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Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology

Report on In-Plant Training


At
Avant-Garde
aUrban Design Partnership

Name
Registered No
Course
Field of Specialization
Period of Training
ABSTRACT

:
:
:
:
:

RUZAITH Z.M
EN13532598
Civil Engineering
Building Construction
29.09.2014 to 21.12.2014

IN PLANT TRAINING

EN13532598

I have completed my in plant training at South Eastern University of Sri Lanka on Girls Hostel
Complex Project .I worked as a middle management officer under civil engineering consultant in AvantGarde Urban Design Partnership. I learnt several things during my in plant training period and studied to
handle the actual problems while applying the knowledge from my academic period. I got extra practical
knowledge which I didnt study. I hope this will help me to carry out my remaining academic activities
very easily. Also, I improved team working and communication skill from this site.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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First of all I would like to thank almighty Allah for giving me the strength to complete this
assignment. My specials thanks go to my ever loving parents for giving me a good and full
support to do this assignment. I would like to thank to all lecturers who gave us a good, kind
back up, necessary guidance and their helps.
I am very thankful to Avant-Garde Urban Design Partnership to give a good opportunity for
me to work in their project. My hearts felt thanks go to Mr. P.M Sitheeque- Chief Resident
Engineer, Avant-Garde Urban Design Partnership. I am obliged to show my sincere thanks to
my Resident Engineer Mr. M.H Nowsath who has helped me in an excellent way to understand
and solving my problems.
My sincere gratitude goes to all of my Avant-Garde Urban Design Partnership Staffs, Site
Staff and contractor project manager Mr. A.M. Salam (Edward and Cristy) who helped me to
collaborate with the contractors and learn more.
I would also like to give special appreciation to my Friends and Senior Students who helped me
to successfully complete this report. They helped me through ideas for successful completion of
Industrial Training. Finally I am grateful to those named above as well as others who assisted
and helped on many occasions.
Further my heartfelt thanks to my civil engineering Batch 2013SLIIT for having helped me all
the way. Thanks to all, for laying the foundation for me to express my talents.

Thank you

Yours Sincerely,
RUZAITH Z.M
EN13532598

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1

INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................................5
3

IN PLANT TRAINING

1.1

PROJECT INFORMATION........................................................................................................5

1.2

ORGANIZATION CHART.........................................................................................................7

TRAINING EXPERIENCE.................................................................................................................8
2.1

Form Work...................................................................................................................................8

2.1.1

Column Form Work.............................................................................................................8

2.1.2

Slab Beam & Slab Form Work.............................................................................................9

2.1.3

Form Work for Stair Case & Landings...............................................................................10

2.1.4

Form Work for Stair Case & Landings...............................................................................10

2.2

Reinforcement............................................................................................................................11

2.2.1

Reinforcement arrangement for columns...........................................................................12

2.2.2

Reinforcement arrangement for Beams..............................................................................13

2.2.3

Reinforcement arrangement for Slab.................................................................................14

2.2.4

Reinforcement arrangement for Stair Case and Landings..................................................15

2.3

Concreting and Curing...............................................................................................................16

2.3.1

Preparation and Concreting of Site Mix.............................................................................16

2.3.2

Ready Mix Concreting and Curing....................................................................................17

2.3.3

Curing................................................................................................................................18

2.4

Tests...........................................................................................................................................19

2.4.1

Test cube Casting...............................................................................................................19

2.4.2

Slump test..........................................................................................................................19

2.5

Removing of form work.............................................................................................................20

2.6

Brick Work.................................................................................................................................21

2.7

Safety.........................................................................................................................................22

2.7.1

The safety procedure..........................................................................................................22

2.7.2

Safety precautions when using machinery.........................................................................23

2.8
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Problems Encountered...............................................................................................................24

CONCLUSION.................................................................................................................................28

LIST OF FIGURES
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Figure 1: Organization chart....................................................................................... 7


Figure 2: Timber Formwork for Column with Supports................................................8
Figure 3: Beam Formwork........................................................................................... 9
Figure 4: Slab form work............................................................................................. 9
Figure 5: landing form work for stair case................................................................10
Figure 6: bottom Form work for stair case................................................................10
Figure 7 : reinforcement for column.........................................................................12
Figure 8: Reinforcement arrangement for Slab Beams.............................................13
Figure 9: providing stirrups for Slab beam................................................................13
Figure 10: bottom bar for slab.................................................................................. 14
Figure 11: Reinforcement arrangement for slab.......................................................14
Figure 12: Reinforcement arrangement for Stair Case..............................................15
Figure 13: Hand Mixing of Concrete..........................................................................16
Figure 14 : Concrete mixing by Mixture Machine......................................................16
Figure 15: pouring concrete...................................................................................... 17
Figure 16: Using Poker in the casted concrete..........................................................17
Figure 17 : Level the Concrete..................................................................................17
Figure 18 : Pump Car................................................................................................ 17
Figure 19: Curing to the previous concreted slab.....................................................18
Figure 20: Cube test................................................................................................. 19
Figure 21: Slump test............................................................................................... 19
Figure 22: Removing Form Work at Block A2............................................................20
Figure 23: Arranged Form for Block A1.....................................................................20
Figure 25: Vertical alignment checking by Plum bob...............................................................21
Figure 24: Horizontal alignment checking by line.....................................................21
Figure 26: 225mm brick wall.................................................................................... 21
Figure 27: 112.5 mm Brick Work..............................................................................21
Figure 28: Duct wall.................................................................................................. 21
Figure 29: Honey Combs........................................................................................... 24
Figure 30 : providing net........................................................................................... 24
Figure 31: Exceeded Beam....................................................................................... 25
Figure 32: Protection Plaster....................................................................................25
Figure 33: our site under flood.................................................................................. 26
Figure 34: Rainy during the concrete work...............................................................26
Figure 35 while getting the level in hydraulic lab.....................................................26
Figure 36: Doing steel work under ground floor........................................................27

INTRODUCTION
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Building Construction is a rapid growing Industry in the world. With the advent of the
information technology, construction industry showed a steadfast growth of technical
advancements especially in the, Cad Drafting Designing, Measurements of works and Cost
Estimation those will be handled by the software packages, preparing bar details etc.
Theoretically knowledge is not fulfilling the requirement of this industry. Field experience is a
needful object to complete the knowledge further. Furthermore the Industrial Training has taught
us how this could be essential for professionalism. So, Industrial training is an important for
higher studies and application of the theory in actual practice. This is an essential part of the
course to perform satisfactory in the field of Civil Engineering.
For my fulfillment I have worked as a Civil Engineering Trainee in Avant-Garde Urban Design
Partnership for the construction of South Eastern University of Sri Lanka on Girls Hostel
Complex Project. I could be able to get a vast knowledge about the construction industry
through this successful training and I feel that I had a good opportunity to see and provide my
opinion and instructions in actual works and also dealt with Engineers and labor up to a certain
extent.
This industrial training report is based on both theoretical and practical knowledge that I have
gathered during 12 weeks of my industrial training period. Resident Engineer provided details
were collected from the site supervising and subject related books and the chapters start with
small introduction & definition and ending with site experience works and problems. I hope to
cover everything that I have gained during my industrial training period. Therefore I believe that
this presentation is sufficient to create a clear picture about my industrial training.

1.1 PROJECT INFORMATION

IN PLANT TRAINING

EN13532598

I have successfully completed my 12 weeks Industrial Training in the Construction of Proposed


South Eastern University Sri Lanka Girls Hostel Complex project. I have worked as a Trainee
in Avant-Garde Urban Design Partnership.

Project Title

Construction of Building Complex for Girls

Accommodation

Developer

South Eastern University of Sri Lanka development project

Main Consultant

Avant-Garde Urban design Partnership


No 30/6 Bagatalle road
Colombo 03
Sri Lanka

Contractor

Edward and Christie


64/10, Nawala road
Nugegoda
Sri Lanka

Mep & Structural


Consultant

Gulf Consultant
P.O Box 22412 Safat 13085
Kuwait

Commencement Date

30.05.2014

Contract Period

18 months

Maintenance Period

Twelve (12) months after the issue of the Certificate of


completion

Contract Sum

Rs 263,886,708.00

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1.2 ORGANIZATION CHART

Avant-Garde Urban Design Partnership

Mr. J.A.
Samarako
on Project
Director
Mr. S.L.H.
Gamage
Project
Engineer

Mr.
M.M.A.
Wosrks
Saleem
Superintendent

Mr.M.S.M.
Fazeel
Works

Engineer

Mr.
Mohan
Consultant,
Silva
Partner
Mr. P.M.
Sitheeque
Chief
Resident
Engineer

Mr.A.M
Sarjoon
Qantity

Surveyer

Mr. M.H.
Nowsath
Resident
Engineer

Mr. Z.M
Ruzaith

Trainee

Mr. A.M.
Nashif

Trainee

Figure 1: Organization chart

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TRAINING EXPERIENCE

Below listed are the areas I gained experiences in by working as a trainee at Avant Garde Urban Design
Partnership over the last 3 months of my In-Plant training period.

2.1 Form Work


The form work is defined as the temporary structural system that provides a casing to enable wet
concrete to attain the shape required. Concrete in plastic stage has no form and therefore it needs
to be molded in the required shape. Formwork includes the mould in contact with concrete, the
supports and bracings and necessary hardware. The formwork techniques have also developed
along with the growth of concrete construction. Previously only timber was used for formwork
but nowadays - plywood, metals, fiber glass, and hardware are in use.
In our site I have observed the formwork arrangements for these following elements,

2.1.1

Column & Column wall


Beams
Slab
Lintel
Stair case and Landings
Arches

Column Form Work

In our site mostly we have used the 916 steel boxes and timber for the column form work.
While checking the form work arrangement of columns, the following things want to be checked
with importance.
Height of the column form work
Vertical alignment - It has checked by the Plum Bob and Split Level
Supports given to the form work

Figure 2:
Timber Formwork for
Column
with Supports

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2.1.2

EN13532598

Slab Beam & Slab Form Work

While checking the formwork arrangements for slab beams and slab the following things wants
to check with importance.

Depth of the beams as per the drawing.


Levels of the slab form work.
Supports given to the slab and beams.
Vertical alignment of the column and horizontal alignment of the beams.

Beam form w

Figure 3: Beam Formwork

Figure 4: Slab form work

2.1.3 Form Work for Stair Case & Landings


While checking the formwork arrangements for stair case and landings the following things
wants to check with importance.
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Angle alignments of stair case.


Length, Width and Heights of the landings.
Supports given to the Stair case form work.

2.1.4 Form Work for Stair Case & Landings


While checking the formwork arrangements for stair case and landings the following things
wants to check with importance.

Angle alignments of stair case.


Length, Width and Heights of the landings.
Supports given to the Stair case form work.
Height of risers and Number of steps as per the drawing.

Figure 5: bottom Form work for stair case

Figure 6: landing form work for stair case

2.2 Reinforcement
Concrete is strong in compression, but weak in tension. To withstand in tension, provided steel
reinforcement bars into the concrete, because reinforcement can withstand in tension. So in the
construction work, Reinforcement is one of the most important material as same as concrete.
There are several factors to be considered before selecting the reinforcement for the construction
work.
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Maximum tensile strength


Availability in the market
Unit price

Normally, the structural engineer designs the structure according to the standard code. In that
code they specified the strength of the reinforcement used. So contractor should follow the
specification mentioned by the structural engineer. In large scale project a lot of
reinforcements required in different diameters. Therefore contractor must check the
availability of reinforcement at the market. While the construction work proceeding, if there
is any shortage of material then he will get into a trouble. And also he should consider about
the unit price. Normally the price is fluctuated in the market (nowadays price is changes
rapidly). So he should pre planed the material requirement and the standard of material to be
purchased.
In our site I have observed the reinforcement arrangements for these following elements,
Columns
Beams
Slab
Stair case and Landings
All the reinforcement arrangements have done according to the bar schedule. The bar
schedule has been prepared by the contractors as per the drawing. It has checked and give to
the bar benders. After the reinforcement arrangement has finished, consultant representatives
(our team) have checked the followings,

2.2.1

Lap lengths according to the bar diameters.


Lapping Position.
Cover from the form work.
Alignments.
Grid to Grid distance ( Specially for Columns)
Curtailment bars.
Position

Reinforcement arrangement for columns

While checking the reinforcement arrangement of columns, the following things want to be
checked with importance.

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Number of bars as per the drawing.


Vertical alignment.
Cover from the form work - In our site minimum 1.5 cover has used for columns.
Spacing between stirrups.
Lap lengths - 52 d

Figure 7 : reinforcement
for
column
Reinforcements
arrangement

2.2.2

for Column

Reinforcement arrangement for Beams

While checking the reinforcement arrangements for beams, the following things want to check
with importance.

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Horizontal alignment of the form work - This was checked visually and by measuring
distance from grid lines.
Lapping positions.
Cover from the form work - In our site minimum 1.5cover has expected for slab
beams.
Spacing between stirrups.
Lap lengths - 52 d

Figure 8: Reinforcement arrangement for Slab Beams

2.2.3

Figure 9: providing stirrups for Slab beam

Reinforcement arrangement for Slab

While checking the reinforcement arrangements for slabs, the following things want to check
with importance.

Bottom Net
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Spacing between compression bars.


Cover from the form work - In our site minimum 1.5 cover has expected for
slab.
Top Net

Spacing between tension bars.


Length of the tension bars.
Spacing between distribution bars.
Stool bars - To maintain the distance between top net and bottom net.
Lap lengths - 52 d

Figure 10: bottom bar for slab

2.2.4

Figure 11: Reinforcement arrangement for slab

Reinforcement arrangement for Stair Case and Landings

While checking the reinforcement arrangements for stair case and landings the following things
wants to check with importance.
Angle alignments of stair case.
Length, Width and Heights of the landings.
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Spacing between bars.


Tension bars closer to landings.
Cover from the form work - In our site minimum 1 cover has expected for stair case.

Figure 12: Reinforcement arrangement for Stair


Case

2.3 Concreting and Curing


In our site all the main concrete elements of the buildings have concreted with ready mix
concrete but some of the parts were concreted with site mix.

2.3.1 Preparation and Concreting of Site Mix


The materials such as cement, sand and coarse aggregate were taken according to the
required ratio and put into the mixer. Water and admixtures were added while the mixer was
mixing. They dumped the mixed concrete on an aluminum sheet and they carried the
concrete in buckets and dumped in the required place.
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Site mix was mainly used for screed concreting, Tie Beams Concreting, Stair Case
Concreting and Floor Concreting.

Figure 13: Hand Mixing of Concrete

Figure 14 : Concrete mixing by Mixture Machine

2.3.2

Ready Mix Concreting and Curing

Ready mix concrete has ordered from the nearest batching plant (SUN POWERAMPARA). The concrete was transported in truck mixers. The concreting has done by the
Pump Car (Pressure Pump) with the help of the laborers.
A small labor team was present while the pump has concreting to operate the Poker, Spread
and makeup level the concrete which comes from the Pump Car. The reinforcement team
also was there to adjust the reinforcement if it has disturbed while concreting.

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Figure 15: pouring concrete


Figure 16: Using Poker in the casted
concrete

2.3.3

Curing

Figure 17 : Level the Concrete

Figure
: Pump
Curing was done by covering the concrete with
wet 18
gunny
bagsCar
and spraying water over the
gunny bags after every two hours.

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Figure 19: Curing to the previous


concreted slab

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It will help to

Avoid Cracks
Maintained the water ratio
Strength of the concrete

2.4 Tests
2.4.1

Test cube Casting

In our site there are test moulds of 150 mm 150 mm 150 mm. These have filled with a
sample of the concrete in three layers with 35 blows each. Theses cubes were removed from
their moulds after one day and they were immersed in water until they were sent to the lab
for compression strength test. Cubes were sent to the lab for testing after 7, 14, 21 and 28
days after the concreting.

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Figure 20: Cube test

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2.4.2

EN13532598

Slump test

Slump test gives of concrete workability. In our site before started the concrete work we did
slump test we got some concrete mixture form ready mix container before it sent to pump
car
During the test we faced some problems when we remove the cone shaking that slump was
collapsed reading was 175cm we redid it and got the reading of 120cm
I got the knowledge height of the slump depend on

Moisture content of aggregates


Grade of the aggregates
Water, cement : aggregates

2.5 Removing of form work

Figure 21: Slump test

In the construction site formwork cannot be removed randomly after finished the concrete work
it has specified period of time for remove the form work. It is important because hardness and
strength depend on it and concrete will not get its full strength immediately, its take time. I got
some idea about removing period of formwork with the help of Resident Engineer.

Minimum Period Of Form Work Remove


Vertical for columns, site board of stair case, slab
Site board of Arches & beams
Stair case, slab ,arches, Lindell bottom board (soffit)
Soffit of slap beam
Table 1

20

Days
01
03
14
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ICTAD. Specification for Building Work (vol.1)[3rd edition] 2004,p52

Figure 22: Arranged Form for Block A1

Figure 23: Removing Form Work at Block A2

2.6 Brick Work


In our site brick work has done for walls, ducts and manholes. While checking the brick
works the following things want to check with importance.
Horizontal alignment.
Vertical alignment.
Width of the brick wall 9 & 4.5

Figure 25: Vertical alignment checking by Plum bob

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Figure 24: Horizontal alignment


checking by line

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There are four types of bonds are available for brickwork. In our site normally Stretcher bond
has used for all brick works.

2.7 Safety
Safety is the one of the
important areas that needs
sincere
attention
in
construction works. Even
though contractors all risk
policy
and
workmen
Figure 28: Duct wall

Figure 27: 112.5 mm Brick


Work

Figure 26: 225mm brick


wall

compensation policy ensure the compensation for any incidents it will be much better to have
safe working environment.
Accidents in building work can be reduced in number by competent, safety conscious,
supervision, education, discipline, job safety organization, safety device and equipment.
Unexpected accidents cause pain, permanent disabilities, human suffering or death.
The responsibilities in laying down a firm safety policy are educating the employees and
providing adequate training and supervision lies fairly. In this site we had some facilities in our
office room had a first-aid box and treat minor injuries.
2.7.1

The safety procedure

This is the important consideration point in construction sites where dangerous accidents take
place, such as handling of huge machines, electrical works, working at higher elevation etc.
Some of those are given below.

Always wear a suitable respirator when doing work that is creates dust.
As the nature of the work, boots and gloves must be use.
Use of safety nets is very essential when works at high rise building to prevent falling
down materials, tools and other items to the outside of building premises.
All persons must wear safety helmets when working of passing under scaffolding or other
high level work places.
Do not throw any heavy things on the high levels that may cause injuries.
When working in higher levels such as, on scaffoldings, on elevated platforms or other
risky places, safety belts and helmets must wear.
Not allow to work underneath when working is going on at higher elevation directly
Put safety barriers/ barricades to indicate unsafe areas
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2.7.2

EN13532598

All persons must wear safety helmets when working of passing under scaffolding or other
high level work places
Clear site paths should be provided within the site with hand rails, safety boards and any
other safety measures.
Any activities that can bring accidents should not be done and prior advice should obtain
from superiors and engineers.
The entire workman should have knowledge of basic first aid and the place where
medical center and first aid box is available.
Safety precautions when using machinery

Power tools were not used in damp or wet locations.


Machineries were not use if there is risk to cause fire or explosion.
Guard against electric shock.
Avoid body contact with earthed or grounded surfaces. (e.g. pipes, radiators, ranges,
refrigerators)
Do not let visitors touch the tools or extension cord.
Consider work area environment when using machineries.
Use safety glasses.
Also use face or dust mark if cutting operation is dusty.

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2.8 Problems Encountered


Problem No - 1
When they concreting the columns they did not use the poker vibrator while they compacting.
The cause of it after the removal of formwork we have identified there were many honey combs
on the concrete.
Solution
They have broken those parts and used construction grout to fill those areas.

Figure 29: Honey Combs

Problem No 2
Cant get the strong connection between columns and brick wall, beams and brick walls to avoid some
technical error.

Solution
In our site we used nets to connect the columns and brick wall, beams and brick walls and did the
smooth plastering work.

net
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Figure 30 : providing net

Problem No - 3
When the concreting time in the slab there is a small part of the form work has broken.
Solution
Immediately we have given an extra support in form work by using jack supports with some
laborers.
Problem No - 3
A beam has been exceeded from the wall in ground floor of common Barth room.
Solution
It has interrupted the masons when they have done the plastering. Therefore we have put an extra
laborer to break it with the guilty machine. After that we have done the plastering works.

Problem No - 4

Figure 30: Exceeded Beam


Figure 31: Exceeded Beam

In the some area we have done the water proofing. While the laborers working on that area the
water proofed surfaces have got damaged.
Solution
Therefore immediately we have put extra masons to done the protection plaster on the water
proofed surfaces.

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Figure 32: Protection


Plaster

Problem No 5
During my training period rain was the most dangerous problem I faced. There was a lot of
energy and work wastage also this increased cost.

All wood and bars under flood


Bricks collapsed
During concrete work cant continue
Scheduled work delay
Laborers didnt come
Out plastering works stopped
New site (hydraulic lab) leveling cant got the actual readings.

Figure 33: Rainy during the concrete work

Figure 34: our site under flood

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Figure 35 while getting the level in


hydraulic lab

Solutions

We plan to shift all bars under the ground floor building


We cover all concrete worked done area
We did inner plastering works
Took the Friday (common site off day) as a work day to finished scheduled work
We redid the leveling.

Figure 36: Doing steel work under ground floor

And some more extra problem I faced and got the solution with the help of Technical
Officers and our Resident Engineer. And got the idea about how to face the instant
problems in the site.
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CONCLUSION

Summary
Industrial training is very useful and important to apply the theoretical knowledge into practice
for students related to construction industry. During the industrial training I have got the vast
knowledge of experience very rapidly because I got a chance to work in a short term project
which is to be completed within 18 months.
It was a very good and challenging experience for me because this is the first time that I was
introduced to a construction working environment as a trainee. This is very helpful to me to
develop myself to work with a team of professionals. I was able to develop the ability to obey the
rules and regulations of the organization.

My Contribution
My main role as a trainee was to work as a consultant on the site. The main duties involved
inspection, monitoring of daily duties at the site and cross checking the work being carried out at
the site were going according to the drawings and instructions. This gave me the opportunity to
understand first hand with regards to all the activities involved in a construction site.
I have got a chance to collaborate with different people with different attitudes. I feel that I have
been motivated to become a professional in the construction industry during my industrial
training period.

Learning Experience
During my time as a trainee Avant-Garde Urban Design Partnership I can proudly say that I
was able to learn a lot about the theory I learnt at SLIIT practically and how it is implemented in
the real world, as well as a lot of new experiences that I encountered working in a professional
environment in the real world.

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Also, my experiences at Diyatalawa Surveying camp helped a lot and made me feel comfortable
and understand how handling the leveling instruments and theodolites were used at the site. My
learning experiences as a trainee at the site include the following areas but not limited to these:
- Learning about Reinforcements
- Erecting formwork
- Removing formwork (Periods)

- Brick work
- Plastering
- Types of concrete
- Preparing levelling sheet
- Site test
- Slump test
- Brick test
- Cube test
- e.t.c.

Recommendations to the training Organization


Avant-Garde Urban Design Partnership was a brilliant organization to work with as a trainee.
But they do have some improvements that I would recommend that they can work on.
One of the major issue was the following of the Health and Safety rules and not providing all
employees with the appropriate protective equipment. There was limited number of health and
safety equipment at our site.
Also, it would have been a better experience had there been a Trainee Supervisor present at the
site. Although the Resident Engineer was very helpful in explaining and providing a lot of
teaching and explanations, he is a very busy person and would not have enough time to help with
Trainees all the time.

It is with great pleasure that I conclude my Industrial Training Report in a fine manner. By
completing this project I got a good knowledge in construction industry.
Especially when we consider the whole assignment, I have been described and well understood
the every duty.
It is a great opportunity of having my industrial training at Avant-Garde Urban Design
Partnership to develop the skills, knowledge and the attitudes required to be a Civil Engineer in
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the near future. Im confident and ready to face the challenges in the near future in the
construction industry.

REFERENCE
Hseni.Health and safety in construction (Third edition, published 2006) available from:
http://www.hseni.gov.uk/hsg150_-health_and_safety_in_construction__source_hse_-2.pdf

ICTAD. Specification for Building Work (vol.1)[3rd edition] 2004,p52


ICTAD. Specification for Building Work (vol.1)[3rd edition] 2004,p74-92.
ICTAD. Specification for Building Work (vol.3)[2nd edition] 2001.

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Annexes

Lay out plan


Setting out plan
R/F Details of first floor beams
R/F Details of first floor slab
Ground floor plan
R/F Details of stair cases, columns
Student feedback Form

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