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At t a c k
The most common action to take in combat is the Attack action, whether you are swinging a sword, firing an
arrow from a bow, or brawling with your fists. With this action, you make one melee or ranged attack. See
the Making an Attack section for the rules that govern attacks. Certain features, such as the Extra Attack
feature of the fighter, allow you to make more than one attack with this action.
Spellcasters such as w izards and clerics, as w ell as many monsters, have access to spells and can use them
to great effect in combat. Each spell has a casting time, which specifies whether the caster must use an
action, a reaction, minutes, or even hours to cast the spell. Casting a spell is, therefore, not necessarily an
action. Most spells do have a casting time o f 1 action, so a spellcaster often uses his or her action in combat
to cast such a spell. See chapter 10 for the rules on spellcasting.
When you take the Dash action, you gain extra movement for the current turn. The increase equals your
speed, after applying any m odifiers. With a speed o f 30 feet, for example, you can move up to 60 feet on
your turn if you dash. Any increase or decrease to your speed changes this additional movement by the same
amount. If your speed of 30 feet is reduced to 15 feet, for instance, you can move up to 30 feet this turn if
you dash.
If you take the Disengage action, your movement doesnt provoke opportunity attacks for the rest o f the
When you take the Dodge action, you focus entirely on avoiding attacks. Until the start o f your next turn,
any attack roll made against you has disadvantage if you can see the attacker, and you make Dexterity saving
throws with advantage. You lose this benefit if you are incapacitated (as explained in appendix A) or if your
speed drops to 0.
You can lend your aid to another creature in the completion o f a task. When you take the Help action, the
creature you aid gains advantage on the next ability check it makes to perform the task you are helping with,
provided that it makes the check before the start of your next turn. Alternatively, you can aid a friendly
creature in attacking a creature within 5 feet of you. You feint, distract the target, or in some other way team
up to make your allys attack more effective. If your ally attacks the target before your next turn, the first
attack roll is made with advantage.
When you take the Hide action, you make a Dexterity (Stealth) check in an attempt to hide, following the
rules in chapter 7 for hiding. If you succeed, you gain certain benefits, as described in the Unseen Attackers
and Targets section later in this chapter.

U n s e e n At t a c k e r s a n d T a r g e t s

Combatants often try to escape their foes notice by hiding, casting the invisibility spell, or lurking in
darkness. When you attack a target that you cant see, you have disadvantage on the attack roll. This is true
whether youre guessing the targets location or youre targeting a creature you can hear but not see. If the
target isnt in the location you targeted, you automatically miss, but the DM typically just says that the attack
missed, not whether you guessed the targets location correctly. When a creature cant see you, you have
advantage on attack rolls against it. If you are hiddenboth unseen and unheardwhen you make an attack,
you give away your location when the attack hits or misses.
When you take the Search action, you devote your attention to finding something. Depending on the nature o
f your search, the DM might have you make a Wisdom (Perception) check or an Intelligence (Investigation)
You normally interact with an object while doing something else, such as when you draw a sword as part of
an attack. When an object requires your action for its use, you take the Use an Object action. This action is
also useful when you want to interact with more than one object on your turn.
Sometimes you want to get the jump on a foe or wait for a particular circumstance before you act. To do so,
you can take the Ready action on your turn so that you can act later in the round using your reaction.First,
you decide what perceivable circumstance will trigger your reaction. Then, you choose the action you will
take in response to that trigger, or you choose to move up to your speed in response to it. Examples include
If the cultist steps on the trapdoor, Ill pull the lever that opens it, and If the goblin steps next to me, I
move away. When the trigger occurs, you can either take your reaction right after the trigger finishes or
ignore the trigger. Remember that you can take only one reaction per round. When you ready a spell, you
cast it as normal but hold its energy, which you release with your reaction when the trigger occurs. To be
readied, a spell must have a casting time o f 1 action, and holding onto the spells magic requires
concentration (explained in chapter 10). If your concentration is broken, the spell dissipates without taking
effect. For example, if you are concentrating on the web spell and ready magic missile, your web spell ends,
and if you take damage before you release magic missile with your reaction, your concentration might be
R a n g e d At t a c k s
When you make a ranged attack, you fire a b ow or a crossbow, hurl a handaxe, or otherwise send projectiles
to strike a foe at a distance. A monster might shoot spines from its tail. Many spells also involve making a
ranged attack.
You can make ranged attacks only against targets within a specified range. If a ranged attack, such as one
made with a spell, has a single range, you cant attack a target beyond this range. Some ranged attacks, such
as those made with a longbow or a shortbow, have two ranges. The smaller number is the normal range, and
the larger number is the long range. Your attack roll has disadvantage when your target is beyond normal
range, and you cant attack a target beyond the long range.
R a n g e d A t t a c k s in C l o s e C o m b a t
Aiming a ranged attack is more difficult when a foe is next to you. When you make a ranged attack with a
weapon, a spell, or some other means, you have disadvantage on the attack roll if you are within 5 feeto f a
hostile creature who can see you and w ho isnt incapacitated.

M e l e eAt t a c k s
Used in hand-to-hand combat, a melee attack allows you to attack a foe within your reach. A melee attack
typically u ses a handheld w eapon such as a sword, a warhammer, or an axe. A typical monster makes a
melee attack when it strikes with its claws, horns, teeth tentacles, or other body part. A few spells also
involve king a melee attack. Most creatures have a 5-foot reach and can thus attack targets within 5 feet o f
them when making a melee attack. Certain creatures (typically those larger than Medium) have melee attacks
with a greater reach than 5 feet, as noted in their descriptions. When you are unarmed, you can fight in melee
by making an unarmed strike, as shown in the weapon table in chapter 5.
O p p o r t u n i t yAt t a c k s
In a fight, everyone is constantly watching for enemies to drop their guard. You can rarely move heedlessly
past your foes without putting yourself in danger; doing so provokes an opportunity attack. You can make an
opportunity attack when a hostile creature that you can see moves out o f your reach. To make the
opportunity attack, you use your reaction to make one melee attack against the provoking creature. The
attack interrupts the provoking creatures movement, occurring right before the creature leaves your reach.
You can avoid provoking an opportunity attack by taking the Disengage action. You also dont provoke an
opportunity attack when you teleport or when someone or something moves you without using your
movement, action, or reaction. For example, you dont provoke an opportunity attack if an explosion hurls
you out o f a foes reach or if gravity causes you to fall past an enemy.
Two-W e a p o n F ig h t in g
When you take the Attack action and attack with a light melee weapon that youre holding in one hand, you
can use a bonus action to attack with a different light melee weapon that youre holding in the other hand.
You dont add your ability m odifier to the damage o f the bonus attack, unless that modifier is negative. If
either w eapon has the thrown property, you can throw the w eapon, instead o f making a melee attack with
G r a p p l in g
When you want to grab a creature or wrestle with it, you can use the Attack action to make a special melee
attack, a grapple. If youre able to make multiple attacks with the Attack action, this attack replaces one o f
them. The target o f your grapple must be no more than one size larger than you, and it must be within your
reach. Using at least one free hand, you try to seize the target by making a grapple check, a Strength
(Athletics) check contested by the targets Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check (the target
chooses the ability to use). If you succeed, you subject the target to the grappled condition (see appendix A).
The condition specifies the things that end it, and you can release the target whenever you like (no action
required). Escaping a Grapple. A grappled creature can use its action to escape. To do so, it must succeed on
a Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check contested by your Strength (Athletics) check. Moving
a Grappled Creature. When you move, you can drag or carry the grappled creature with you, but your speed
is halved, unless the creature is two or more sizes smaller than you.
Sh o v in g a C r e a t u r e
Using the Attack action, you can make a special melee attack to shove a creature, either to knock it prone or
push it away from you. If youre able to make multiple attacks with the Attack action, this attack replaces
one o f them. The target o f your shove must be no more than one size larger than you, and it must be within
your reach. You make a Strength (Athletics) check contested by the targets Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity
(Acrobatics) check (the target chooses the ability to use). If you win the contest, you either knock the target
prone or push it 5 feet away from you.
C over

Walls, trees, creatures, and other obstacles can provide cover during combat, making a target more difficult
to harm. A target can benefit from cover only when an attack or other effect originates on the opposite side of
the cover. There are three degrees o f cover. If a target is behind multiple sources o f cover, only the most
protective degree o f cover applies; the degrees aren't added together. For example, if a target is behind a
creature that gives half cover and a tree trunk that gives threequarters cover, the target has three-quarters
cover. A target with half cover has a +2 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws. A target has half cover if
an obstacle blocks at least half o f its body. The obstacle might be a low wall, a large piece o f furniture, a
narrow tree trunk, or a creature, whether that creature is an enemy or a friend. A target with three-quarters
cover has a +5 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws. A target has threequarters cover if about threequarters o f it is covered by an obstacle. The obstacle might be a portcullis, an arrow slit, or a thick tree trunk
A target with total cover cant be targeted directly by an attack or a spell, although some spells can reach
such a target by including it in an area o f effect. A target has total cover if it is completely concealed by an
M o u n t ed C ombat
A knight charging into battle on a warhorse, a wizard casting spells from the back o f a griffon, or a cleric
soaring through the sky on a pegasus all enjoy the benefits o f speed and mobility that a mount can provide.
A w illing creature that is at least one size larger than you and that has an appropriate anatomy can serve as a
mount, using the following rules.
Once during your move, you can mount a creature that is within 5 feet o f you or dismount. Doing so costs
an amount o f movement equal to half your speed. For example, if your speed is 30 feet, you must spend 15
feet of movement to mount a horse. Therefore, you cant mount it if you dont have 15 feet o f movement left
or if your speed is 0. If an effect moves your mount against its w ill while youre on it, you must succeed on
a DC 10 Dexterity saving throw or fall off the mount, landing prone in a space within 5 feet o f it. If youre
knocked prone while mounted, you must make the same saving throw. If your mount is knocked prone, you
can use your reaction to dismount it as it falls and land on your feet. Otherwise, you are dismounted and fall
prone in a space within 5 feet it.
While you're mounted, you have two options. You can either control the mount or allow it to act
independently. Intelligent creatures, such as dragons, act independently. You can control a mount only if it
has been trained to accept a rider. Domesticated horses, donkeys, and similar creatures are assumed to have
such training. The initiative o f a controlled mount changes to match yours when you mount it. It moves as
you direct it, and it has only three action options: Dash, Disengage, and Dodge. A controlled mount can
move and act even on the turn that you mount it. An independent mount retains its place in the initiative
order. Bearing a rider puts no restrictions on the actions the mount can take, and it moves and acts as it w
ishes. It might flee from combat, rush to attack and devour a badly injured foe, or otherwise act against your
wishes. In either case, if the mount provokes an opportunityattack while youre on it, the attacker can target
you or the mount.
A chase requires a quarry and at least one pursuer. Any participants not already in initiative order must roll
initiative. As in combat, each participant in the chase can take one action and move on its turn. The chase
ends when one side drops out or the quarry escapes. When a chase begins, determine the starting distance
between the quarry and the pursuers. Track the distance between them, and designate the pursuer closest to
the quarry as the lead. The lead pursuer migh change from round to round.

Participants in the chase are strongly motivated to use the Dash action every round. Pursuers who stop to casr
spells and make attacks run the risk of losing their quarry, and a quarry that does so is likely to be caught.
During the chase, a participant can freely use the Dash action a number of times equal to 3 + its Constitution
modifier. Each additional Dash action it takes during the chase requires the creature to succeed on a DC 10
Constitution check at the end of its turn or gain one !eve. of exhaustion. A participant drops out of the chase
if its exhaustion reaches level 5, since its speed becomes 0. A creature can remove the levels of exhaustion it
gained during the chase by finishing a short or long rest.
A chase participant can make attacks and cast spells against other creatures within range. Apply the normal
rules for cover, terrain, and so on to the attacks and spells. Chase participants can't normally make
opportunity attacks against each other, since they are all assumed to be moving in the same direction at the
same time. However, participants can till be - e rarge of opportunity attacks from creatw .: o participating in
the chase. For example. ad,en -e -ho chase a thief past a gang of thugs in an alley might provoke opportunity
attacks from the thug .
A chase ends when one side or the other tops, when the quarry escapes, or when the pursuer are close enough
to their quarry to catch it. If neither side gives up the cha e. the quarry makes a Dexterity (Stealth) check at
the end of each round, after every participant in the chase ha taken its turn. The result is compared to the
passive\ isdom (Perception) scores of the pursuers. If the quarry consists of multiple creatures, they all make
the check. If the quarry is never out of the lead pursuer's sight, the check fails automatically. Otherwise, if
the result of the quarry's check is greater than the highest passive score, that quarry escapes. If not, the chase
continues for another round. The quarry gains advantage or disadvantage on its check based on prevailing
circumstances, as shown in the Escape Factors table. If one or more factors give the quarry both advantage
and disadvantage on its check, the quarry has neither, as usual.
If one creature wants to jump onto another creature, it can do so by grappling. A Small or Medium creature
has little chance of making a successful grapple against a Huge or Gargantuan creature, however, unless
magic has granted the grappler supernatural might. As an alternative, a suitably large opponent can be treated
as terrain for the purpose of jumping onto its back or clinging to a limb. After making any ability checks
necessary to get into position and onto the larger creature, the sma ller creature uses its action to make a
Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check contested by the target's Dexterity (Acrobatics) check. If
it wins the contest, the smaller creature successfully moves into the target creature's space and clings to its
body. While in the target's space, the smaller creature moves with the target and has advantage on attack rolls
against it. The smaller creature can move around within the larger creature's space, treating the space as
difficult terrain. The larger creature's ability to attack the smaller creature depends on the smaller creature's
location, and is left to your discretion. The larger creature can dislodge the smaller creature as an actionknocking it off, scraping it against a wall, or grabbing and throwing it- by making a Strength (Athletics)
check contested by the smaller creature's Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check.
A creature can use a weapon attack to knock a weapon or another item from a target's grasp. The attacker
makes an attack roll contested by the target's Strength (Athletics) check or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check. If
the attacker wins the contest, the attack causes no damage or other ill effect, but the defender drops the item.
The attacker has disadvantage on its attack roll if the target is holding the item with two or more hands. The

target has advantage on its ability check if it is larger than the attacking creature, or disadvantage if it is
This option makes it easier for melee combatants to harry each other with opportunity attacks. When a
creature makes a melee attack, it can also mark its target. Until the end of the attacker's next turn, any
opportunity attack it makes against the marked target has advantage. The opportunity attack doesn't expend
the attacker's reaction, but the attacker can't make the attack if anything, such as the incapacitated condition
or the shocking grasp spell, is preventing It from taking reactions. The attacker is limited to one opportunity
attack per turn.
When a creature tries to move through a hostile creature's space, the mover can try to force its way through
by overrunning the hostile creature. As an action or a bonus action, the mover makes a Strength (Athletics)
check contested by the hostile creature's Strength (Athletics) check. The creature attempting the overrun has
advantage on this check if it is larger than the hostile creature, or disadvantage if it is smaller. If the mover
wins the contest, it can move through the hostile creature's space once this turn.
With this option, a creature uses the special shove attack from the Player's Handbook to force a target to the
side, rather than away. The attacker has disadvantage on its Strength (Athletics) check when it does so. If that
check is successful, the attacker moves the target 5 feet to a different space within its reach.
A creature can try to tumble through a hostile creature's space, ducking and weaving past the opponent. As an
action or a bonus action, the tumbler makes a Dexterity (Acrobatics) check contested by the hostile creature's
Dexterity (Acrobatics) check. If the tumbler wins the contest, it can move through the hostile creature's space
once this turn

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