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criminology board exam reviewer

Forensic Ballistics
Forensic ballistics - is the science of analyzing firearms usage in crimes.
It involves analysis of bullets and bullets impact to determine information
of use to a court or other part of legal system. Separately from the
ballistics information, firearm and tool mark examinations also involves
analyzing firearm, ammunition and tool mark evidence in order to establish
whether a certain firearm or tool was used in the commission of crime.
Ballistics -(ballein "to throw") - is the science of mechanics that deals with
the flight, behavior and effects of projectiles especially bullet, gravity
bombs, rockets or the like.
Ballistic missile - is a missile, only guided during the relative brief initial
powered phase of flight whose course is subsequently governed by the
laws of classical mechanics.
Flight - is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere
by generating aerodynamic lift, propulsive thrust, aerostatically using
buoyancy or by ballistic movement without any direct solid mechanical
support from the ground.
Firearms identification - the identification of fired bullets, cartridge
cases or other ammunition components as having been fired from a specific
firearm.
Rifling - is the process of making helical grooves in the barrel of a gun or
firearm which imparts a spin to a projectile around its long axis. This spin
stabilize the projectile, improving its stability and accuracy.
Projectile - is any object projected into space by the exertion of a force.
Trajectory - is the path that a moving object follows through space as a
function of time.
Firearm - is a weapon that launches one or many projectiles at high
velocity through confined burning of a propellant.
Ballistic fingerprinting - involves analyzing firearm, ammunition and tool
mark evidence in order to establish whether a certain firearm or tool was
used in the commission of a crime.
Gun ballistic - is the work of projectile from the time of shooting to the
time of impact with the target.

Four categories of gun ballistics


1. Internal/interior ballistic - the study of the processes originally
accelerating the projectile. example - the passage of a bullet through
the barrel of a rifle.
2. Transition/intermediate ballistic - the study of the projectiles behavior
when it leaves the barrel and the pressure behind the projectile is
equalized.
3. External/exterior ballistic - the study of the passage of the projectile
through a medium, most commonly the earths atmosphere.
4. Terminal ballistic - is the study of the interaction of a projectile with
its target.
Colonel Calvin Hooker Goddard - father of forensic ballistic.
Some Factors to be Considered in designing a Firearm
1. reliability of firing
2. accuracy of projectile
3. force of projectile
4. speed of firing
Characteristics of a Muzzle Loader Firearm
1. powder and bullet loaded from top of the barrel
2. smooth bore with a round lead ball.
3. limited range and accuracy
Accuracy is Increased
1. by longer bore or length of metal tube
2. putting spiral grooves in the bore (riffling)
Breech loading firearm - is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is
inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel.
Sir Hiram Maxim - an American inventor of the machine gun or the
maxim gun.
Richard Gatling - inventor of the Gatling gun, a machine gun with a six
barrel capable of firing 200 rounds per minute at the earliest stages of
development.
Gatling Gun - a hand driven, crank operated multi barrel machine gun.
note: velocities of bullets are increased with the use of a jacket of a metal

such as copper or copper alloys that covers a lead core and allow the bullet
to glide down the barrel more easily than exposed lead. Such bullets are
less likely to fragment on impact and are more likely to traverse through a
target while imparting less energy.
Fouling - deposits of unburned powder residue in the bore of a gun.
What is the indispensable tool of the firearm examiner? comparison
microscope.

Firearms Terminology
1. Action - the part of the firearm that loads, fires,
and ejects a cartridge.Includes lever action,pump
action, bolt action,and semi-automatic.The first
three are found in weapons that fire a single shot.
Firearms that can shoot multiple rounds "repeaters"
include all these types of actions but only the semiautomatic does not require manual operation
between rounds.A truly automatic action is found
on a machine gun.
2. Barrel - the metal tube through which the bullet
is fired.
3. Black Powder - the old form of gun powder
invented over a thousand years ago and consisting
of nitrate,charcoal,and sulfur.
4. Bore - the inside of the barrel.
5. Breech - the end of the barrel attach to the action
6. Bullets - is a projectile propelled by firearm,sling,
airgun.They are shaped or composed differently for
a variety of purposes.

round nose - the end of the bullet is blunted.

hollow point - there is a central cavity in the bullet nose not


covered by a metal jacket that creates expansion when a target is
struck, creating more damage.

action 4 - hollow point projectile made of non fragmenting brass


with radiopaque plastic tip.

hydra-Shock - hollow point projectile with soft deformable anterior


and hard posterior core.

Jacketed - the soft lead is surrounded by another metal, usually


copper, that allows the bullet to penetrate a target more easily.

wad-cutter - the front of the bullet is flattened.

semi-wad-cutter - intermediate between round nose and wadcutter.

7. Butt or Buttstock - the portion of the gun which


is held or shouldered.
8. Caliber - the diameter of the bore measured from
land to land, usually expressed in hundredths of an
inch (.22 cal) or in millimeters (9mm).
9. Cartridge - also called a round - packages the
bullet, propellant and primer into a single unit within
a containing metallic case that is precisely made to
fit within the firing chamber of a firearm.
Parts of a cartridge
a. bullet
b. case/shell
c. powder
d. primer
10. Centerfire - the cartridge contains the primer in
the center of the base where it can be struck by
firing pin of the action.
11. Chamber - the portion of the action that holds
the cartridge ready for firing.
12. Choke - a constriction of a shotgun bore at the
muzzle that determines the pattern of the fired
shot.
13. Double Action - Pulling the trigger both cocks
the hammer and fires the gun.
14. Double Barrel - two barrels side by side or one
on top of the other usually on a shotgun.
15. Gauge - refers to the diameter of the barrel on a
shotgun in terms of the number of lead balls the
size of the bore it would take to weigh one pound
(10 gauge,12 gauge etc) "410" gauge really refer
to caliber,but it is worded as such to refer to a
shotgun.
16. Hammer - a metal rod or plate that typically
drives a firing pin to strike the cartridge primer to
detonate the powder.
17. Ignition - the way in which powder is ignited.Old
muzzle loading weapons used flintlock or
percussion caps.Modern guns use primers that are
rimfire or centerfire.
18. Lands and Grooves - lands are the metal inside
the barrel left after the spiral grooves are cut to
produce the rifling.

19. Magazine - this is a device for storing cartridges


in a repeating firearm for loading into the chamber.
20. Magnum - for rifles and handguns, an improved
version of a standard cartridge which uses the
same caliber and bullets,but has more powder,
giving the fired bullet more energy.For shotgun
loads,magnum shells have more powder and may
have increased length with more shot pellets.
21. Muzzle - the end of the barrel out of which the
bullet comes.
22. Pistol - synonym for a handgun that does not
have a revolving cylinder.
23. Powder - modern gun cartridges use smokeless
powder that is relatively stable,of uniform quality,
and leaves little residue when ignited.For centuries
black powder was used and was quite volatile
(ignited at low temperature or shock),was
composed of irregularly sized grains,and left a
heavy residue after ignition,requiring frequent
cleaning of bore.
24. Primer - a volatile substance that ignites when
struck to detonate the powder in a cartridge.

Rimfire cartridges - have primer inside the base.


Centerfire cartridges - have primer in a hole in the middle of the
base of the cartridge case.

25. Revolver - handgun that has a cylinder with


holes to contain the cartridges.The cylinder
revolves to bring the cartridge into position to be
fired.This is a single action when the hammer must
be cocked before the trigger can fire the weapon.
It is double action when pulling the trigger both
cock and fires the gun.
26. Riffling - the spiral grooves cut inside a gun
barrel that give the bullet a spinning motion.The
metal between the grooves is called a land.
27. Rimfire - the cartridge has the primer distributed
around the periphery of the base.
28. Safety - a mechanism of an action to prevent
firing of the gun.
29. Shotgun - a gun with a smooth bore that shoots
cartridges that contain "shot" or small metal pellets
of lead or steel as the projectiles.
30. Smoothbore weapons - have no riflings,
typically shotguns.Most handguns and rifles have
riflings.

31. Sights - the device on top of the barrel that allow


the gun to be aimed.
32. Silencer - a device that fits over the muzzle of
the barrel to muffle the sound of a gunshot.Most
work by baffling the escape of gases.
33. Single Action - the hammer must be manually
cocked before the trigger can be pulled to fire the
gun
34. Smokeless Powder - refers to modern gun
powder which is not really powder but flakes or
nitrocellulose and other substances.Not really
smokeless but much less so than black powder.
35. Stock - a wood,metal,or plastic frame that holds
the barrel and action and allows the gun to be held
firmly.
Composition of Gunpowder
1. Sulfur
2. Charcoal
3. Saltpeter (potassium nitrate)
- gun powder first appeared in china but used
primarily in firecrackers.
Different Firing Mechanisms of Firearm
1. Matchlock - employed a burning wick on a spring
that was "locked" back and released into a pan of
powder upon pulling a trigger. The powder in the
pan then ignited, sending flame through a small
hole into the barrel chamber of the weapon,
igniting a larger powder charge in the chamber and
sending the projectile (bullet) forward.
2 Wheellock - in the early 16th century, improvement
included the wheellock mechanism in which a
spinning wheel against a metal plate showered
sparks into the pan holding the priming powder.
3. Flintlock - developed in the early 17th century,
flint is released by the trigger mechanism that
strikes a steel plate to shower sparks into the pan
filled with powder.
4. Percussion - evolved in the 19th century,
consisted of a hammer that was locked and when
released, struck a cap containing a volatile
"primer" that ignites on impact, sending a flame
through a small tube into the barrel chamber.

matchlock

- next, inventors combined the individual components


including the bullet, powder charge and primer all in
a single cartridge which could be introduced directly
into the chamber.

Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 1


1. The science of mechanics that deals with the flight,behavior and
effects of projectiles.
A. Ballistics
B. Forensic Ballistics
C. Ballistic missile
D. Ballistic Fingerprinting
2. It involves the analysis of bullet impacts to determine information of
use to a court or other part of the legal system .
A. Ballistics
B. Forensic Ballistics
C. Ballistic missile
D. Ballistic Fingerprinting
3. It involves analyzing firearm,ammunition,and toolmark evidence in
order to establish whether a certain firearm or tool was used in the
commission of crime.
A. Ballistics
B. Forensic Ballistics

C. Ballistic Missile
D. Ballistic Fingerprinting
4. It is a missile guided only during the relative brief initial powered phase
of flight whose course is subsequently governed by the laws of
classical mechanics.
A. Ballistics
B. Forensic Ballistics
C. Ballistic Missile
D. Ballistic Fingerprinting
5. The study of the processes originally accelerating the projectile.
A. Internal Ballistic
B. Transition Ballistic
C. External Ballistic
D. Terminal Ballistic
6. The study of the passage of the projectile through a medium.
A. Internal Ballistic
B. Transition Ballistic
C. External Ballistic
D. Terminal ballistic
7. The study of the projectiles behavior when it leaves the barrel and
the pressure behind the projectile is equalized.
A. Internal Ballistics
B. Transition Ballistics
C. External Ballistics
D. Terminal Ballistics
8. It is also called a round.
A. Bullet
B. Shell
C. Primer
D. Cartridge
9. Employed a burning wick on a spring that was locked back and
released into a pan of powder upon pulling a trigger.
A. Matchlock
B. Wheellock
C. Flintlock
D. Percussion
10.Consists of a hammer that was locked and when released, struck a
cup containing a volatile primer that ignited on impact sending a flame
through a small tube into the barrel chamber.
A. Matchlock

B. Wheellock
C. Flintlock
D. Percussion
Remember the following definition of terms:
1. Ballistics - The science of mechanics that deals with the
flight,behavior and effects of projectiles.
2. Forensic Ballistics - It involves the analysis of bullet impacts to
determine information of use
to a court or other part of the legal
system.
3. Ballistic Fingerprinting - It involves analyzing firearm, ammunition
and toolmark evidence in order to establish whether a certain
firearm or tool was used in the commission of crime.
4. Ballistic Missile - It is a missile guided only during the relative brief
initial powered phase of flight whose course is subsequently
governed by the laws of classical mechanics.
5. Internal Ballistic - The study of the processes originally
accelerating the projectile.
6. External Ballistic - The study of the passage of the projectile
through a medium.
7. Transition Ballistics - The study of the projectiles behavior when it
leaves the barrel and the pressure behind the projectile is
equalized.
8. Cartridge - It is also called a round.
9. Matchlock - Employed a burning wick on a spring that was locked
back and released into a pan of powder upon pulling a trigger.
10. Percussion - Consists of a hammer that was locked and when
released, struck a cup containing a volatile primer that ignited on
impact sending a flame through a small tube into the barrel chamber.
Answers: Forensic Ballistics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A
B
D
C
A

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

C
B
D
A
D

Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 2


1. Developed in the early 11th century, flint is released by the trigger
mechanism that strikes a steel plate to shower sparks into the pan
filled with powder.
A. Matchlock
B. Wheellock
C. Flintlock
D. Percussion
2. In the early 16th century, improvement included the wheellock
mechanism in which a spinning wheel against a metal plate showered
sparks into the pan holding priming powder.
A. Matchlock
B. Wheellock
C. Flintlock
D. Percussion
3. One of the following is not a characteristics of a muzzle loader gun.
A. Spiral grooves in the bore
B. Powder and bullet loaded from top of the barrel
C. Smooth bore with a round lead ball
D. Limited range and accuracy
4. A German gunsmith who developed a reliable small caliber
automatic pistol in 1866.
A. Carl Walther
B. Hiram Maxim
C. Georg Luger
D. Richard Gatling
5. He designed the 9 mm cartridge introduced in 1902 for the Luger
semi-automatic pistol.
A. Carl Walther
B. Hiram Maxim
C. Georg Luger
D. Richard Gatling
6. An American born inventor of the Maxim machine gun.
A. Carl Walther
B. Hiram Maxim

C. Georg Luger
D. Richard Gatling
7. An American inventor
after him.
A. Carl Walther
B. Hiram Maxim
C. Georg Luger
D. Richard Gatling

of the first successful machine gun, named

8. He invented the Johnson model 1941 rifle, one of the most


innovative rifle during its period.
A. Robert Johnson
B. Albert Johnson
C. Melvin M. Johnson Jr.
D. Calvin M. Johnson
9. He pioneered the making of the first handheld machine gun.
A. Oliver Fischer Winchester
B. John T. Thompson
C. Daniel "Carbine" Williams
D. Daniel B. Wesson.
10.He manufactured the Winchester repeating rifle which was a much
re-designed descendant of the Volcanic rifle of some years earlier.
A. Oliver Fischer Winchester
B. Daniel Williams
C. John Fischer Winchester
D. Daniel B. Wesson
Remember the following: Forensic Ballistics
1. Flintlock - Developed in the early 11th century, flint is released by
the trigger mechanism that strikes a steel plate to shower sparks
into the pan filled with powder.
2. Wheellock - In the early 16th century, improvement included the
wheellock mechanism in which a spinning wheel against a metal
plate showered sparks into the pan holding priming powder.
3. Characteristics of a muzzle loader gun
a. Powder and bullet loaded from top of the barrel
b. Smooth bore with a round lead ball
c. Limited range and accuracy
4. Carl Walther - A German gunsmith who developed a reliable small
caliber automatic pistol in 1866.

5. Georg Luger - He designed the 9 mm cartridge introduced in 1902


for the Luger semi-automatic pistol.
6. Hiram Maxim - An American born inventor of the Maxim machine
gun.
7. Richard Gatling - An American inventor of the first successful machine
gun, named after him.
8. Melvin M. Johnson Jr. - He invented the Johnson model 1941 rifle,
one of the most innovative rifle during its period.
9. John T. Thompson - He pioneered the making of the first handheld
machine gun.
10.Oliver Fischer Winchester - He manufactured the Winchester
repeating rifle which was a much re-designed descendant of the
Volcanic rifle of some years earlier.
Answers: Forensic Ballistics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

C
B
A
A
C
B
D
C
B
A

Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 3


1. The Father of modern ballistics.He invented the comparison
microscope and helixometer.
A. Col.Calvin Goddard
B. Col.Alvin Goddard
C. Col. Kevin Goddard
D. Col.Darwin Goddard
2. He pioneered the breech loading single shot rifle.
A. John Browning
B. Henry Derringer
C. Samuel Colt

D. Patrick Ferguson
3. A Famous 19th century maker of pocket pistol.
A. Patrick Ferguson
B. John Browning
C. Samuel Colt
D. Henry Derringer
4. He designed his own rifle which was one of the first breech loading
rifles to be widely tested by the British military.
A. John Browning
B. Samuel Colt
C. Patrick Ferguson
D. Henry Derringer
5. He was a Scottish Presbyterian clergyman who invented the
percussion ignition.
A. John Marlin
B. Daniel Williams
C. Alexander Forsyth
D. Henry Derringer
6. He invented the Uzi sub-machine gun.
A. John Marlin
B. Daniel Williams
C. Uziel Gamal
D. Uziel Gal
7. He is the father of the semi automatic US rifle cal. 30 M1.
A. John Garand
B. Eliphalet Remington
C. James Garand
D. Daniel Williams
8. Russian designer of the the AK-47 assault rifle.
A. Mike Kalashnikov
B. John Marlin
C. Mikhail Kalashnikov
D. Patrick Ferguson
9. Founder of Marlin Firearms Co.Famous for the Marlin cal. 22 carbine.
A. James Mahon Marlin
B. John Mahon Marlin
C. Jack Marlin
D. Jones Marlin
10.He is one of the first rifle makers.He is a blacksmith who made a

revolutionary sporting rifle using a firing mechanism bought from a


dealer producing the barrel himself.
A. Benjamin Robins
B. Elisha King Root
C. Eliphalet Remington
D. Roger Bacon

Remember the following: Forensic Ballistics


1. Col.Calvin Goddard - The Father of modern ballistics.He invented
the comparison microscope and helixometer.
2. John Browning - He pioneered the breech loading single shot rifle.
3. Henry Derringer - A Famous 19th century maker of pocket pistol.
4. Patrick Ferguson - He designed his own rifle which was one of the
first breech loading rifles to be widely tested by the British
military.
5. Alexander Forsyth - He was a Scottish Presbyterian clergyman
who invented the percussion ignition.
6. Uziel Gal - He invented the Uzi sub-machine gun.
7. John Garand - He is the father of the semi automatic US rifle cal.
30 M1.
8. Mikhail Kalashnikov - Russian designer of the the AK-47 assault
rifle.
b
9. John Mahon Marlin - Founder of Marlin Firearms Co.Famous for
the Marlin cal. 22 carbine.
10.Eliphalet Remington - He is one of the first rifle makers.He is a
blacksmith who made a revolutionary sporting rifle using a firing
mechanism bought from a dealer producing the barrel himself.
Answers: Forensic Ballistics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

A
A
D
C
C
D

7.
8.
9.
10.

A
C
B
C

Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 4


1. One of the first to state a sound ballistic theories.
A. Elisha King Root
B. Berthold Schwartz
C. Roger Bacon
D. Benjamin Robins
2. Helped Samuel colt synthesize the manufacturing of firearms.
A. Elisha King Root
B. Berthold Schwartz
C. Roger Bacon
D. Benjamin Robins
3. He is considered as the first European to describe a mixture
containing the essential ingredient of gun powder.
A. Elisha King Root
B. Berthold Schwartz
C. Roger Bacon
D. Benjamin Robins
4. Partner of Horace Smith in making revolver.
A. Daniel Wesson
B. Benjamin Wesson
C. Craig Wesson
D. Samuel Wesson
5. He is the maker of the first known carbine firearms.
A. Daniel "Carbine" Williams
B. Darwin "Carbine" Williams
C. John "Carbine" Williams
D. Mike "Carbine" Williams.
6.The large ring surrounding the breech end of the barrel which
provides a connection between the barrel and the recoil system.
A. Trigger guard
B. Anvil
C. Trigger spring
D. Yoke
7. Form on the bearing surface of bullets as they enter the rifling of
the barrel before the bullet engages the rifling.

A. Shearing
B. Proof marks
C. Provisional proof
D. Slippage mark
8. It is the examination and testing of firearms by a recognized
authority according to certain rules and stamped with a mark to
indicate that they are safe for sale and used by the public.
A. Shearing
B.Provisional proof
C. Proof marks
D. Slippage mark
9. An internal metal component in a boxer primer assembly against
which the priming mixture is crushed by the firing pin blow.
A. Shearing
B. Trigger guard
C. Anvil
D. Trigger spring
10.A flanged metallic cup used in shot-shell primer assemblies that
provides a rigid support for the primer cup and anvil.
A. Paper disc
B. Battery cup
C. Primer mixture
D. Primer cup

Remember the following:


1. Benjamin Robins - He wrote an influential treatise on gunnery,
for the first time introducing Newtonian science to military men,
was an early enthusiast for rifled gun barrels.
2. Elisha King Root - Helped Samuel colt synthesize the
manufacturing of firearms.
3. Roger Bacon - He is considered as the first European to
describe a mixture containing the essential ingredient of gun
powder.
4.Daniel Wesson - Partner of Horace Smith in making revolver.
5. Daniel "Carbine" Williams - He is the maker of the first known
carbine firearms.
6 Yoke - The large ring surrounding the breech end of the barrel

which provides a connection between the barrel and the recoil


system.
7. Slippage mark - Form on the bearing surface of bullets as they
enter the rifling of the barrel before the bullet engages the rifling.
8. Proof marks - It is the examination and testing of firearms by a
recognized authority
according to certain rules and stamped
with a mark to indicate that they are safe for sale and used by
the public.
9.Anvil - An internal metal component in a boxer primer assembly
againsts which the priming mixture is crushed by the firing pin
blow.
- The breech end of the chamber in a rim-fire firearm.
10.Battery cup - A flanged metallic cup used in shot-shell primer
assemblies that provides a rigid support for the primer cup and
anvil.Also called battery pocket.

Answers: Forensic Ballistics


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

D
A
C
A
A
D
D
C
C
B

Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 5


1. The controlled expansion of a bullet upon impact with a
target.
A. Palm Swell
B. Mushrooming
C. Pedestalled
D.Parkerizing
2.The cutting of metal from the surface of a bullet due
to cylinder misalignment in a revolver.
A. Abrasion marks

B. Shaving
C. Abrasive machining
D.Rolling block
3.Form on the bearing surface of bullets as they enter the rifling of
the barrel before the bullet engages the rifling.
A. Skidmarks
B. Action marks
C. Slide
D. Anvil marks
4.The escaping of gases past a fired bullet while the bullet is still in
the barrel.
A. Backspatter
B. Bearing surface
C. Barrel extention
D. Blowby
5. The accumulation of lead or bullet jacket material in the bore of
a firearm due to the passage of bullets.
A. Leading
B. Ballistite
C. Blowback
D.Frizzen
6. A piece of cloth used with a rod to clean the bore of a firearm.
A. Fulminate of mercury
B. Nitro wad
C. Patch
D.Press forging
7. An action requiring the manual cocking of the hammer before
sufficient pressure on the trigger releases the firing mechanism.
A. Single-Action
B. Automatic
C. Double-action
D. Semi-automatic
8. An inert cartridge which cannot be fired.
A. Dummy ammunition
B. Disintegrating bullet
C. Conoidal bullet
D.Mushroom bullet
9. The air that is compressed and moves out spherically from a
firearms muzzle after firing a projectile.
A. Bullet splash

B. Muzzle wave
C. Choke
D.Bunter
10.A device at or in the muzzle end of a barrel that uses the
emerging gas behind the projectile to reduce recoil.
A. Climb
B. Muzzle Brake
C. Latch
D.Lock plate

Remember the ff: Forensic Ballistics


1. Mushrooming - The controlled expansion of a bullet upon impact
with a target.
2. Shaving - (shearing) The cutting of metal from the surface of a
bullet due to cylinder misalignment in a revolver.
3.Skidmarks - (slippage) Form on the bearing surface of bullets as
they enter the rifling of the barrel before the bullet engages the
rifling.Skid marks are typically produced by revolvers and have the
appearance of widening the land impressions at the nose of the
bullet.
4. Blowby - The escaping of gases past a fired bullet while the
bullet is still in the barrel.
5. Leading - (metal fouling) The accumulation of lead or bullet
jacket material in the bore of a firearm due to the passage of
bullets.
6. Patch - A piece of cloth used with a rod to clean the bore of a
firearm.
7. Single-Action - An action requiring the manual cocking of the
hammer before sufficient pressure on the trigger releases the
firing mechanism.
8. Dummy ammunition - An inert cartridge which cannot be fired.
9. Muzzle wave - The air that is compressed and moves out
spherically from a firearms muzzle after firing a projectile.
10.Muzzle Brake - A device at or in the muzzle end of a barrel that
uses the emerging gas behind the projectile to reduce recoil.

Answers: Forensic ballistics

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

B
B
A
D
A
C
A
A
B
B

Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 6


1.When the first chamber of a jacketed bullet expands and the rear
chamber holds together for penetration.
A.Convex
B. Correlations
C. Cordite
D. Controlled expansion
2.A plastic,paper,or fiber disk used to keep ammunition components
in place or separated.
A. Card Wad
B. Vent
C. Tumble
D. Wad
3.Marks produced by the random imperfections or irregularities of tool
surfaces.
A. Inter-comparison
B. Individual characteristics
C. Impressions
D.Headstamp
4.A thin card-like disc used in shot-shells as overshot wad,
undershot wad and over-powder wad.
A. Card wad
B. Filler wad
C. Wad
D.Cup wad

5. A plastic or paper insert surrounding the shot charge in a


shot-shell to reduce distortion.
A. Card wad
B. Filler wad
C. Shot collar
D. Cup wad
6.Circular disc of various thicknesses used to adjust the volume of
the contents of a shot-shell.
A. Card wad
B. Filler wad
C. Vent
D. Cup wad
7. A powder and shot separator of very shallow cup design, which
when loaded with lips down acts to help seal powder gases and
so protect the rear of the shot column.
A. Card wad
B. Filler wad
C. Wad
D. Cup wad
8. Various designs of shot cups made of plastic and designed to
reduce pellet deformation during barrel travel
A. Shot protector wad
B. Filler wad
C. Combination Wad
D. Cup wad
9.One piece of multi-piece plastic wad which may combine the
following items: shot protector, filler wad, and over-powder wad.
A. Shot protector wad
B. Filler wad
C. Combination Wad
D. Cup wad
10. A bullet with a deep base cavity.
A. Hollow base bullet
B. Incendiary bullet
C. Hollow point bullet
D.Jacketed bullet
Remember the following: Forensic ballistics
1. Controlled expansion - When the first chamber of a jacketed
bullet expands and the rear chamber holds together for
penetration.

2.Wad - A plastic,paper,or fiber disk used to keep ammunition


components in place or separated.
3.Individual characteristics - Marks produced by the random
imperfections or irregularities of tool surfaces.
4. Card wad - A thin card-like disc used in shotshells as Overshot
wad,Undershot wad and over powder wad.
5.Shot collar - A plastic or paper insert surrounding the shot charge
in a shotshell to reduce distortion.
6.Filler wad - Circular disc of various thicknesses used to adjust the
volume of the contents of a shotshell.
7.Cup wad - A powder and shot separator of very shallow cup
design,which when loaded with lips down acts to help seal
powder gases and so protect the rear of the shot column.
8.Shot protector wad - Various designs of shot cups made of
plastic and designed to reduce pellet deformation during barrel
travel.
9.Combination wad - One piece of multi-piece plastic wad which
may combine the following items: shot protector, filler wad, and
over-powder wad.
10. Hollow base bullet - a bullet with a deep base cavity.

Answers: Forensic Ballistics


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

D
D
B
A
C
B
D
A
C
A

Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 7


1.A collection and cataloging of test-fired bullets and cartridge cases

from known firearms.


A.Classifying
B. Bullet comparison
C. Known standards
D. Collected standards
2.The number, width, and direction of twist of the rifling grooves
in a barrel of a given caliber firearm.
A. General Rifling Characteristics
B. Gross forming
C. Groove diameter
D.Intercomparison
3.A discipline of forensic science which has as its primary concern to
determine if a bullet, cartridge case, or other ammunition0 component
was fired by a particular firearm.
A. Ballistic examination
B. Firearms identification
C. Ballistics
D. Toolmark identification
4.A discipline of forensic science which has as its primary concern
to determine if a toolmark was produced by a particular tool.
A. Ballistic examination
B. Firearms identification
C. Forensic Ballistics
D. Toolmark identification
5. Contour variations, generally microscopic, on the surface of an
object caused by a combination of force and motion where the
motion is approximately parallel to the plane being marked.
A. Striations
B. Class characteristics
C. Sub-class characteristics
D.toolmarks
6. Discernible surface features of an object which are more restrictive
than class characteristics.
A.Striations
B. Class characteristics
C. Sub-class characteristics
D. Toolmarks
7. Measurable features of a specimen which indicate a restricted group
source. They result from design factors, and are therefore
determined prior to manufacture.
A. Striations

B. Class characteristics
C. Sub-class charateristics
D. Toolmarks
8. Marks produced by the random imperfections or irregularities of tool
surfaces. These random imperfections or irregularities are produced
incidental to manufacture and/or caused by use, corrosion, or
damage.
A. Individual characteristics
B. Class characteristics
C. Sub-class characteristics
D. Toolmarks
9.Striae or patterns of minute lines or grooves in an object. In firearm
and toolmark identification these marks are characteristic of the
object which produced them and are the basis for identification.
A. Individual characteristics
B.Toolmarks
C. Microscopic marks
D. Class characteristics
10.The process of determining whether or not the details of striated
marks or impressions on two objects correspond, such as fired and
unfired cartridge cases and shot-shell cases.
A. Pattern matching
B. Land and Groove identification
C. Pattern Identification
D. Toolmark identification

Remember the ff: Forensic Ballistics


1. Known standards - A collection and cataloging of test-fired bullets
and cartridge cases from known firearms. Also known as Fired
standards.
2. General Rifling Characteristics - the number,width, and
direction of twist of the rifling grooves in a barrel of a given caliber
firearm.
3. Firearms identification - A discipline of forensic science which
has as its primary concern to determine if a bullet, cartridge case,
or other ammunition component was fired by a particular firearm.
4. Toolmark identification - A discipline of forensic science which has

as its primary concern to determine if a toolmark was produced


by a particular tool.
5. Striations - Contour variations, generally microscopic, on the
surface of an object caused by a combination of force and motion
where the motion is approximately parallel to the plane being
marked.
6. Subclass characteristics - Discernible surface features of an
object which are more restrictive than class characteristics.
7. Class characteristics - Measurable features of a specimen which
indicate a restricted group source. They result from design factors,
and are therefore determined prior to manufacture.
8. Individual characteristics - Marks produced by the random
imperfections or irregularities of tool surfaces.These random
imperfections or irregularities are produced incidental to
manufacture and/or caused by use, corrosion, or damage.
9. Microscopic marks - Stria or patterns of minute lines or grooves
in an object. In firearm and toolmark identification these marks are
characteristic of the object which produced them and are the basis
for identification.
10.Pattern matching - The process of determining whether or not
the details of striated marks or impressions on two objects
correspond,such as fired and unfired cartridge cases and shot-shell
cases.
Answers: Forensic Ballistics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

C
A
B
D
A
C
B
A
C
A

Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 8


1.The earliest known toolmark comparison case involving firearms
occurred in London in

A. 1835
B. 1837
C. 1836
D. 1838
2. Published the first work describing wounds resulting from small
caliber firearms.
A. Henry Goddard
B. John Sedgwick
C. Monsieur Noilles
D. Stonewall Jackson
3. A firearm with long barrel and for-end or forearm extending nearly to
the muzzle.
A. Rifle
B. Remington rifle
C. Whitwoth rifles
D. Musket
4. A portion of a firearm's mechanism which ejects or expels cartridges
or cartridge cases from a firearm.
A. Ejector
B. breech face
C. Extractor
D. Firing pin
5. The negative impressions on the bearing surface of a bullet caused
by the rifling in the barrel from which is was fired.
A. Lapping
B. Land and Groove impressions
C. Obturation
D. Parkerizing
6. The ignition component of a cartridge .
A. Priming mixture
B. Priming powder
C. Priming Charge
D. Primer
7. The locking and cartridge head support mechanism of a firearm
that does not operate in line with the axis of the bore.
A. Frame
B. Breechblock
C. Mandrel
D. Box lock
8. Developed the helixometer, a magnifier probe used to examine

the interior of firearm barrels and accurately measure the


pitch of rifling.
A. Goddard and Waite
B. Goddard and Gravelle
C. Goddard and Fisher
D. Waite and Fisher
9. Essentially two microscopes connected to an optical bridge
which allows the viewer to observe two objects simultaneously
with the same degree of magnification.
A. Compound microscope
B. Comparison micoscope
C. Dual microscope
D. Complex microscope
10.He is considered by many firearm examiners to be the "father" of
firearm and toolmark identification.
A. Calvin H. Goddard
B. John H. Fisher
C. Colonel H. W. Todhunter
D.Philip O. Gravelle

Remember the ff: Forensic Ballistics


1. The earliest known toolmark comparison case involving firearms
occurred in London in 1835 .
2. Monsieur Noilles - Published the first work describing wounds
resulting from small caliber firearms.
3. Musket - A firearm with long barrel and forend or forearm
extending nearly to the muzzle.
4. Ejector - A portion of a firearm's mechanism which ejects or
expels cartridges or cartridge cases from a firearm.
5. Land and Groove impressions - The negative impressions on
the bearing surface of a bullet caused by the rifling in the
barrel from which is was fired.
6. Primer - The ignition component of a cartridge.
7. Breechblock - The locking and cartridge head support
mechanism of a firearm that does not operate in line with
the axis of the bore.

8. Goddard and Fisher - Developed the helixometer, a magnifier


probe used to examine the interior of firearm barrels and
accurately measure the pitch of rifling.
9. Comparison microscope - Essentially two microscopes connected
to an optical bridge which allows the viewer to observe two
objects simultaneously with the same degree of magnification.
10.Calvin H. Goddard - He is considered by many firearm examiners
to be the "father" of firearm and toolmark identification.

Answers: Forensic Ballistics


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A
C
D
A
B
D
B
C
B
A

Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 9


1. The curve taken by the bullet while in flight is called
A. rifling curves
B. effective range
C. drift
D. maximum distance
2. A mechanism in a revolver that connects pivot between the frame
and cylinder.
A. trigger spring
B. trigger guard
C. yoke
D. anvil
3. It is the examination and testing of firearms by a
recognized authority according to certain rules and stamped with
a mark to indicate that they are safe for sale and used by the
public.
A. Provisional Proof
B. Proof Marks
C. Skid Marks
D. Slippage Marks

4. Among the following, which is a long smooth bored firearm that


is designed to prepare a single shot?
A. Shotgun
B. Musket
C. Carbine
D. Caliber
5. It is the soft guiding metal which serves as the container of
priming mixture, paper disc and anvil.
A. Primer cup
B. Primer mixture
C. Paper disc
D. Battery cup
6. An automatic weapon that can fire from 400 to 1,600 rounds of
ammunition each minute.
A. Armalite
B. Uzi
C. Machine gun
D. Glock
7. Historians considered that the age of gunpowder began with its
first use as a propellant for a projectile on
A. 1313
B. 1413
C. 1280
D. 1350
8. One from Hartford, Connecticut, who produced the first practical
revolver and became famous for its .45 caliber.
A. Samuel Colt
B. Carl Walther
C. Oliver Winchester
D. John C. Garand
9. It includes rocket launchers and such mounted guns as howitzers,
mortars, antiaircraft guns, and naval guns.
A. Gunnery
B. Artillery
C. Musketry
D. Ballistics
10. That part of the handgun designed in a metal tube through which
the bullet is fired.
A. Grip
B. Frame

C. Barrel
D. Rifling
Answers: Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 9
1. C
2. C
3. B
4. B
5. A
6. C
7. A
8. A
9. B
10.C
Forensic Ballistics Reviewer 10
1. The shape metal while hot and plastic by hammering or by a
forging process,either by hand or by machine.
A. Forging
B. Casting
C. Blanking
D. Shearing
2. To cut sheet or bar metal between two blades which pass
immediately to each other.
A. Forging
B. Casting
C. Blanking
D. Shearing
3. Cutting or pressing a piece of metal from a sheet. In ammunition
manufacture, the usable part of a blanking operation is the
material removed from the hole, usually a disk.
A. Forging
B. Casting
C. Blanking
D. Shearing
4. An object at or near finished shape which is produced by
solidification of a substance in a mold. Pouring molten metal into
a mold to produce an object of desired shape.
A. Forging
B. Casting
C. Blanking
D. Shearing

5. To cut out, bend or form with a stamp or die.


A. Extrusion
B. Hammer Forging
C. Drawing
D. Stamping
6.A process using dies and punches to simultaneously reduce the
diameter and extend the length of a cup-shaped metal part.
Used for both cartridge cases and bullet jackets.
A. Extrusion
B. Hammer Forging
C. Drawing
D. Stamping
7. The process of forming the interior and/or exterior shape of the
barrel of a firearm by hammering.
A. Extrusion
B. Swagging
C. Drawing
D. Stamping
8. The slow forcing of material under high pressure through a die
reduce its diameter.This process is generally performed in a
hydraulic press .Lead wire used in bullet making is extruded.
Impact extrusion can be used to make bullet jackets and
cartridge cases.
A. Extrusion
B. Swagging
C. Drawing
D. Stamping
9. Cutting holes in metal with a twist drill .
A. Abrasive machining
B. Broaching
C. Reaming
D. Drilling
10.To widen the opening of a hole, Countersink: to enlarge
or dress out a hole with a reamer, to enlarge the bore of a gun.
A. Abrasive machining
B. Broaching
C. Reaming
D. Drilling
11.Finishing surfaces by drawing or pushing a cutter

called a broach entirely over and past the surface. A broach


has a series of cutting teeth arranged in a row or rows, graduated
in height from the teeth that cut first to those that cut last.
A. Abrasive machining
B. Broaching
C. Reaming
D. Drilling
12.The use of abrasives rather than high-speed
steel or tungsten carbide cutting tools.
A. Abrasive machining
B. Broaching
C. Reaming
D. Drilling
13. Metal-cutting machining in which the work piece is firmly
attached to a horizontal table that moves back and forth under a
single-point cutting tool. The tool-holding device is mounted on a
cross-rail so that the tool can be fed (moved) across the table in
small, discrete, side-ward movements at the end of each pass
of the table.
A. Planing
B. Boring
C. Milling
D. Turning
14. Producing smooth and accurate holes in a work piece by
enlarging existing holes with a bore, which may bear a single
cutting tip of steel, cemented carbide, or diamond or may be a
small grinding wheel .
A. Planing
B. Boring
C. Milling
D. Turning
15. Cutting metal by feeding against a rotating cutting tool
called a milling cutter ; milling machines cut flat surfaces, grooves,
shoulders, inclined surfaces, dovetails, and T-slots. Various
form-tooth cutters are used for cutting concave forms and convex
grooves, for rounding corners, and for cutting gear teeth.
A. Planing
B. Boring
C. Milling
D. Turning
16.Turning operations involve cutting excess metal, in the

form of chips, from the external diameter of a work piece and


include turning straight or tapered cylindrical shapes, grooves,
shoulders, and screw threads, and facing flat surfaces on the
ends of cylindrical parts.
A. Planing
B. Boring
C. Milling
D. Turning
17.Shaping and planing operations involve the machining
of flat surfaces, grooves, shoulders, T-slots, and angular surfaces
with single-point tools.
A. Planing
B. Boring
C. Milling
D. Shaping
Answers: Forensic Ballistics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

A
D
C
B
D
C
B
A
D
C
B
A
A
B
C
D
D