Outline the mechanism of breathing (inspiration and expiration) in mammals, with reference to the function of the rib cage,
intercostal muscles and diaphragm

Inspiration
Intercostal and
diaphragm muscles
contract
Ribcage moves upwards
and outwards and
diaphragm flatten
increasing volume of
thorax
As the volume of the
thorax increases lung
pressure decreases
below atmospheric
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Expiration
Intercostal and
diaphragm muscles relax
Ribcage moves
downwards inwards and
diaphragm curved again

The thorax volume


decreases causing air
pressure to increase
above atmospheric

Emily Summers

pressure
Air flow into the lungs
Active process needing
energy (ATP)

pressure
Air forced out of lungs
Passive process not
requiring energy.

Explain the meanings of the terms tidal volume and vital capacity.

Tidal Volume Volume of air inhaled/exhaled in a normal breath- normally 0.4


dm3
Vital Capacity The maximum volume of air that can be inhaled/exhaled

Describe how a spirometer can be used to measure vital capacity, tidal volume, breathing rate and oxygen uptake

1.
2.
3.
4.

A spirometer has an oxygen filled chamber with a lid that can move
The person will breathe through a tube connected to O 2 chamber
On inspiration/expiration the lid of the chamber moves up/down
The movements are recorded by a pen attached to the lid of the chamber,
and writes on a rotating drum to create a spirometer trace
5. The soda lime in the tube the person breathes into absorbs CO 2

16

Emily Summers
Analyse and interpret data from a
spirometer.

Transport in animals
Explain the meaning of the terms single circulatory system and double circulatory system, with reference to the circulatory systems
of fish and mammals.

In a single circulatory system blood passes through the heart once, whereas in a double
circulatory system the blood goes through the heart twice for each complete circuit of
the body.
Explain the meaning of the terms open circulatory system and closed circulatory system, with reference to the circulatory systems of
insects and fish.

17

Emily Summers

Mammals and fish have closed circulatory system, which means the blood is inside
blood vessels. The heart pumps blood into arteries which branch into capillaries, and
substances like oxygen and glucose diffuse from blood in capillaries to body cells but
blood will stay in the blood vessels, veins take blood back to the heart.
Whereas insects have open circulatory systems meaning that blood isnt contained in
blood vessels, it flows free through the body cavity.

Describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the external and internal structure of the mammalian heart.

The left ventricle of the heart


is thicker than the right
ventricle as the right ventricle
only pumps to the nearby
lungs, but the left ventricle
pumps to the whole body so
must contract with power.
The ventricular walls are
thicker than atrial walls
because the atria only pump
to the nearby ventricles, but
the ventricles push blood out
of the heart.
The AV valves link the atria to
the ventricles to prevent
backflow of blood into the atria
as the ventricles contract.
The SL valves link ventricles to
the pulmonary artery and
aorta to stop backflow of blood
to heart after ventricular
contraction.
18

The cords/tendons attach AV


valves to ventricles so they
arent forced up into the atria
after ventricular contraction.

Emily Summers

Describe the cardiac cycle, with reference to the action of the valves in the heart

19

SAN is a pacemaker and sends out a wave of excitation that spreads over atrial
walls
Ventricles are electrically insulated by a collagen tissue band, the right and left
atria contract
The wave of excitation spreads to the AVN from the SAN

Emily Summers

After a small delay of 0.1s so the atria have emptied the AVN passes the wave to
the bundle of His
The Bundle of His passes the wave to the Purkyne fibres
The Purkyne fibres carry the wave of excitation to the apex of the ventricle walls
causing them to contract simultaneously from the bottom up.

Describe the cardiac cycle, with reference to the action of the valves in the heart

20

Emily Summers

Interpret and explain electrocardiogram (ECG) traces, with reference to normal and abnormal heart activity.

21

Emily Summers

P= Contraction/Depolarisation of
atria
QRS= Depolarisation of ventricles
T= Repolarisation/Relaxation of
ventricles

22

Emily Summers

Too fast heartbeats (i.e. 120 beats a minute) are fine during exercise, at rest however it
shows that the heart doesnt pump blood efficiently.
With the atria contracting but the ventricles not, e.g. some Ps not followed by a QRS
this could indicate a problem with the AVN, i.e. no impulse from the atria to ventricles.
Fibrillation is when the atria lose their rhythm and dont contract properly, resulting in
chest pain, fainting or even death.
Describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the structures and functions of arteries, veins and capillaries.

23

Emily Summers
Explain the differences between blood, tissue fluid and lymph.

Blood

Tissue Fluid

Lymph

Explanation

Erythrocytes

Yes

No

No

Leukocytes

Yes

Few

Yes

Platelets

Yes

No

No

Proteins

Yes

Few

Antibodies

Water

Yes

Yes

Yes

Dissolved
Solutes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Erythrocytes are
too large and
cannot get through
capillary walls to
tissue fluid
Most white blood
cells are in
lymphatic system
& only go to tissue
fluid on infection
In tissue fluid if
capillaries are
damaged
Too big to go
through capillary
walls
Tissue Fluid and
Lymph have a
higher water
potential than
blood
Solutes like salt
can move freely

Describe how tissue fluid is formed from plasma.

Tissue fluid surrounds the cells and is made from substances that leave the blood, like
oxygen, water, etc. At the start of the capillary bed the pressure inside the capillaries
near the arteries is more than the pressure in tissue fluid, this difference forces fluid out
of the capillaries and into spaces surrounding cells to form tissue fluid.
When the fluid leaves the pressure is less in the capillaries, so the pressure is lower at
the end of the capillary bed nearest veins.
Because of the fluid loss the water potential at the end of the capillaries nearer the veins
is lower than the water potential in the tissue fluid, so some water will re enter the
capillaries from the tissue fluid near the veins by osmosis down a water potential
gradient.

24

Emily Summers

Describe the role of haemoglobin in carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Hb + 4O2

HbO8

Erythrocytes contain Hb, a large protein with a quaternary structure (Because it has 4
polypeptide chains)
CONFIRMATIONAL CHANGE
Each chain has a haem group containing iron, and is why Hb is red.
Hb has a high affinity for oxygen and each molecule can carry 4 O 2 molecules
It is reversible, and oxygen can dissociate from Hb near the body cells to leave Hb.

The pO2 is a measure of O2 concentration, the greater the concentration the higher the
partial pressure. So pCO2 is the measure of CO2 concentration in a cell.
Haemoglobins affinity for oxygen varies depending on the partial pressure of oxygen,
i.e. Oxygen loads onto haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin when there is a high
partial pressure, and unloads at lower partial pressures.
Oxygen enters blood capillaries at the alveoli, alveoli have a high partial pressure so
oxygen will combine with Hb to form oxyhaemoglobin.
Respiring cells use oxygen and have a lower partial pressure so erythrocytes take
oxyhaemoglobin to respiring tissues and the oxygen dissociates.
Then the haemoglobin goes back to the lungs to pick up more oxygen

25

Emily Summers

A lot of CO2 diffuses into erythrocytes to form


carbonic acid by the enzyme carbonic
anhydrase.
10% combines with haemoglobin and is
carried
to the
100% saturation means that
lungs.
every Hb molecule is carrying
four oxygen molecules, 0%
The
means no Hb molecules are
carrying any.

carbonic acid splits to produce H+ ions and


Hydrogencarbonate ions.
The increase in H+ ions causes oxyhaemoglobin to unload oxygen so it can take up H+
ions to stop the cell acidity increasing (BUFFER) to form haemoglobinic acid.
The Hydrogencarbonate ions diffuse out of the erythrocytes and are transported in
blood plasma. When the blood reaches lungs to low pCO 2 causes Hydrogencarbonate
and H+ ions to recombine into CO2 which then diffuses into the alveoli and is exhaled.
Explain the significance of the different affinities of fetal haemoglobin and adult haemoglobin for oxygen.

The fetus gets oxygen from its mothers blood across the placenta

26

Emily Summers

By the time the mothers blood reaches the placenta its oxygen saturation has
decreased as some has been used by the mothers body.
For the fetus to get enough oxygen to survive its haemogobin must have a higher
affinity for oxygen than adults.

Transport in plants
Explain the need for transport systems in multicellular plants in terms of size and surface area to volume ratio.

Plants need water, CO2 minerals like nitrates and potassium, and sugars to live and
they need to get rid of waste substances. They are multicellular and have a small
surface area to volume ratio so need transport systems to move substances to and from
cells quickly as diffusion alone is too slow.

Describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the distribution of xylem and phloem tissue in roots, stems and leaves of
dicotyledonous plants.

Leaf Cross Section

In a root the xylem and


phloem are in the centre to
give support to the root as it
pushes through the soil.
In stems the xylem and
phloem are near the outside to
provide stability that reduces
bending.
In a leaf the xylem and
phloem make up a vein
network to support the thin
leaves.
27

Emily Summers
Root Cross Section

Describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the structure and function of xylem vessels, sieve tube elements and
companion cells.

Xylem vessels are long tube


structures formed from vessel
elements joined end to end.
There arent end walls so
they are not interrupted
tubes, and allow water to
pass through the middle with
ease. The cells are dead and
dont have cytoplasm, the
walls are thickened with
lignin- a woody substance
that supports xylem vessels
and stops them collapsing,
Phloem tissue transports solutes the
like lignin
sucrose
aroundincreases
plants, it is only a transport tissue.
quantity
with age. Water and ions (K+
Sieve tube elements are living cells
that
formin/out
the tube
for transportation of solutes
etc.)
move
of vessels
around the plant, they are joined through
end-end pits
to make
sieve
tubes. The sieves are end
in walls
without
walls with holes in them for solutes
to pass through, although they have no nucleus, a
lignin.

thin layer of cytoplasm and few organelles. The cytoplasm of nearby cells is joined
through holes in sieve plates.
Companion cells are there for each sieve
tube element to carry out metabolic
processes for the sieve tube elements that
cannot survive on their own as they have
no nucleus, etc., and itself- e.g. they
provide energy for active transport of
solutes
.
28

Emily Summers

Define the term transpiration.

The loss of water from the plants surface


Explain why transpiration is a consequence of gaseous exchange.

A plant must open its stomata for absorption of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis,
which as a consequence allows water to escape because there is a higher water
potential inside the leaf than outside. So water moves out of the leaf by osmosis down
the water potential gradient.
Describe, with the aid of diagrams, how a potometer is used to estimate transpiration rates.

Really it measures the water


uptake by the plant, but we
assume that water uptake is
directly related to water loss
by leaves.

29

Emily Summers

1. Cut a shoot under water to stop air from going into the xylem at a slant to
increase surface area to volume ratio for water uptake
2. Check that the apparatus has no air bubbles and is full with water
3. Put the shoot into the apparatus underwater to prevent air entering
4. Remove the photometer from the water and make it air and water tight
5. Dry the leaves, let the shoot acclimatize and shut the tap
6. Keep conditions constant throughout the experiment
7. Record the starting position of the air bubble
8. Start a stopwatch and record the distance moved by the bubble per unit time
Explain, in terms of water potential, the movement of water between plant cells, and between plant cells and their environment.

Light
Temperature

Humidity

Wind

Lighter= faster rate of transpiration as the


stomata open for photosynthesis
Higher= faster rate as water molecules have
higher kinetic energy so they evaporate from
cells quicker, increasing the water potential
gradient between inside and outside of leaf
making water diffuse out quicker.
Lower= faster, if the air around the plant is dry
the water potential gradient between the leaf
and air is steeper
Higher= faster, air movement blows the water
molecules from the stomata, steepening the
water potential gradient

Describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, how the leaves of some xerophytes are adapted to reduce water loss by
transpiration.

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Emily Summers
Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the pathway by which water is transported from the root cortex to the air surrounding the leaves,
with reference to the Casparian strip, apoplast pathway, symplast pathway, xylem and the stomata.

Water travels through the roots via the root cortex into the xylem by two ways
The Symplast Pathway
Goes through living parts of the cells, the
cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of nearby cells
connect through plasmodestmata, which are
small spaces in cell walls.

The Apoplast Pathway


Goes through non living parts of the cells, the
cell walls, the walls are absorbent and water
can diffuse by osmosis through them and pass
through spaces between them.

When water is in the Apoplast pathway it goes to the endodermis cells in the root, but the path is
blocked by the Casparian strip- which is just a waxy strip. The water then must take the
Symplast pathway.
This is not a hindrance because the water than has to go through the cell membrane which
controls substances entering/leaving.
If the water goes past the barrier it moves into the Xylem.
The main pathway used is the Apoplast pathway as it provides the least resistance.
Explain the mechanism by which water is transported from the root cortex to the air surrounding the leaves, with reference to
adhesion, cohesion and the transpiration stream.

Cohesion and tension move water up from roots to the leaves against gravity, water
evaporates from the leaves at the top of the xylem via transpiration
This creates suction/tension which pulls more water into the leaf
Water molecules are cohesive, meaning they stick together, so if one is pulled into the
leaf so are more. The whole column of water in the xylem moves upwards, and it enters
the stem through the roots.
Adhesion is the water molecules being attracted to the walls of the xylem vessels,
helping water rise up.

Explain translocation as an energy-requiring process transporting assimilates, especially sucrose,


between sources (e.g. leaves) and sinks (e.g. roots, meristem).

Translocation is the movement of dissolved substances like sucrose


and amino acids when they are needed in a plant- called assimilates.
This requires energy and happens in the phloem.
Translocation moves substances from sources (where it is producedhigher concentration) to sinks (where it is used- lower concentration)

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Emily Summers
E.g. The source for sucrose is the leaves and the sinks are mainly food storage organs and the
meristems (growth areas) in the roots, stems and leaves.
Enzymes maintain the concentration from the source to the sink by changing the dissolved
substances at the sink, like by breaking them down or changing them into something else, to
make sure there is a lower concentration at the sink than the source to keep a steep
concentration gradient.
Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the mechanism of transport in phloem involving active loading at the source and removal at the
sink, and the evidence for and against this mechanism.

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At the source active transport is said to actively load the dissolved solutes into sieve
tubes of the phloem.
Lowering the water potential inside sieve tubes and water enters them via osmosis.
Creating a high pressure inside the sieve tubes at the source end of the phloem.

At the sink the solutes are removed from the phloem to be used
Increasing water potential inside the sieve tubes so water leaves by osmosis
Lowering pressure inside the sieve tubes

Creating a pressure gradient from the source to the sink

This gradient is responsible for pushing solutes along the sieve tubes to where they are
required in the plant.

Emily Summers
For
Removing a ring of bark from a tree taking
the phloem not the xylem from a woody
stem a bulge will form above the ring. On
analysis of the fluid in the bulge, there will
be a higher sugar concentration above the
ring than below- so there must be a
downward sugar flow.
Aphids pierce the phloem with their
mouthparts and sap flows into them, the
sap flows out quicker nearer the leaves
than further down the stem, so there must
be a pressure gradient.
A metabolic inhibitor stopping ATP
production in the phloem stops
translocation, proving it is active transport.
There are experimental mass flow models

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Against
Sugar travels to many sinks not one with
the highest water potential, as the model
indicates

Sieve plates would make a barrier to mass


flow, a lot of pressure would be needed for
solutes to pass at a reasonably quick rate