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Lab section number (check Avenue or re-check on SOLAR).

Do CAPA set #1. Be prepared to write a solution to any of the

CAPA problem at the start of the tutorial. Read over your notes and

the text sections covered so far. The tutorial format is described in

the notes for Lecture 1.

-PHI (BSB-B119)

Read the chapter D1: Introductory Exercises in the Lab Manual (you

already read Uncertainties and Graphs to prepare for CAPA set 1).

Complete the pre-lab worksheet at the end of that chapter, to be

handed in on entering the lab.

Labs are in BSB-B116 and BSB-B220. Read the schedule for your

lab section each week.

points from the origin to

the particle.

Position, velocity, acceleration vectors

Constant acceleration in 2-D

Free fall in 2-D

yj

path

(x,y)

r

xi

The components

of r are the coordinates (x,y) of the

particle: r x i y j

time.

Review:

Displacement : r rf ri

rf

Average Velocity :

v avg r / t

final

ri

(a vector parallel to r )

vavg

Average Acceleration is

initial

a avg

x

Instantaneous Velocity :

v dr / dt

time elapsed

v v 2 v1

t 2 t1

t

(definition)

is tangent to the

path of the particle

Instantaneous Acceleration

is the limit of aavg as the time interval t approaches zero

r

x

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

Concept Quiz

change of velocity per time

hour later, it is travelling East at 100 km/h. Its average

acceleration between 9:00 and 10:00 is:

aavg

C) a vector pointing southeast

dv

a

dt

v

lim

t 0 t

E) zero

time t t

time t

Instantaneous Acceleration

is the limit as t zero:

v (t t )

v (t )

v v 2 v1

t

t 2 t1

path of

particle

v (t )

v

a

t

v (t t )

Example

Note:

acceleration at points, C, D, E and F.

(Recall: a derivative gives the rate of change of

function wrt a variable, like time).

Velocity changes if

i) speed changes

ii) direction changes (even at constant speed)

iii) both speed and direction change

In general, acceleration is not parallel to the velocity.

10

r x i y j z k

At which positions is a 0 ?

(consider tangential only!)

Then

a) at 3 only

b) at 1 and 5 only

c) at 1, 3, and 5

2

11

Concept Quiz

Where v x

14

dr

v

dt

dx dy dz

i j k

dt dt dt

vx i v y j vz k

dx

, etc.

dt

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

18

is often used:

1-D velocity we saw earlier. Similarly for

acceleration:

dv dv x dv y dv z

a

j

i

k

dt dt dt dt

dx

,

dt

dy

vy ,

dt

dz

,

vz

dt

vx

dr

v

r

dt

dv

v

a

r

dt

dv x d 2 x

2

dt

dt

dv y d 2 y

2

ay

dt

dt

dv z d 2 z

az

dt dt 2

ax

19

v (t ) v o a t

r (t ) ro v o t 1 2 a t 2

It is directed downward

Where ro , v o are the values at t = 0.

This is the same as assuming a flat Earth over the range of the motion

It is reasonable as long as the range is small compared to the radius of

the Earth

component equations:

x(t) xo vox t 1 2 a x t 2

motion will follow a parabolic path

y(t) yo voy t 1 2 a y t 2

20

Projectile Motion

Assumptions:

The free-fall acceleration is constant over the range

of motion

Constant Acceleration

2

21

22

Projectile Motion

Projectile Motion

A projectile follows a parabolic trajectory because it falls a

distance gt2 below a straight-line trajectory.

vi x vi cos

vi y vi sin

vy

vi

vx

viy

a x 0

a y g

v x v ix

vx

v x v ix

vix

g 9.8 m / s 2

v x vi x vi cos i

x:

x vi x t vi cos i t

(i )

(ii )

v y vi y g t vi sin i g t (iii )

y :

2

2

y vi y t 12 gt vi sin i t 12 gt (iv)

Physics 1D03 - Lecture 4

24

cannon to amuse tourists. Unfortunately, the cannon isnt

properly attached, and as the cannonball shoots forward

(horizontally) the cannon slides backwards off the wall.

If the cannon hits the ground 2 seconds later, the

cannonball will hit the ground:

c) About 0.02 seconds after firing

25

Concept quiz

2 m/s

100 m/s

from a tree, and bets that Tarzan cant hit him. Tarzan

guesses that George will drop to the ground as soon as

he shoots. He wants to adjust his aim accordingly, and

is sorry now that he didnt pay more attention in physics

class. Where should he aim?

A) Above the gorilla

B) at the gorilla

C) below the gorilla

d) Other

29

Example

a=g

v0t

v0

(1/2)gt2

Because of gravity, both the dolphin and the ball fall by the

same amount.

The red dots show the position of the ball and the blue dots

show the position of the dolphin.

r0

r(t) =r0+v0t +(1/2)gt2

31

Example Problem

32

building with a 30 angle above the horizontal. If the

initial velocity of the stone is 20.0 m/s, how long is the

stone in the air, and how far from the base of the

building does it land ?

100 m/s

30

20

How long is the cannonball in the air, and how far from

the cannon does it hit?

Try to do it two different ways: once using horizontal and vertical

axes, once using axes tilted at 20o.

33

35

Projectile Motion

Care package drop:

constant velocity at an altitude of y. The plane releases a

"care package" that falls to the ground along a curved

trajectory. Where does the package hit the ground?

vo

g cos 2

38

Concept quiz

39

Summary

car has a uniform motion. The ball will land:

dr

velocity vector v

dt

acceleration vector a

1.

2.

3.

4.

in car.

behind the car.

in the same spot where it was thrown

upward.

5. it may land any position of 1, 2, 3.

dv

v

lim

dt t 0 t

to each component separately

for free fall, a=g (vectors!); horizontal and vertical

motions are independent

40

43

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