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Labs and tutorials are coming.

Make sure you know your


Lab section number (check Avenue or re-check on SOLAR).

Help with Physics

Tutorial preparation (sections L02, L04, L28):


Do CAPA set #1. Be prepared to write a solution to any of the
CAPA problem at the start of the tutorial. Read over your notes and
the text sections covered so far. The tutorial format is described in
the notes for Lecture 1.

-Physics Drop-in Centre (Thode Library basement)


-PHI (BSB-B119)

Lab preparation (sections L01, L03, L27):


Read the chapter D1: Introductory Exercises in the Lab Manual (you
already read Uncertainties and Graphs to prepare for CAPA set 1).
Complete the pre-lab worksheet at the end of that chapter, to be
handed in on entering the lab.

See the announcement on Avenue for details

Labs are in BSB-B116 and BSB-B220. Read the schedule for your
lab section each week.

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 5

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 5

The Position vector r


points from the origin to
the particle.

Kinematics in Two Dimensions


Position, velocity, acceleration vectors
Constant acceleration in 2-D
Free fall in 2-D

yj

path

(x,y)

r
xi

The components
of r are the coordinates (x,y) of the

particle: r x i y j

For a moving particle, r (t ), x(t), y(t) are functions of


time.

Serway and Jewett 4.1 to 4.3

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

Review:


Displacement : r rf ri

rf

Average Velocity :

v avg r / t

final

ri

(a vector parallel to r )

Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity :

vavg

Average Acceleration is

initial

a avg
x

Instantaneous Velocity :


v dr / dt

change in velocity vector


time elapsed

v v 2 v1

t 2 t1
t

(definition)

is tangent to the
path of the particle

Instantaneous Acceleration
is the limit of aavg as the time interval t approaches zero

r
x
Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

Acceleration: the rate of change of velocity

Concept Quiz

Averager Acceleration is the


change of velocity per time

At 9:00 a.m., a car is travelling North at 100 km/h. An


hour later, it is travelling East at 100 km/h. Its average
acceleration between 9:00 and 10:00 is:

aavg

A) a vector pointing northwest


C) a vector pointing southeast

dv
a
dt

D) a vector pointing northeast

v
lim
t 0 t

E) zero

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

time t t

time t

Instantaneous Acceleration
is the limit as t zero:

B) a vector pointing southwest

v (t t )

v (t )

v v 2 v1

t
t 2 t1

path of
particle

v (t )

v
a
t

v (t t )

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

Example

Note:

A skier comes down a slope, as shown. Draw


acceleration at points, C, D, E and F.

a is the rate of change of v.


(Recall: a derivative gives the rate of change of
function wrt a variable, like time).

Velocity changes if
i) speed changes
ii) direction changes (even at constant speed)
iii) both speed and direction change
In general, acceleration is not parallel to the velocity.

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

10

separate relations for the 3 Cartesian components.

A pendulum is released at (1) and swings across to (5).

r x i y j z k

At which positions is a 0 ?
(consider tangential only!)

Then

a) at 3 only
b) at 1 and 5 only
c) at 1, 3, and 5
2

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Components: Each vector relation implies 3

Concept Quiz

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

Where v x

d) none of the above

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

14

(i, j, k, are unit vectors)

dr
v
dt
dx dy dz
i j k
dt dt dt
vx i v y j vz k

dx
, etc.
dt
Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

18

Common Notation for time derivatives only, a dot


is often used:

Each component of the velocity vector looks like the


1-D velocity we saw earlier. Similarly for
acceleration:

dv dv x dv y dv z
a

j
i
k
dt dt dt dt
dx
,
dt
dy
vy ,
dt
dz
,
vz
dt

vx

dr

v
r
dt

dv


v
a
r
dt

dv x d 2 x
2
dt
dt
dv y d 2 y
2
ay
dt
dt
dv z d 2 z

az
dt dt 2
ax

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

19

If a is constant (magnitude and direction), then:


v (t ) v o a t

r (t ) ro v o t 1 2 a t 2

It is directed downward


Where ro , v o are the values at t = 0.

This is the same as assuming a flat Earth over the range of the motion
It is reasonable as long as the range is small compared to the radius of
the Earth

In 2-D, each vector equation is equivalent to a pair of


component equations:

The effect of air friction is negligible

x(t) xo vox t 1 2 a x t 2

With these assumptions, an object in projectile


motion will follow a parabolic path

y(t) yo voy t 1 2 a y t 2

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Projectile Motion
Assumptions:
The free-fall acceleration is constant over the range
of motion

Constant Acceleration

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

This path is called the trajectory

Example: Free fall : a g 9.8 m/s [down]


2

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

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Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

22

Projectile Motion

Projectile Motion

A projectile launched with initial velocity vi

Reasoning about Projectile motion:


A projectile follows a parabolic trajectory because it falls a
distance gt2 below a straight-line trajectory.

vi x vi cos

vi y vi sin

vy

vi

vx

viy

a x 0

a y g

v x v ix
vx

v x v ix

vix

g 9.8 m / s 2
v x vi x vi cos i
x:
x vi x t vi cos i t

(i )
(ii )

v y vi y g t vi sin i g t (iii )
y :
2
2
y vi y t 12 gt vi sin i t 12 gt (iv)
Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

24

Your summer job at an historical site includes firing a


cannon to amuse tourists. Unfortunately, the cannon isnt
properly attached, and as the cannonball shoots forward
(horizontally) the cannon slides backwards off the wall.
If the cannon hits the ground 2 seconds later, the
cannonball will hit the ground:

b) About 100 seconds after firing


c) About 0.02 seconds after firing

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Shooting the Gorilla

Concept quiz

a) About 2 seconds after firing

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

2 m/s

100 m/s

Tarzan has a new slingshot. George the gorilla hangs


from a tree, and bets that Tarzan cant hit him. Tarzan
guesses that George will drop to the ground as soon as
he shoots. He wants to adjust his aim accordingly, and
is sorry now that he didnt pay more attention in physics
class. Where should he aim?
A) Above the gorilla
B) at the gorilla
C) below the gorilla

d) Other

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

29

Example
a=g
v0t

v0

(1/2)gt2
Because of gravity, both the dolphin and the ball fall by the
same amount.
The red dots show the position of the ball and the blue dots
show the position of the dolphin.

r0
r(t) =r0+v0t +(1/2)gt2

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

31

Example Problem

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

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Example Problem: Cannon on a slope.

A stone is thrown upwards from the top of a 45.0 m high


building with a 30 angle above the horizontal. If the
initial velocity of the stone is 20.0 m/s, how long is the
stone in the air, and how far from the base of the
building does it land ?

100 m/s
30
20

How long is the cannonball in the air, and how far from
the cannon does it hit?
Try to do it two different ways: once using horizontal and vertical
axes, once using axes tilted at 20o.

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

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Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

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Projectile Motion
Care package drop:

For fun: show that for:

The figure shows an airplane moving horizontally with a


constant velocity at an altitude of y. The plane releases a
"care package" that falls to the ground along a curved
trajectory. Where does the package hit the ground?

vo

2vo2 cos sin( )


g cos 2

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

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Concept quiz

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

39

Summary

position vector r points from origin to a particle

A ball is thrown vertically from a moving car. The


car has a uniform motion. The ball will land:

dr
velocity vector v
dt

acceleration vector a

1.
2.
3.
4.

in front of the car.


in car.
behind the car.
in the same spot where it was thrown
upward.
5. it may land any position of 1, 2, 3.

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

dv
v
lim
dt t 0 t

for constant acceleration, we can apply 1-D formulae


to each component separately
for free fall, a=g (vectors!); horizontal and vertical
motions are independent

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Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

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