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WastewaterWastewater TreatmentTreatment

CHNG 3804

Fariba Dehghani

RemovalRemoval ofof otherother ContaminantsContaminants

• Activated Sludge Processes

– Mass Balances

– Hydraulic retention time (HRT) and Sludge retention time (SRT)

• Biological Nutrient Removal

– Nitrogen

– Phosphorus

– Microbial Metabolism

– Continuous and sequential batch reactor (SBR)

• Sludge Management

– Anaerobic Digestion

– Composting

ProcessProcess MicrobiologyMicrobiology • Pseudomonas • Zoogloea • Achromobactor • Flavobacterium •
ProcessProcess MicrobiologyMicrobiology
• Pseudomonas
• Zoogloea
• Achromobactor
• Flavobacterium
• Nocardia
• Bdellovibria
• Mycobacterium
• Nitrosomonas
• Nitrobacter
• Sphaerotilus
• Beggiatoa
• others

ReviewReview ofof SecondarySecondary TreatmentTreatment

• Secondary Treatment

• Biological Removal of BOD

– Ponds

– Activated Sludge

– High Rate Processes

UASB
UASB
lagoons digesters
lagoons
digesters

ActivatedActivated SludgeSludge -- ContinuousContinuous

• Removes BOD and Suspended Solids, typical Effluent BOD ~ 20 mg/L, SS ~ 30mg/L

• Sedimentation tank is an integral part of the activated sludge process.

• Because of the variable process microbiology that is possible, it has been found that the settling characteristics of the biological solids in the mixed liquor will differ with each plant.

Effluent Influent Return of activated sludge Waste Sludge
Effluent
Influent
Return of activated sludge
Waste Sludge

BulkingBulking inin ActivatedActivated SludgeSludge ProcessProcess

• The presence of filamentous organisms leads to formation of bulky flocs which do not settle well.

• Examples are fungi, actinomycetes, etc

• Addition of chlorine and hydrogen peroxide to the return waste-activated sludge, control of oxygen are alternative way to minimize the bulking in activated sludge process.

AeratedAerated PondsPonds (Lagoons)(Lagoons)

• Evolved from facultative stabilization ponds when surface aerators were installed to overcome the odors from organically overloaded ponds.

• The aerated lagoons process is the same as the activated sludge process (20 days).

• An earthen basin is used for the reactor, oxygen is supplied from the surface, and solid maintained in suspension.

• Aerated lagoon are used in conjunction with settling facilities to recycle the biological solids.
• Aerated lagoon are used in conjunction with settling facilities to
recycle the biological solids.
Complex compounds
+O2 +bacteria
CO 2 + H 2 O +
more bacteria
Sludge
 

SequentialSequential BatchBatch ReactorReactor (SBR)(SBR)

Influent 1 Fill
Influent
1
Fill

Add Substrate

4

Draw effluent
Draw
effluent

Remove effluent

 

2

React
React
 

Reaction time

5

Idle
Idle

Waste sludge

Settle
Settle

3

Clarity

 

TricklingTrickling FilterFilter

Biological unit operation

 

Organic material is removed by contact with attached biomass

Some volatile pollutants are removed by transfer to the gas phase

Consist of a

– filter bed, which may be wood, plastic or mineral

– distribution system - normally rotating

– Support layer and effluent collection

 

SequentialSequential BatchBatch ReactorReactor (SBR)(SBR)

Rather than pumping all of the wastewater from one tank to another it may be better to operate as a batch and change the conditions

This is termed a Sequencing Batch Reactor

Activated sludge treatment system is a Fill-and Draw.

Aeration and sedimentation/clarification are carried out in the systems.

Activated-sludge process is carried out simultaneously in separate tank, however, in SBR the process is carried out sequentially in the same tank.

The steps are (1) fill, (2) react (aeration), (3) settle (sedimentation), (4) draw (decant), and (5) idle.

 

SequencingSequencing BatchBatch ReactorReactor (SBR)(SBR)

Intermittent operation is also used for biological nutrient removal. Instead of using different reactors, the conditions in the

reactor can be changed in the same reactor at different times.

Instead of using different reactors, the conditions in the reactor can be changed in the same

TricklingTrickling FilterFilter

Rotating Distributor Effluent
Rotating Distributor
Effluent

Influent

Design process, key parameter is surface hydraulic loading rate. The volume is then calculated from BOD 5 loading.

TricklingTrickling FilterFilter

• A highly permeable medium is provided to which microorganisms are attached.

• The filter media consists of either rock or variety of plastic packing materials.

• The depth of the rock ranges from 0.9 to 2.5 m, while plastic media from 4 to 12 m.

• Liquid wastewater is distributed over the top of the bed by rotary distributor.

• Fillers are constructed with underdrain system for collecting the treated wastewater system.

• Air recirculates across the pores in the underdrain system.

TricklingTrickling FilterFilter

 

Low-rate

Intermediate

High-

Super high-

Roughing

-rate

rate

rate

Filter Media

Rock/Slag

Rock/Slag

Rock

Plastic

Plastic/

Wood

Loading

1.2-3.5

3.5-9.4

9-38

12-70

50-190

(m

3 /m 2 /d)

BOD 5 loading (kg/m 3 /d)

0.08-0.4

0.25-0.5

0.5-1

0.5-1.6

1.5-7.5

Depth (m)

2-3

2-3

1-2

3-10

5-10

Recirculation

0

0-1

1-2

1-2

1-4

Rate

BOD 5

80-90%

50-70%

65-85%

60-80%

40-65%

removal

efficiency

Nitrification

high

partial

low

low

none

EnergyEnergy ProductionProduction (Anaerobic)(Anaerobic)

• The yield of CH 4 is typically 0.35 L/g of COD

• Calorific value of methane is 33.81 kJ/L

• Efficiency of Internal combustion engines are typically 25%

• Can be more efficient if used in boiler

IssuesIssues inin TricklingTrickling FilterFilter

• High incidence of clogging

• The long rest period required.

• Relatively low loading that could be used.

AnaerobicAnaerobic

Advantages

Disadvantages

Produces CH 4 gas

Longer Start-up

Lower sludge disposal costs

Susceptible to failure

Low Nutrient Requirements

Little nutrient removal

Elimination of off-gas pollution (aeration strips VOC)

Production of hydrogen sulfide

Can degrade chemicals which are not degradable aerobically

Lower quality Effluent than Aerobic

EnergyEnergy RequirementsRequirements (Aerobic)(Aerobic)

• Aerobic processes require agitation and/or aeration

– Except for Large shallow lagoons

• For large ponds, mechanical aerators are preferred

• For fixed geometric vessels fine diffusers are preferred

• The type of diffuser has a large effect, different to agitated fermenters

EnergyEnergy RequirementsRequirements (Aerobic)(Aerobic)

Aeration system

Maximum Aeration Intensity (g/m 3 /h)

Energy Required (kg O 2 /kWh)

Fine bubble static diffuser

200

1.5-3.6

Coarse Bubble

100

0.9-1.2

static diffuser

Vertical

125

1.5-2.2

Mechanical

Aerator

Horizontal

100

1.2-2.4

Mechanical

Aerator

AnaerobicAnaerobic PondsPonds DesignDesign GuidelinesGuidelines

Parameter

Typical Values

Units

Load

300-600

kgBOD 5 /ha/d

Load

0.1-0.2

kgBOD 5 /m 3 /d

Temperature

25-35

o

C

HRT

6-20

days

Influent COD

1000-3000

mg/L

Effluent COD

200-500

mg/L

BOD removal 60-80%, odour emission, need to monitor pH at 6.4-7.8

FacultativeFacultative PondPond DesignDesign GuidelinesGuidelines

Parameter

Typical Values

Units

Load (T>15 o C)

40-140

kgBOD 5 /ha/d

Load (T<15 o C)

20-40

kgBOD 5 /ha/d

HRT

5-30

days

AnaerobicAnaerobic PondsPonds

• Used with relatively high organic loads

• Fairly Deep Ponds (3-6 m)

• Slow rate of biomass formation (5-15% of Carbon in feed)

• Top of pond usually covered in layer of scum

– The formation of the layer can be accelerated by covering the pond with straw

• pH needs to be 6.4-7.8

• Excessive feeding causes pH to drop and Methane formation to cease

Scum Complex H 2 S and NH 4 acid methane compounds CO 2 + H
Scum
Complex
H 2 S and NH 4
acid
methane
compounds
CO 2 + H 2
Sludge

FacultativeFacultative PondsPonds

• Shallower pond than anaerobic (1.5-4 m)

• Two zone environment

– Top section of pond is aerobic

– Lower section is anaerobic

• Medium organic load, odor free

• Must be careful not to overload and turn entire pond anaerobic

– Which in turn causes odor problems

Oxidation/AerobicOxidation/Aerobic PondsPonds

• Natural Oxygenation

– Wind

– Photosynthesis

• Shallow, 1-1.5 m

• Low organic loading, suitable for treating effluent from anaerobic ponds

• Must be careful not to overload and turn the pond anaerobic

– Which in turn causes odor problems

• Design parameter 40-120 kgBOD 5 /ha/d

ExerciseExercise 22 AbattoirAbattoir WasteWaste WaterWater

• An Abattoir (Cow/Sheep/Pig =>Meat factory) produces 1ML/day of effluent with a BOD of 3,000 mg/L after primary treatment.

• What is the required volume, area and depth of the anaerobic pond?

MovingMoving BedBed BioreactorBioreactor (MBBR)(MBBR)

• Rules of thumb

– Load: 100kg COD/m 3 /day

– HRT: as low as 1-2 hrs

– COD removal up to 85%

– Advantages:

• Lower N and P concentration in outlet effluent

• Smaller volume

• More robust

• Less chance of odor production

• Hydrolysis

UASBUASB

– Breakdown of solids to soluble compounds

• Acidogenesis

– Conversion of soluble compounds to short chain fatty acids

• Acetogenesis

– Conversion of other acids into acetic acid

• Methanogenesis

– Generation of Methane from acetic acid and hydrogen

HighHigh RateRate AerobicAerobic TreatmentTreatment ProcessesProcesses

• The productivity of activated sludge processes is limited by the suspended solids concentration.

• This concentration is limited by the settling in the secondary settler.

• This in turn limits the COD removal and the HRT

• The moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) removes this constraint by retaining the biosolids in the reactor.

• This is achieved by growing the solids as biofilms on carriers.

HighHigh RateRate AnaerobicAnaerobic TreatmentTreatment ProcessesProcesses

• Anaerobic is a complex process, including a number of microbial processes. The stages can be physically segregated to achieve better control

• Invented in the Netherlands in 1980’s

• Good for

– high strength wastewater pre-treatment

– highly soluble COD

• Most common HRAT is called the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)

• Consists of

– Acidification pretreatment

– Mixing

– Sludge Blanket

UASBUASB

Methane Treated Effluent Gas Collectors Sludge Blanket
Methane
Treated
Effluent
Gas
Collectors
Sludge
Blanket

Gas is collected below water level to reduce turbulence at the overflow

Need uniform distribution Channeling is a potential problem

HighHigh RateRate ofof AnaerobicAnaerobic TreatmentTreatment (HRAT)(HRAT)

• Design Rules of Thumb

– Loading 4-12 kg COD/m 3 /day

– HRT 4-12 hours

– 85% COD removal

RevisionRevision QuestionsQuestions

1. Would you select aerobic or anaerobic treatment for high strength waste water?

2. What are three advantages of

• Aerobic over Anaerobic

• Anaerobic over Aerobic

3. Name and describe the types of waste treatment ponds

4. For the same strength waste water, which pond will have the smallest

• Volume?

• Area?

5. What happens if a facultative pond is overloaded with COD? How can you tell?

SubstrateSubstrate RemovalRemoval andand BiomassBiomass GrowthGrowth RateRate

• The objective of a wastewater treatment process is to remove the substrate.

• Rate of substrate uptake

r

s

= − µ

m

X S

Y

(K S)

s

+

• Y is the maximum yield coefficient, mg/mg defined as the ratio of the mass of cells formed to the mass of substrate consumed.

• Such a process leads to the formation of biomass

• Rate of biomass formation

S

r

= µ

m

X

k

d X

X

 

K

s

+

S

K d : endogenous decay coefficient, time -1

See chapter 8 Wastewater engineering, Metcalf and Eddy

ExerciseExercise 33 HighHigh RateRate ProcessesProcesses

• A brewery discharges 50 m 3 /hr of waste water with a soluble COD of 4,000mg/L

• Determine the size of a

– High rate aerobic MBBR – High rate anaerobic UASB

RevisionRevision QuestionsQuestions

1. Would you select aerobic or anaerobic treatment for high strength waste water? Anaerobic

2. What are three advantages of

• Aerobic over Anaerobic (no odor, lower volume, higher efficiency)

• Anaerobic over Aerobic (produce methane, lower energy, low sludge ad waste disposal)

3. Name and describe the types of waste treatment ponds (aerobic, facultative, anaerobic)

4. For the same strength waste water, which pond will have the smallest

• Volume?

• Area?

5. What happens if a facultative pond is overloaded with COD? How can you tell? (work anaerobic, and have odor)

KineticKinetic ParametersParameters (Domestic(Domestic Wastewater)Wastewater)

Coefficient

Range

Typical

µ

m

0.1-0.5 hr -1

0.12 hr -1

K

s

25-100 mgBOD 5 /L

60 mgBOD 5 /L

Y

0.4-0.8

0.6 mgVSS/mgBOD 5

mgVSS/mgBOD 5

k

d

0.002-0.003hr -1

0.0025hr -1

The yield can include the effects of endogenous respiration, e.g. the cells consuming

dead cells, in which case it is called the observed yield. (see chapter 8 Metcalf and

Eddy)

Adapted from IWES Workshop for wastewater treatment

KineticKinetic ParametersParameters (Industrial(Industrial Wastewater)Wastewater)

 

µ

m

K

s

Y

k

d

Basis

Textile

0.1-7

90

0.5-0.7

0.01-0.1

BOD 5

Poultry

-

500

1.3

0.7

BOD 5

Meat

0.9

150-300

0.3-0.4

0.03-1.0

COD

Skim

2.5

100

0.5

0.04

BOD 5

milk

Adapted from IWES Workshop for wastewater treatment

SteadySteady StateState MassMass BalanceBalance Q, S 0 , X 0 (1+α)Q, S a , X
SteadySteady StateState MassMass BalanceBalance
Q, S 0 , X 0
(1+α)Q, S a , X a
(1-β)Q, S e , X e
Effluent
Influent
Aerobic Reactor
Volume V
S r , X r
(α+β)Q
αQ
Return of activated sludge
βQ
Waste Sludge
0
= − 1− β QX
(
)
e − βQX
+ VX r
r
a
x
Out
Waste
Growth

SRTSRT andand TreatmentTreatment GoalGoal

Treatment Goal

SRT Range

Factors Affecting SRT

(days)

Removal of Soluble BOD

1-2

Temperature

Conversion of particulate organics

2-4

Temperature

Develop flocculent biomass

1-2

Temperature

Provide complete nitrification

3-18

Temp/specific

population/compounds

Biological Phosphorous

2-4

Temp/specific

Removal

populations

Stabilisation of AS

20-40

Temp

Degradation of Xenobiotic compounds

5-50

Temp/specific

population/compounds

Metcalf and Eddy p 680

ActivatedActivated SludgeSludge (HRT(HRT andand SRT)SRT)

Q, S 0 , X 0

(1+α)Q, S a , X a

 

Influent

Aerobic Reactor

   

Effluent

Volume V

Volume V
 

S r , X r

(α+β)Q

 

αQ

Return of activated sludge

βQ

(1-β)Q, S e , X e

Waste Sludge

S: soluble COD (substrate) X: particulate biomass

For domestic waste water α is ~1

Assumptions Steady-state No biomass in influent (X 0 =0) Assume no reaction occur in the clarifier

SolidsSolids RetentionRetention TimeTime

((θθθθθθθθ cc ))

• The solid retention time (SRT) or cell residence time (θ c ) is basically a measure of how long bacteria stay in the system.

• The SRT is a very important operational parameter as it affects:

– Treatment performance

– Settling tank volume

– Sludge production

– Oxygen requirements

ExampleExample 11

• An activated sludge plant is processing 3,800

m 3 /d.

• The COD of the influent is 100 mg/L and the COD of the effluent is 30 mg/L.

• The observed yield is 0.3 mg/mg (1 kg of Sludge has a COD of 1.4 kg)

• What is the daily rate of sludge production?

• What is the rate of oxygen consumption?

O 2 consumption = (1-Y obs )*(S 0 -S e )

ExampleExample (Continued)(Continued)

3800 (m3/d) x 1000 (L/m 3 )x(100-30)/1000 (g/mg)/1000 (kg/g)=266 Kg COD removed

biomass produced from COD: 0.3 x 266 = 79.8 Kg

Total sludge produced:

79.8 x 1/1.4 = 56 .2 Kg

Oxygen = (1 - 0.3) x (3800 x 1000) x (100-30)/1000 = 186.2 kg/day

AdsorptionAdsorption EquilibriaEquilibria

Is defined as follows:

q

e M

Equilibria Equilibria Is defined as follows: q e M Where q e : equilibrium contaminant concentration

Where q e : equilibrium contaminant concentration (mg contamination/g adsorbent) Co : initial contamination Conc. In solution (mg/L) C: equilibrium contamination concentration in solution (mg/L) M: Mass of adsorbent (g)

=

(C

o

C)V

IonIon ExchangeExchange

Ion Ion Exchange Exchange Adapted from IWES workshop

Adapted from IWES workshop

TertiaryTertiary TreatmentTreatment

Adsorption of organics by activated carbon

Filtration of solids and colloids (sand filter and membranes)

Biological nitrogen removal

Biological phosphorous removal

AdsorptionAdsorption SystemsSystems

• Batch

– stirred tank with filtration/sedimentation

– Low capacity

• Continuous

– Fluidized bed

– Fixed bed in series

• Others

IonIon ExchangeExchange

Ion Ion Exchange Exchange Adapted from IWES workshop

Adapted from IWES workshop

WetlandWetland SystemsSystems

The hydraulic retention time is about 2-5 days for BOD

removal and 7-14 days for N removal.

The wetland requires 0.5-2 years to establish and harvested regularly.

Expensive Used for biomass production

and harvested regularly. Expensive Used for biomass production influent Seal Effluent Adapted from IWES workshop

influent

Seal

Effluent

Adapted from IWES workshop

FiltrationFiltration

• Removal of solid residue and pathogens from effluent after secondary treatment.

• Solid is removed by straining, precipitation and flocculation

• Continuous or intermittent process can be used.

• Most common is semi continuous, cleaning the filter by reverse flow (back washing).

used. • Most common is semi continuous, cleaning the filter by reverse flow (back washing). Adapted

Adapted from IWES workshop

used. • Most common is semi continuous, cleaning the filter by reverse flow (back washing). Adapted

NeedNeed forfor NutrientNutrient RemovalRemoval

• International legislation is now being passed to confine N&P in effluents.

• In Australia environmental regulations typically require total N < 5mg/L and total P < 1mg/L.

• Over US$300 billion worldwide is estimated to construct new plant to comply with new regulations for nutrient removal.

FreeFree WaterWater SurfaceSurface ConstructedConstructed WetlandWetland

Is an example of wetland. Wastewater containing BOD, nutrients and solids is treated using plants and micro-organisms Plants and micro-organisms uptake the nutrients Filtration and coagulation is used to remove solids Plants adsorb the ions Due to some reaction, contaminants precipitate.

adsorb the ions Due to some reaction, contaminants precipitate. influent Adapted from IWES worskshop Seal Effluent

influent

Adapted from IWES worskshop

Seal

Effluent

NeedNeed forfor NutrientNutrient RemovalRemoval

• Why do we need to remove nutrients such as Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus?

• Carbon - causes a reduction in dissolved oxygen concentrations.

• Nitrogen and Phosphorus – linked to growth of cyanobacteria and algal blooms.

• Particularly significant for inland waterways or enclosed water bodies.

BiologicalBiological NutrientNutrient RemovalRemoval (BNR)(BNR)

BNR utilises biological processes to remove C, N and P from wastewater

• Reduction (anaerobic) or oxidation (aerobic) of organic carbon

CH 2 O CO 2

CH 2 O

CH 4 + CO 2 + H 2

• Nitrification (oxidation) and denitrification of nitrogen

NH 3 /NH 4 + NO 3 - N 2

• Intracellular storage and wastage of phosphorous PO 4 3- [PO 4 ] n

OxidationOxidation ofof OrganicOrganic CarbonCarbon

Carbon may be oxidised with either oxygen or nitrate as electron acceptor:

• Heterotrophic carbon oxidation CH 2 O + O 2 cells + CO 2 + H 2 O

• Denitrification CH 2 O + NO 3 - cells + CO 2 + N 2 Note that many heterotrophs may switch to nitrate as electron acceptor when oxygen is exhausted

Nitrification/Nitrification/DenitrificationDenitrification

• Nitrogen can occur in many forms in wastewater and undergo numerous transformations in waste water treatment.

• Ammonia-nitrogen convert to product such as nitrogen gas.

• Two principle mechanisms are assimilation and nitrification-denitrification.

• Nitrogen is nutrient and can be incorporated into the cell mass.

NitrificationNitrification

Nitrifiers are autotrophic bacteria. They obtain their carbon, used for cell synthesis from CO2.

are autotrophic bacteria. They obtain their carbon, used for cell synthesis from CO2. Adapted from IWES

Adapted from IWES workshop

NitrogenNitrogen TransformationsTransformations inin BiologicalBiological TreatmentTreatment ProcessesProcesses

Organic nitrogen (protein, Urea) Organic nitrogen Organic nitrogen Ammonia nitrogen (net growth) (Bacterial cells)
Organic nitrogen
(protein, Urea)
Organic nitrogen
Organic nitrogen
Ammonia nitrogen
(net growth)
(Bacterial cells)
O2
Nitrite (NO2 - )
O2
Denitrification
Nitrate (NO3 - )
Nitrogen gas (N 2 )
Nitrification

Figure 8-32 Wastewater Engineering, Metcalf and Eddy

Organic carbon

NitrificationNitrification

• Nitrogen removal is a two step process:

• Two bacteria Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter are responsible for nitrification. The latter convert the nitrite to nitrate.

• For nitrosomonas the equation is

109 HCO 3 - + 76O 2 + 55NH 4 + C 5 H 7 O 2 N + 57H 2 O+104H 2 CO 3

• For Nitrobacter the equation is

195O 2 + NH 4 + + 400NO 2 - +4H 2 CO 3 + HCO 3 - C 5 H 7 O 2 N + 3H 2 O+400NO 3

• Approximately 4.3 mg O 2 per mg ammonia-nitrogen oxidized to nitrate- nitrogen is required.

consumed 8.64 mg HCO 3 - per mg of

• A large amount of alkalinity is

-

ammonia-nitrogen oxidized.

• Changing ammonia does not facilitate nitrogen removal but does eliminate

its oxygen demand.

• Nitrifying bacteria are sensitive to pH & temperature. A variety of organic and inorganic agents can inhibit the growth and action of these organisms.

DenitrificationDenitrification

• Under anoxic conditions (without oxygen) the nitrate is converted to nitrogen gas.

• Many different bacteria are involved in denitrification process: Micrococcus, lactibacillus, bacillus, alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, etc.

• These bacteria are hetereotrophs capable of dissimilatory nitrate reduction.

NO 3 - NO 2 - NO (g) N 2 O (g) N 2 (g)

• Dissolved oxygen is critical in denitrification. Dissolved oxygen (DO) suppress the enzyme system needed for denitrification.

• Microorganisms are also sensitive to pH and temperature.

• By including denitrification in a nitrifying process, the oxygen use can be reduced by up to 60% and the alkalinity depletion by up to 50%.

• The key factor affecting nitrogen removal include, pH, temperature, age of

sludge, dissolved oxygen, and feed composition.

DenitrificationDenitrification

Denitrification Denitrification Adapted from IWES workshop

Adapted from IWES workshop

Adapted from IWES workshop
Adapted from IWES workshop

EnhancedEnhanced BiologicalBiological PhosphorousPhosphorous RemovalRemoval (EBPR)(EBPR)

• Phosphorous appears in wastewater as orthophosphate (PO 4 -3 ), polyphosphate (P 2 O 7 ), and organically bound phosphorus.

• Microbes utilize phosphorous during cell synthesis and energy transport.

• Phosphorous is first released under anaerobic conditions. At these conditions Phosphate Accumulating Organism (PAO) take up more phosphorous.

• Soluble phosphate is then accumulated as an intracellular poly-phosphate under aerobic or anoxic conditions.

• The cells are then wasted as sludge.

PhosphorousPhosphorous RemovalRemoval

• Both anaerobic and aerobic condition is required as shown below.

• It is based on activated sludge like nitrogen removal.

• Factors affecting biological P removal include sludge age, Readily Biodegradable Chemical Oxygen Demand (RBCOD), Nitrate (NO 3 -N which reduces P by 1 mg P/mg NO 3 -N in anaerobic zone). effluent

Influent Anaerobic Aerobic Sedimentation Low Tank COD,P COD,P Biomass recycling
Influent
Anaerobic
Aerobic
Sedimentation
Low
Tank
COD,P
COD,P
Biomass recycling

Removal of P in bacteria

Adapted from IWES workshop
Adapted from IWES workshop

BNRBNR MetabolismMetabolism

• Heterotrophic carbon oxidation (aerobic)

• Heterotrophic denitrification and carbon oxidation (anoxic)

• Autotrophic nitrification (aerobic)

• Heterotrophic phosphate release and carbon uptake (anaerobic)

• Heterotrophic phosphate uptake and carbon oxidation (anoxic)

• Heterotrophic phosphate uptake and carbon oxidation (aerobic)

ChemicalChemical PhosphorusPhosphorus RemovalRemoval

Chemicals such as ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ), ferrous chloride (FeCl 2 ), alum (Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ,14.3 H 2 O) and lime (Ca(OH) 2 ) are used to precipitate P.

O) and lime (Ca(OH) 2 ) are used to precipitate P. • Al 3 + +

Al 3+ + HnPO 4 3-n

AlPO4 + nH +

• Addition of alum may

• produce more sludge

• Difficulty in removing water from sludge

• Decrease alkalinity and require to add lime for pH control

• A simple jar test is used to determine the amount of alum required.

BiologicalBiological NitrogenNitrogen RemovalRemoval

• Nitrogen in wastewater is usually in the from of organic (~30%) or ammonia

(~70%) Anoxic NO 3 => N 2 Aerobic NH 3 => NO 3
(~70%)
Anoxic
NO 3 => N 2
Aerobic
NH 3 => NO 3

The recycle from the aerobic to the anoxic is large ~ 5-20 times the influent feed rate

BiologicalBiological PhosphorusPhosphorus RemovalRemoval Aerobic Anaerobic
BiologicalBiological PhosphorusPhosphorus RemovalRemoval
Aerobic
Anaerobic

WastewaterWastewater TreatmentTreatment

• Primary treatment

– settling

– removes BOD (COD or C)

• Secondary treatment

– COD removal (some N and P)

• Tertiary treatment

– biological nutrient removal (BNR)

– removes C, N, P

– “polishing” (wetlands, sand filtration, etc)

– disinfection

BiologicalBiological PhosphorusPhosphorus RemovalRemoval

• Relatively new technology and is the focus of a lots of research

• Sludge must be cycled between anaerobic and aerobic conditions

• Anaerobic conditions

– take up RBCOD into their cells and release ortho- phosphates in the process

• Aerobic conditions

– utilise stored RBCOD and take up ortho-phosphates in excess of what they released

• Overall net uptake of phosphorous is removed by sludge wasting

Carbon,Carbon, NitrogenNitrogen andand PhosphorousPhosphorous RemovalRemoval

• Carbon

– aerobic/anoxic (or anaerobic)

• Nitrogen

– aerobic followed by anoxic

– carbonate required for aerobic reaction

– organic carbon required for anoxic reaction

• Phosphorous

– anaerobic followed by aerobic/anoxic

– organic carbon required for anaerobic reaction

Carbon,Carbon, NitrogenNitrogen andand PhosphorousPhosphorous RemovalRemoval

• In order to remove nitrogen and phosphorus the bacteria in a BNR require COD

• Rules of Thumb

• COD/P >50 for complete biological P removal

• COD/TKN >10 for biological N removal

ModifiedModified BardenphoBardenpho Anaerobic Anoxic Aerobic Anoxic Aerobic
ModifiedModified BardenphoBardenpho
Anaerobic
Anoxic
Aerobic
Anoxic
Aerobic

• Incorporates a secondary anoxic reactor to achieve greater N removal

• SRT is 10-20 days better carbon removal than A 2 /O

HeuristicsHeuristics

• Batch systems are more cost effective than continuous systems.

• Nitrification and Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal (EBPR) are favored by plug flow mixing patterns.

• For biological removal of C, N & P, separate sludge processes are more economical and perform better.

BiologicalBiological ProcessProcess ConfigurationConfiguration (A(A 22 /O)/O)

Anaerobic Anoxic Aerobic
Anaerobic
Anoxic
Aerobic

• Proprietary A 2 /O process

• The disadvantage is that nitrate equal to the effluent concentration is recycled to the anaerobic zone.

• This reduces P removal

• SRT 2-4 days

StandardStandard UCTUCT Anaerobic Anoxic Aerobic • Developed at the University of Cape Town
StandardStandard UCTUCT
Anaerobic
Anoxic
Aerobic
• Developed at the University of Cape Town

• Designed to minimise nitrates in weaker wastewaters

• Differs from A 2 /O in that sludge is recycle back to the Anoxic zone, reducing the nitrate concentration in the anaerobic zone.

• This increases phosphate uptake in the anaerobic zone.

BNRBNR ProcessProcess ConfigurationConfiguration

BNR BNR Process Process Configuration Configuration Adapted from IWES workshop

Adapted from IWES workshop

EffectEffect ofof HydraulicHydraulic RetentionRetention TimeTime (HRT)(HRT)

• Reactions go to completion as HRT is increased

• Acetate uptake by PAO is fast long anaerobic HRT leaves time for phosphorous release from endogenous metabolism (large stores of polyphosphate)

• Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) is diluted as HRT increases smaller secondary settling tank (shorter settling time)

EffectEffect ofof SRTSRT

• Phosphorous removal capacity depends on PAO density.

• Nitrification depends on autotrophic nitrifier density and denitrifier density.

• Longer SRT more biomass more nutrient removal.

• Longer SRT accumulation of inert particulates larger secondary settling tank (longer settling time).

SludgeSludge ManagementManagement • Sludge - solids streams are a by-product of many primary secondary and
SludgeSludge ManagementManagement
• Sludge - solids streams are a by-product
of many primary secondary and tertiary
treatment processes.
• Organic sludges can be used for
– Digestion
– Soil amendment
– Land spreading

SolidsSolids RetentionRetention TimeTime

• Typically 3-50 days

• Limited by phosphorous removal

• Controlled by wasting ratio

SRT =

V HRT

W

F

=

W

where :

W

= wasting ratio (fraction of F)

OtherOther StagesStages

• At this point we have removed many contaminants from the waste water stream

• But we still have to deal with the sludge we are producing

and

• Disinfect the water before recovery/discharge

SludgeSludge ManagementManagement

• Sludge - solids streams are a by-product of many primary secondary and tertiary treatment processes.

• Organic sludges can be processed by digestion or composting to reduce solid mass.

– Soil amendment

– Land spreading

• Toxic sludge may require stabilisation prior to disposal.

• Sludge can be processed by chemical or organic process.

SludgeSludge ManagementManagement

• Organic

– Digestion

– Soil amendment

– Animal feed

– Land spreading

• Chemical

– Reuse by another industry

– Incineration

– landfill

AnaerobicAnaerobic DigestionDigestion ProcessProcess

Anaerobic Anaerobic Digestion Digestion Process Process Adapted from IWES workshop and websites listed in refs.

Adapted from IWES workshop and websites listed in refs.

AnaerobicAnaerobic DigestionDigestion

1. Hydrolysis and fermentation (liquefaction) of organic material

2. Acetogenesis and dehydrogenation

3. Methane fermentation

Anaerobic Organics (CHON) CH 4 +CO 2 + NH 4

Aerobic Organics (CHON) + O 2

CO 2 + H 2 O + NO x

DigestionDigestion

• The purpose of digestion is to remove volatile solids from the sludge

• The digestion can be aerobic or anaerobic

• Anaerobic reactors tend to be the more popular as they can generate methane and hence energy

• They are typically egg shaped and a portion of the biogas produced is reinjected to mix the contents.

AnaerobicAnaerobic DigestionDigestion ProcessProcess

Anaerobic Anaerobic Digestion Digestion Process Process Adapted from IWES workshop

Adapted from IWES workshop

AnaerobicAnaerobic DigestionDigestion

volatile aromatic

compounds, VFA

solid organic compounds hydrolytic enzymes STAGE 1 soluble organic compounds reduced nitrogen acidogenic
solid organic
compounds
hydrolytic
enzymes
STAGE 1
soluble organic
compounds
reduced nitrogen
acidogenic
acidogenic
and sulfur
bacteria
bacteria
compounds
VOC
STAGE 2
acidogenic
acidogenic
bacteria
bacteria
acetic acid
CO 2
H
2
hydrogen-
utilising
acetoclastic
methanogens
methanogenic
STAGE 3
bacteria
methane

TwoTwo StageStage DigestionDigestion

• Acid forming bacteria prefer pH 5-6, grow quickly and are not as sensitive to toxic components in the feed.

• Methane forming bacteria prefer a neutral pH, grow slowly and are sensitive to toxic components.

• Either use two reactors, a pre-fermenter followed by a digester

• Or use one reactor at near neutral pH.

• Typically the digester is run at 30-40 o C and a pH of 7-

7.5.

SulfateSulfate ReducersReducers

• A problem for many anaerobic digester is the presence of Sulfur in the feed.

• Inevitably sulfate reducing bacteria will occur in the process.

• This results in the formation of H 2 S.

• The effects of this compound can be reduced by dosing with iron to precipitate FeS or raising the pH slightly to keep it in solution.

SludgeSludge CompostingComposting • Composting is the biological degradation of organic material. • Start with
SludgeSludge CompostingComposting
• Composting
is
the
biological
degradation
of
organic material.
• Start with dewatered sludge (~60%) moisture
• Need
to
ensure
aeration
to
avoid
odour
problems
• The biological activity increases the temperature
to 50-70 o C.
• Thought to be sufficient to kill pathogens.

AnaerobicAnaerobic DigestionDigestion

• Note anaerobic digesters also produce a lot of CO 2 , typically the biogas is 60-70% methane and 30-40% CO 2 .

• The production of this CO 2 causes the pH to drop, hence you need alkalinity.

• This is of great importance due to methanogens being inhibited below a pH of 6.8.

SludgeSludge DryingDrying

• Drying the sludge reduces the volume and mass that must be handled/transported.

• It also stabilises the sludge and reduces the pathogen levels.

• Sludge can be dried by

– Spreading the sludge over a field and relying on natural convection, can load at 100-15 kg of VS/m 2 /year. 1 hectare is sufficient for 70,000 people.

– Heating

– Filtration – typically using a belt press

– Centrifuge

SludgeSludge CompostingComposting

• Windrow

– The sludge is placed in an open pile and mechanically turned to provide aeration.

– Requires around 30 days

• Static Pile

– Air is supplied mechanically

– Requires around 30 days

• In-vessel

– Compost is mechanically stirred and aerated

– Higher capital cost, but lower labour and land costs, odour problems less likely

SydneySydney WaterWater BiosolidsBiosolids

• Have a look at Sydney Waters web site for information on sludge uses

http://www.sydneywater.com.au/EnsuringTheFuture/Biosolids/

MembranesMembranes inin WastewaterWastewater

• Micro-filtration to remove residual colloidal solids

• Ultra-filtration to remove solids and large soluble particles (sterilisation)

• Nano-filtration and reverse osmosis to remove dissolved pollutants

and reverse osmosis to remove dissolved pollutants Adapted from IWES workshop

Adapted from IWES workshop

to remove dissolved pollutants Adapted from IWES workshop

http://www.mhhe.com/engcs/civil/metcalf/information/chapter1.pdf

 

Cl

2

ClO 2

O

3

UV

Lime

Membrane

Size of Plant

All

Small/Med

Med/Large

All

Med/Large

Large

Cost

           

Capital

Low

Med

High

Low

High

High

Operating

Low

Med

High

Low

High

Med

Maintenance

Low

Med

High

Low/Med

High

Med

Contact

Long

Mod/Long

Mod/Long

Short

Very Short

Mod

Time

Safety

High

Med

Low

None

Low

None

Concern

Kills

           

Bacteria

Good

Good

Very Good

Very Good

Good

Good

Virus

Poor

Good

Good

Good

Unknown

Unknown

Fish Toxicity

Yes

Yes

Slight

No

Mod

No

Hazardous

Yes

Yes

Unknown

Unknown

Sludge

Unknown

Products

Residual

Long

Mod

Short/no

None

Short

No

Time

This table is adapted from IWES 2005, see Metcalf and Eddy p 1222 for original

DisinfectionDisinfection

• Inactivate or remove the phathogenic micro-organisms

– Chemical (Cl 2 , ClO 2 , NaOCl, Ca(OCl) 2 , O 3 , pH) adjustment

– Physical (heat or pressure)

– Radiation (UV)

– Filtration (membranes)

or pressure) – Radiation (UV) – Filtration (membranes) • Most common is chemical treatment Adapted from

• Most common is chemical treatment

pressure) – Radiation (UV) – Filtration (membranes) • Most common is chemical treatment Adapted from IWES

Adapted from IWES workshop

MembranesMembranes inin WastewaterWastewater

Membranes Membranes in in Wastewater Wastewater Adapted from IWES workshop
Membranes Membranes in in Wastewater Wastewater Adapted from IWES workshop

Adapted from IWES workshop

NeedNeed forfor NutrientNutrient RemovalRemoval • Why do we need to remove nutrients such as Carbon,
NeedNeed forfor NutrientNutrient RemovalRemoval
• Why do we need to remove nutrients such as
Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus?
• Carbon - causes a reduction in dissolved oxygen
concentrations
• Nitrogen and Phosphorus – linked to growth of
cyanobacteria and algal blooms
• Particularly significant for inland waterways or
enclosed water bodies
• In Australia environmental regulations typically
require total N < 5mg/L and total P < 1mg/L
Adapted from IWES workshop

SummarySummary

• This lecture we have looked at

– Activated Sludge

– Tertiary Treatment

– Biological Nutrient Removal

– Sludge Management

– Disinfection

ReferencesReferences

• “Wastewater Engineering, Treatment, Disposal and Reuse by Metcalf and Eddy”

http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/5161/water1.ht

m

http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/5161/wwtps.

htm

http://www.gocolumbiamo.com/PublicWorks/Sewer/w

wtppg_4.php

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sewage_treatment

http://ohioline.osu.edu/aex-fact/0768.html

– http://www.mhhe.com/engcs/civil/metcalf/information/chapter1.p df

• IWES Workshop, Principles of wastewater treatment

2005.