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Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition

RodR.Seeley
IdahoStateUniversity
TrentD.Stephens
IdahoStateUniversity
PhilipTate
PhoenixCollege

Chapter 06
Lecture Outline*
*See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes.

6-1
CopyrightTheMcGrawHillCompanies,Inc.Permissionrequiredforreproductionordisplay.

Chapter 6

Skeletal System:
Bones and Bone Tissue

6-2

Skeletal System Functions

Support
Protection
Movement
Storage
Blood cell production

6-3

Hyaline Cartilage
Consists of specialized
cells that produce
matrix
Cells
Chondroblasts
Chondrocytes

Perichondrium
Articular cartilage
Growth
Appositional
Interstitial
6-4

Bone Shapes
Long
Upper and lower limbs

Short

Carpals and tarsals

Flat

Ribs, sternum, skull,


scapulae

Irregular

Vertebrae, facial

6-5

Long Bone Structure


Diaphysis
Shaft
Compact bone

Epiphysis

End of the bone


Cancellous bone

Epiphyseal plate
Growth plate

Epiphyseal line

Bone stops growing in


length
6-6

Long Bone Structure


Medullary cavity
Red marrow
Yellow marrow

Periosteum
Outer bone surface

Sharpeys fibers
Attachment

Endosteum
Lines bone cavities

6-7

Flat, Short, Irregular Bones


Flat Bones
No diaphyses, epiphyses
Sandwich of cancellous
between compact bone

Short and Irregular Bone


Compact bone that
surrounds cancellous
bone center
No diaphyses and not
elongated

6-8

Bone Histology
Bone matrix
Organic: Collagen and proteoglycans
Inorganic: Hydroxapatite

Bone cells

Osteoblasts
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts
Stem cells or osteochondral progenitor cells

Woven bone: Collagen fibers randomly oriented


Lamellar bone: Mature bone in sheets
Cancellous bone: Trabeculae
Compact bone: Dense
6-9

Bone Matrix

6-10

Bone Cells
Osteoblasts
Formation of bone
through ossification or
osteogenesis

Osteocytes
Mature bone cells
Lacunae: Spaces
Canaliculi: Canals

Osteoclasts
Responsible for bone
resorption
6-11

Woven and Lamellar Bone


Woven bone
Formed
During fetal development
During fracture repair

Remodeling
Removing old bone and adding new

Lamellar bone
Mature bone in sheets called lamellae
6-12

Cancellous Bone
Consists of trabeculae
Oriented along lines of
stress

6-13

Compact Bone

Central or haversian canals: Parallel to long axis


Lamellae: Concentric, circumferential, interstitial
Osteon or haversian system: Central canal, contents, associated
concentric lamellae and osteocytes
Perforating or Volkmanns canal: Perpendicular to long axis
6-14

Bone Development
Intramembranous ossification
Takes place in connective tissue membrane

Endochondral ossification
Takes place in cartilage

Both methods of ossification


Produce woven bone that is then remodeled
After remodeling, formation cannot be
distinguished as one or other
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Intramembranous Ossification

6-16

Endochondral Ossification

6-17

Endochondral Ossification

6-18

Endochondral Ossification

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Growth in Bone Length


Appositional growth
New bone on old bone
or cartilage surface

Epiphyseal plate zones

Resting cartilage
Proliferation
Hypertrophy
Calcification

6-20

Growth in Bone Length

6-21

Growth in Bone Width

6-22

Factors Affecting Bone Growth


Nutrition
Vitamin D
Necessary for absorption of calcium from intestines
Insufficient causes rickets and osteomalacia

Vitamin C
Necessary for collagen synthesis by osteoblasts
Deficiency results in scurvy

Hormones
Growth hormone from anterior pituitary
Thyroid hormone required for growth of all tissues
Sex hormones as estrogen and testosterone
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Bone Remodeling

Coverts woven bone into lamellar bone


Bone constantly removed by osteoclasts and new
bone formed by osteoblasts
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Bone Repair

6-25

Calcium Homeostasis

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Calcium Homeostasis
Bone is the major storage site for calcium in
the body
Calcium moves into bone as osteoblasts build
new bone
Calcium moves out of bone as osteoclasts break
down bone
When osteoclast and osteoblast activity is
balanced, the movement of calcium in and out
is equal
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Effects of Aging on
Skeletal System

Bone Matrix decreases


Bone Mass decreases
Increased bone fractures
Bone loss causes deformity, loss of height,
pain, stiffness
Stooped posture
Loss of teeth
6-28

Bone Fractures

6-29