You are on page 1of 52

Executive Summary:The assignment describes the way in which VODAFONE. Conduct their operations in India and in International markets.

The assignment
covers the following topics:
1. Aims and objectives affecting the structure, culture and business processes of VODAFONE TELECOM
2. Areas of responsibilities and operational plan of VODAFONE TELECOM
3 .Quality control systems and methods to monitor appropriate system to improve organisational performance at VODAFONE TELECOM,
4. Health & safety policies at VODAFONE.
The Purpose and aim of the assignment is

To create new plans which would help VODAFONE to improve their performance in local and in International markets
To provide an understanding of the skill in order to manage the activities in the business workplace so as to improve their effectiveness

and efficiency.
To create effective planning, on how the management of VODAFONE can improve the business processes.
To give an understanding of how the operational planning skills can give a new looks so that it leads to the development of the
To take into account how quality is of core importance in introducing new quality checks, methods and systems.
To Suggests how health and safety regulations in a workplace can be improved in better ways.

INTRODUCTION: VODAFONE is the Indias largest paint company in the public sector and a quoted company on the stock exchange at BSE Sensex (code
500820) being its benchmark, which deals in manufacturing decorative coatings which means that they are into secondary sector who deals
into manufacturing the output of the primary sector. VODAFONE TELECOM operates in 22 countries and has 30 paint manufacturing facilities
in the world servicing consumers in over 65 countries. The company was incorporated in the year 1992 in India. VODAFONE TELECOM have
extensively computerized its operations in India using the cutting edge solution provided by SAP and i2. It helped the company drive benefits of
faster market analysis for better decision making.
VODAFONE. Has a combined turnover of 830 million US dollars with its strong presence in the Indian subcontinent, south East Asia, Far East,
South pacific Caribbean, Africa & Europe. Along with VODAFONE TELECOM the group consists of SCIB chemicals, Berger International &
APCO coatings. Together the group has 30 manufacturing unit globally.

1.1) Evaluate the interrelationship between the different processes and functions of the organization.
Mission statements are formal declarations of underlying purpose. They say what an organisation exists to do, Viva Books Private
Limited, (2009) Business essential: Management (1 st edition) BPP learning media: London. in relation to the chosen organisation i.e.
VODAFONE, they have broken down their mission statement in 3 modified steps and they are as follows:

Figure 1.1 The Mission, Vision, & Values of VODAFONE

To provide TELECOM as per demand, ensuring

desired level and quality of customer (dealer)
service, continued availability of the right product
mix of right quality at the right time.



to become one of the top fve TELECOM companies

worlds wide by leveraging in the higher growth
emerging markets.
Business objectives of VODAFONE: -

Trust Openness Commitment

Customer satisfaction
Value for money
Quality Growth Orientation Integrity


Targeting a rapid
growth by 10%
in the overseas
market (Egypt,

To introduce a
new innovative
product each
year (R&D

To cut down on
inventory and
Reduce the
number of
rejection level in
making a


To increase sales
in national 2530%&
operations 22

To improve CRM
in the year 2012

Figure 1.2 Business objectives of VODAFONE for the year 2011-12 (www.VODAFONE

ORGANISATIONAL STRUCUTRE OF VODAFONE: Wilson and Rosenfeld (1990, p.215) says, The established pattern of relationships between the component parts of an organisation, outlining
both communication, control and authority patterns. Structure distinguishes the parts of an organisation and delineates the relationship between
them. Organisations are structured in a variety of ways, dependant on their objectives and culture. The structure of an organisation will
determine the manner in which it operates and its performance. Structure allows the responsibilities for different functions and processes to be
clearly allocated to different departments and employees.
The management of VODAFONE has adopted a newer organisational structure from the year 2007 leaving behind their tall & formal
hierarchical structure where the authority was centralised and bureaucracy was presented. But it is now the management who has adopted a
more decentralised structure and a flatter (functional) structure which is more flexible in working and it (functional structure) is arranged
according to what each section or department does. By having this type of organisational structure the problem of communication in the form of
feedback from employees is resolved, also the structure allows cross functioning of

department which helps in better decision

making as well as valuable inputs from the employees are taken into consideration. The last but not the least it allows the organisation to
delegate task to the lower level that are willing to take responsibilities and wants to achieve the goals of the firms, which makes the organisation
best suited.
The figure 1.3 and 1.4 below shows both earlier and the recently adopted organisational structure of VODAFONE.

Figure 1.3 VODAFONE TELECOM tall hierarchical structure (field work)


Chief Executive/MD
States Management representatives

Chief GM Operations DGM Accounts DGM Logistic

DGM Purchase

DGM Admin
GM Planning/MKT/ Quality assurance

SR MGR Sales Admin

SR Purchase Executive
MGR Excise

EDP Manager

MGR Personnel & Admin

GM Production MGR Maintenance

SR MGR Sales Admin

& Safety
Officer TELECOM flat organisational structure. (Field research)

The concept of culture has developed from ANTHROPOLOGY i.e. the study of the human
behaviour as a whole and as well as the study of the mankind. The management and
organisational behaviour journal of Laurie J. MULLINS of the eighth edition states that
Organisational Culture is the collection of traditional values, policies, beliefs and attitudes
that constitute a pervasive context for everything that we do and think in an Organisation.
adopts a people orientated culture, VODAFONE TELECOM believes that people are its
strongest assets, for a company can go only as high as its people aim. It is people who
innovate and invent, and who engineer the efficiencies that make a business succeed. It is
they who drive growth and lead to greater heights. An open and interactive work culture
brings out the best from their people. A sense of ownership and freedom to experiment at
their workplace brings out creativity and innovation in every individual. Excellent training
is provided to develop leaders and re-strengthen competencies from within the organisation.
Besides encouraging achievers from within the organisation, they absorb the best talent
from some of the best management and technology institutes in the country.
They hire people who are best suited to the job and whose personal goals are in alignment
with their corporate purpose. Thus, the task is cut out for every individual within the
framework of result-orientation, market insight, customer perspective, trust, respect and
problem solving.
The culture used in VODAFONE TELECOM follows a very influential system. So that in
order for a company to move forward and ensure that the company earns and makes profit.
Cultural Aspect (2008) Employees roles [online] (updated 13 August 2008) Available at:
http://www.VODAFONE [Accessed 24th October 2011].
The organisation results in making organisation making an organisational pyramid which
helps the management to break a common mission.

m is
sio business/coordinate activities to accomplish objective
m e ent
m anagem
ction, allocating individual work and seeing that
M iddle m anagem ent
Junior Managem ent (operations)
Team M em bers

Figure 1.5 Organisational pyramid of VODAFONE

Business Process: A business process is best defined as any function within an organisation that enables the
organisation to successfully deliver its products or services. (source: article, the benchmark
exchange; (online); updated at 2011; Available at:
(Accessed on 17/10/2011).
Rummler & Brache (1995) defines business process is a series of steps designed to produce a
product or service. Most processes (...) are cross-functional, spanning the white space
between the boxes on the organization chart. There are 3 types of business processes and they
are as follows:-

It is the processes
that govern the
it includes

the primary
the part of core
Marketing and sales


processes - support
the core processes.
Recuritment, IT


Figure 1.6 Types of Business Processes (Management: business essential viva books Pvt ltd)

The various processes that are being used in VODAFONE are the same types of processes
which are being drafted in the above diagram, the only difference in the VODAFONE
TELECOM process is the second process which they have termed as value creation process
instead of operational process. Below is a diagrammatic representation of business process
that is used in VODAFONE.

ure 1.7 Various Business Processes used in VODAFONE (field work)

Business process is a set of linked activities that create value by transforming an input into a
more valuable output. Both input and output can be artefacts and/or information and the
transformation can be performed by human actors, machines, or both.
All the business processes which are mentioned above are in some way or the other
interrelated to the organisation. There are 3 processes which are followed in VODAFONE,
they are as follows: - Management process, Value creation processes and Support
All employees work for achieving the objectives of an organisation in the form of a business
cycle so does

VODAFONE TELECOM. It all starts with the Management process

wherein all the strategic planning or change management things take place in this process.
Thereafter it is followed by the Value creation processes which have 2 sections, where it
goes to the first section of demand creation process of value creation process where all the
market agency report (Crisil market agency ltd) is being gathered and the report is sent for
formulation for market development and customer acquisition bifurcation. It then goes to the
demand fulfilment process where Designing of the product takes place in the Design
process (R&D) who coordinates with the finance department for the requirement of
funds to help Design process to design the product, after which it goes to the production
and delivery processes, where the manufacturing of the designed product is being carried
out as per the demand forecasted by the Crisil market agency and then simultaneously the
logistics and quality assurance department will work together for assuring the product is of
good quality and whereas logistics is concerned they will check the availability of the
product in the warehouse. Then the marketing department will market their product in the
market and thereafter Service Processes i.e. after sale service where they will try to satisfy
the customer with its after sales service strategies.

Figure 1.8 the business process in VODAFONE (field work)

Critical Analysis of business process:According to the author, the whole business process of VODAFONE is an ideal business
process which should be implemented by other organisations (for a paint industry). With the
deployment of newer technology in the business process like SAP or ERP software has
gained a 360 degree view of the customer, the reason behind this is that VODAFONE has
got the experience of cross functioning in the organisation. For example if they want to
create a new product which has value added features and will benefit the company in their
bottom line. In that case the Planning department will coordinate with the R&D (Design
Process) to make R&D aware of making a new product. Then the R&D will contact the
production department to start the production of the designed product which the R&D has
Thereafter the production will contact the logistics department to check whether they have
the raw materials to start the production if not then they will contact the purchase department
to purchase the raw material in order to start the production.

After the production is completed the production unit will forward the lead to the Quality
assurance department to check the products are of the right quality standard which according
the companys quality policy and if the products are of the right quality standard then the
marketing department will carry out the marketing strategies to ensure that the product has
reached the end users.
It is because of cross functioning process

VODAFONE TELECOM efficiency and

productivity level has increased and has erased the errors and the rejection levels of
orders by 7% from the year 2009- 11 in the organisation and are now targeting to
manufacture zero defects products.
The main factors which VODAFONE needs to look upon is the communication: increase in
communication with the other departments will lead to a better understanding and
coordination between departments as well as performing an activity in the business process.
This will lead to an increase in the efficiency levels and productivity levels in the company.
Constant training and monitoring of activities/targets in the organisation will help gain
focus in doing any task.

And constant interaction with the R&D and marketing

department will help the organisation to remain updated and be competitive in the market.
Therefore with the help of cross functions techniques which VODAFONE TELECOM
currently uses and as well the suggestions which the author has given in the above lines will
help APL to achieve the values (customer satisfaction, growth orientation and quality in
process) refer figure 1.1 and mission statement and as well as the objectives of the firm.
The author would like to give an example: VODAFONE can achieve global standards like
NIPPON VODAFONE TELECOM ltd of Japan, if they implement the recommended
process of SAP and ERP in their organisation. Also VODAFONE can reach to the standards
of Nippon if they implement the same processes of Nippon and their family like culture
wherein they involve the employees for suggestion in the business goals and future roads
ahead, has lead the company to do wonders in the organisation by 5% growth every year.

1.2) Justify the methodology to be used to map processes to the organizations goals and
The Process Mapping is a visual aid which helps in understanding the work process of
VODAFONE. The success of any business depends on the ability to communicate the core

functions and the key activities of the business. Process mapping is a technique where a
business process or workflow is converted into a visual, step by step diagram. The success of
any business depends on the ability to communicate the core functions and the key activities
of the business as well as how processes and activities interrelate and the directional flow of
the process.

Figure 1.9 core and key activities of VODAFONE

Critical Analysis: - The above diagram explains the core processes and the key activities of
VODAFONE where the core processes aims to achieve the key activities which leads to
fulfilling the business objectives which are mentioned in figure 1.2. The processes which are
mapped to the organizations goals and objectives are R&D department because this has
lead to achieve organisations goals and objectives by introducing a new product each year
i.e. ( Royale luxury emulsion, Royale Glitter and in the kids world section: ceiling
themes) which is the first goal & objective of the firm.
The other processes which are mapped to organisations goals and objective is CRM
department. This is one of the sections which they have drastically improved in
VODAFONE TELECOM. They installed software like SAP, I2 and ERP which has lead to
achieving their activity of creating a direct link to the customer and improve customer
satisfaction. It is due to that VODAFONE TELECOM has overcome the problem of not
having sufficient data to manage customer data.

The last but not the least Sales department who have achieved the goals of the organisation
refer figure 1.2 point 4. The evidence of increase in sales is as per the recently published Q2
FY12 the standalone results of VODAFONE for the quarter ended September 30, 2011Net
sales increased by 25.5% to Rs. 1843.6 cr to Rs. 1469.5 cr and whereas the subsidiaries and
joint venture of VODAFONE TELECOM sales & operating income has risen by 24.3%
to Rs. 2250.8 cr. VODAFONE TELECOM in the news (2011) VODAFONE TELECOM
home page- VODAFONE TELECOM- sep 2011 results [online] (updated on 2110//2011)
Available at: http://www.VODAFONE [Accessed 04/11/2011]

1.3) Evaluate the output of the process and the quality gateways.
VODAFONE has always tried to achieve all the factors of their mission statement
since the start. VODAFONE TELECOM has always maintained a high quality of products
& services. They have introduced new products from time to time for their customers. All the
new objectives introduced by the management of VODAFONE TELECOM fulfil the
criteria of SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Results-oriented & Time bound). The
outcome of any business processes are based on goals and critical success factors. Some of
the business process measures of VODAFONE TELECOM are

Quantity of
output (wide

Extent of
containment of

Quantity of

Timescale of

Lower delivery


Figure 1.10 VODAFONE TELECOM critical success factors

The author will discuss some of CSF in order to bring specific quality output measures
which results in meeting the output requirement of the firm.

SAP software was a revolution in APL because of which they are able to handle
Customer data management with greater visibility more predicted results of
customer wants are being drawn.

Large quantity of products has ensured that APL has captured most number of market
segment which leads to be their quality output requirement.

They are currently the highest number of product portfolio in the industry of
paint, chemicals, and Resin manufactures.

The other CSF is lower throughput time where how much time is being taken to
complete unit of product from raw material to finished product. And APL has always
produced products on time which timescale of delivery process is also achieved.

2.1) Design plans which promote goals and objectives for own area of responsibility.
The geographical area associated with a combatant commander has authority to plan
and conduct operations. Area of responsibility (2006) Dictionary/thesaurus [online]






http:// The reason the author has chosen this

definition of own area of responsibility because there has been a recent development in
the process of CRM (SAP) and as well as the author was closely linked to the CRM
process of VODAFONE TELECOM. The development of CRM was huge success for
VODAFONE TELECOM because APL first piloted the process of SAP (Project Tantra)
which saw a huge response in base country and then expanded their SAP process to the
international operations which was further saw rise in the revenue generation & faster
customer acquisitions.
The areas of responsibilities of

VODAFONE TELECOM are Internal & External

customers, Customer orientation, Market Research, Product development, and time

management and CRM.
VODAFONE TELECOM have both internal and external customers in their organisation,
e.g. of internal customers to VODAFONE TELECOM are Suppliers, workers, stakeholders
etc. Whereas external customers are those people who help the organisation to meet its
objectives who work for the organisation externally. For example Customers, government,
market agencies etc. Viva Books Private Limited, (2009) Business essential: Management
(1st edition) BPP learning media: London.
VODAFONE TELECOM follow a market driven/ led business. VODAFONE TELECOM
bestow their resources in order to satisfy their customers. Miller, A., et al (2004) Strategic
management (2nd edition) New York: USA.
Whereas the other area of responsibility of


development, where they carry out strategic analysis for reviewing their existing plans
and identifying newer opportunities and risk associated. Out of the two main forms of

strategic analysis i.e. SWOT Analysis and Ansoffs matrix, VODAFONE TELECOM uses
Ansoffs matrix as their model to review their product development.
Wood finishes and metal TELECOM
were for home user only but now
they started for industrial purpose
also. Leads to achieve in
business objective of rapid

Targeting their products to new

foreign countries like
Caribbeans, Fuji and merging
with companies like Nippon.
Achieving in the objective
of increase sales of
international operations

Automotive TELECOM,
industrial coatings etc

Figure 2.1 Ansoffs matrix (2008) [online] (updated 12 th march 2010) Available at

Product development
The purpose of product development is to draw new customers and maintain existing
customers. VODAFONE TELECOM has made many product developments like in the
category of wall VODAFONE TELECOM it has developed emulsion VODAFONE
TELECOM which are washable called Tractor and acrylic emulsion.


TELECOM royal was also a product development strategy which has helped them to gain
potential new buyers.
Planning is the keystone for any business in order to achieve its objectives. The functions of
organising, leading, and controlling carry out the decisions of planning. Although some
environments are less predictable than others, all organisations operate in uncertain
environments. For an organisation to succeed, management somehow must cope with and
adapt to, change and uncertainty. David, A., Fischer, (1983) Strategies towards political
pressure: A typology of firm responses. Academy of management review, pp.71-78.
Therefore, for VODAFONE TELECOM planning is the only tool management for them to
adapt to change in their organisation and succeed in the future. Planning helps VODAFONE
TELECOM to define its purposes and activities.

It enables them to set performance standards so that results can be compared with the
standard to help managers to see how the organisation is progressing towards its goals.
The need for planning also is demonstrated by the relationship between planning and the
other management functions. VODAFONE TELECOM knows that planning is one of their
essential tools which are the beginning of the management process. Arthur C. Beck and Ellis
D. Hillmar, Positive Management Practices: Bringing out the best in organisation and people
(San Francisco: Jossey- Bass, 1986). VODAFONE TELECOM considers four major
elements of planning and they are as follows:-





Figure 2.2 elements of planning in VODAFONE TELECOM

VODAFONE TELECOM objectives are integral to plans because they specify future
conditions that the management considers adequate, for example as stated above one of their
area of responsibility as well as their corporate objectives states to improve Customer
Relationship Management process as well as in figure 1.2

(in CRM: customer

satisfaction, develop a direct link to the customers, standardize the sale delivery
processes used by VODAFONE TELECOM home solutions providers, and improve
financial controls).
Actions are specified, chosen means to achieve the objectives. The chosen course of action is
to install SAP and ERP softwares systems in the organisation nationally and
Resources are those factors of production which will help them to initiate the
implementation process as well as getting acquainted to the newer technology in the
organisation for e.g. Land, labour capital and enterprise of VODAFONE TELECOM.
Finally the implementation process is where it involves the assignment and direction of
personnel to carry out the plan.

As stated above in one of the Business Objectives that objective is to improve CRM for the
year 2011, they came up with higher end technology of SAP and ERP management
software where they have significantly improved their CRM and have managed to achieve
their goals and objective with the help of this process. VODAFONE TELECOM realized
that the firms long term growth depended on their ability to forge even closer ties to the end
consumers. The author has drawn a business plan of CRM SAP process for APL in
designing a business plan in order to promote goals and objectives.

Figure 2.3 Business plan of CRM SAP process

VODAFONE TELECOM own area of responsibilitys plan is to improve CRM process in

the organisation with the help of the above mentioned elements of planning will help them to
gain their corporate objective.

2.2) Write objectives which are SMART based to align people and other resources in an
effective and efficient way.
Doran (1981) stated and categorized objectives into the SMART objectives in his
issue of management review. The term SMART is just an abbreviation of the following:-







Figure 2.4 SMART objectives abbreviation

Thus VODAFONE TELECOM have considered the above SMART objectives as their
objectives to improve the process of Customer Relationship Management. The author has
considered the Dorans theory of SMART objectives in the evaluation of Customer
Relationship Management and they are as follows:-

Time based

To develop a direct link to the end

consumers is considered to be their
specific objecitve
Targeted revenue growth US $8 to $10
milliion in the year 2011
Built relationship with applicator across
30000 customer sites

Improve customer satisfaction

increased scability in the
Standardize sales delivery
processes used by Asian TELECOM
Homes solutions providers
throughtout all round the world.
To improve the CRM process with the
help of SAP system in the year 2011

Figure 2.5 SMART Objectives of CRM process in VODAFONE TELECOM.

Customer relationship management is essential process because it adds value to the firm and
it helps to improve business is an effective way. As the author mentioned above that
VODAFONE TELECOM realized that the firms long term growth depended on their
ability to forge even closer ties to the end consumers.
A decreasing closer link to the end consumers was the reason for expressing a need for more
solution to their home painting needs.

VODAFONE TELECOM implemented to

move from product based manufacturing to service based manufacturing and they started the
CRM process with the help of VODAFONE TELECOM Home solutions.
The selection of SAP Net Weaver platform in their organisation was to overcome the
obstacle, with the help SAP software VODAFONE TELECOM were able meet all the
criteria in their organisation as well as amalgamation with SAP Net Weaver business
intelligence would help them extract more confidential report which would create a more
direct link to the customers.
They setup the whole new SAP business process with Customer interaction centre that
receive calls from customers and then forward the lead to another subsidiary company
VODAFONE TELECOM i.e. VODAFONE TELECOM home solution. Thereafter they
will pass the information to the sale associates teams who take an appointment with the
customer and give the information to Relationship associate who go to the customer

residence for site survey and forward the lead to VODAFONE TELECOM colour world
for selecting the paint, it further goes to the applicator for ordering the VODAFONE
TELECOM through

VODAFONE TELECOM dealers who sources the VODAFONE

VODAFONE TELECOM. Last but not the least it goes back to the

Relationship department who conducts the painting process at the customers place with the

Figure 2.6 implementation of SAP software.

VODAFONE TELECOM named this whole CRM process of SAP as Project Tantra
which leads to success of Customer Relationship Management process.

Figure 2.7 CRM process of Paint with SAP software.

Critical Analysis: With the implementation of SAP software helped VODAFONE TELECOM to reach its
objective of deepening its ties with the end consumers. At the same time they even
standardize business processes at each stage of a painting job. First of all their prime
objective of getting the job done quickly was being achieved by reaching the customers as
fast as possible therefore it deepens their ties with end customers. Secondly VODAFONE
TELECOM strong supremacy in implementing the SAP solution proved to be their
successful innovation process in CRM process.
VODAFONE TELECOM traditional review committee conducted interim reviews at the
key stages of operation, which ensured that all major business and technical subjects were
addressed all the time when the process was not going according to the plan. They appointed
labours from different departments on their basis of merits and performance and then
effectively gave work and targets to each labours specification. There were 15 labours
appointed in this program and delegated work and rules of the program and were given task
to achieve the targets of the SAP program and they did achieve the objectives which were laid
down to them quite effectively of improving the CRM SAP process. Out of the 15 employees
each and every employee were effectively aligned, for e.g. 3 people were appointed for call
centre wherein 1 employee is given a day shift and the other 2 are given the night shift, 7
employees were in sales associates. Out of the 7 people 3 employees are given back office
work where they will take appointment of the customers and the other 4 will be doing actual

sales. In relationship associates team there are 3 employees who all are given the site
measurement work at the same time. On the other hand 2 employees are appointed in
Strong project management certified that key milestones and key specific dates were met
on time. Thirdly VODAFONE TELECOM strong training facilities to their employees
ensured that their objective of improving CRM was achieved with ease.


TELECOM organised an extensive training program consisting of classroom sessions that

included training in basic computer skills and office applications and as well as support
activities like giving an employee a chance to new job like front line support to employee of
handling business questions and queries.
On the other hand VODAFONE TELECOM realized that they achieved, faster customer
acquisition, increased in revenue up to US$8 million, optimized customer visibility into
customer needs and scalability in the organisation with the SAP software.
There were some other business processes that amended with the implementation of SAP
software and their impacts are described in the following table:

Figure 2.8 Process Areas which are affecting

VODAFONE TELECOM other department with

implementation of SAP software. (PDF file SAP software of business transformation)

Now that the VODAFONE TELECOM has achieved the corporate objective for the year
2011 of improving the CRM process in their organisation as well as they have the objectives
of CRM process which the management had laid down for them.
Recommendations: But its high time for VODAFONE TELECOM to look for the future as their competitors
are gaining competitive advantage the author would like to suggest


TELECOM to start Campaign management one of the highly demanded management

process as they will be able to retrieve more insight customer profile to customize and
develop a full cycle of campaign management by using cutting- edge tools available in the
current market and improve customer intelligence.
Also the author would like to suggest that they can target for newer market segments like
architects and interior designers by just not selling and serving the B2C markets they can
even go for the above mentioned example of B2B marketing which will help them to gain
more customers.
2.3) implement appropriate systems to achieve objectives in most efficient way on time
to budget and meeting organisational standards of quality?
To implement appropriate systems to achieve the objectives in most efficient way on
time to budget and meeting organisational standards of quality, the author has chosen the
Project Management tool to implement appropriate standards.
A project is a unique endeavour to produce a set of deliverables within clearly specified
time, cost and quality constraints. Projects vary so much that they are difficult to define. A
project is a unique venture which has a beginning and an end date, conducted by people
to meet established goals within a parameter of cost schedule and quality (Buchanan and
Baddy 1992).
The author has chosen Work break Structure of CRM process, Gantt chart, Critical Path
Analysis and Risk Management tool to implement systems to achieve objectives in most
efficient way and organisational standards of quality of SAP CRM process in the

Figure 2.9 Work Breakdown Structure of CRM process in VODAFONE TELECOM

Work breakdown structure will help VODAFONE TELECOM to conduct the customer
relationship SAP process in the organisation and will help them to know which all task are
going be performed and which are the important tasks and without them the whole process
will be a failure.
Based on the above work breakdown structure, the author has developed a Gantt chart as
well as project milestones in order to have a clear idea on the activities and the time duration
needed for each activity. So it is easy to understand the order of the activities to be carried out
and in the interim it will make possible for the viewers to identify easily the total duration.
Basu (2004) defined Gantt chart as a simple tool which represents time as a bar or a line on
a chart. The start and finish times for activities are displayed by the length of the bar and
often the actual progress of the task is also indicated. A Gantt chart is shown below by the

Figure 2.10 Gantt chart and Project milestones of CRM SAP process

The author has developed the above Gantt chart, project milestones based on the four
parameters of the project life cycle and activities were clearly defined under which of those
four parameters it will lay. The total duration of the project is expected to be 1month 12 days
to complete the project. The author has made use of milestones in the form of arrows, which
the author feels is the most important because it depicts key events along a timescale.
Critical Analysis: - As Gantt chart is a visual representation of a task over period of time,
which is used to schedule, coordinate and allocate the resources needed to complete a firms
objective, thus in relation to the VODAFONE TELECOM SAP CRM process it is the
project managers responsibility to see that their activities have been fulfilled or not. If not
fulfilled on the allocated time then the manager needs to use his contingency plans in order to
finish the activities on the allocated time set by the manager to monitor the whole process. If
for example the activity Designed customized SAP software doesnt fulfil the
requirements as per standards of VODAFONE TELECOM then the project will fail,
then whole CRM process will not be successful to achieve the objectives which are laid
by CRM department. Whereas milestones are concerned which are slotted in the diagram, if
the activities which are given as milestones and have not been contented then the other
activities will not be preceded until and unless the milestone activities are not accomplished
and it will cause a delay in the project dates.

Thereafter, the author has taken into account the basic network diagram an another project
management tool where the Project manager of CRM SAP process has effectively planned
and controlled the project, which will help the Project manager of SAP CRM process to
meets its objective on time and will be able to meet organisational standards of quality.

Figure 3.1 Critical path analysis of SAP CRM process

Thereafter the author has taken into account the basic network diagram where the manager
has effectively plan and controlled the project. The basic network diagram may be defined as
a graphical presentation of the projects activities showing the planned sequence of work,
Burke (2007) Introduction to Project Management, Partner Pub Group. The critical paths
are marked in Red dotted lines and floating activities are non dotted red lines. In context
to the SAP CRM process the total duration of the project is 40 weeks and the author has
drafted the network diagram on the basis of the Gantt chart activities.
Risk factor analysis: According to PMOB Handbook (1992) project and program risk
management volume 6, states that the systematic processes of indentifying, analysing and
responding to the project risk... [Throughout the project life cycle.] It includes maximising
the results of positive events and minimising the consequences of adverse events. This is one
of the most essential stages of project planning because it will provide valuable information
to carry decision regarding project direction and the contingency plans of the project. Below
the table shows the risk factor and analysis involved in the SAP CRM process:

Figure 3.2 Risk factor analysis of SAP CRM process

2.4) Carry out work activities meeting the operational plan through effective monitoring
and control.
The operation plans of VODAFONE TELECOM are Product Development, Value
Added Chain, Meeting Objectives, and Organizational Constrains.
VODAFONE TELECOM pursue two steps. In order to develop a new product they are
Design & Development & Establishing Specifications.


mechanisms on products which are market pull products. In this situation the company first
estimates that sales could increase if a new product were designed to appeal to their
customers. After carrying out the market research the R&D Department of VODAFONE
TELECOM set up the specifications of the products. Value Added Chain of VODAFONE
TELECOM has the process where they buy raw material from their suppliers of high
standards (ISO 9000 and 14000 certified) and they produce goods with high value. They
make sure they add more value to their products by updating their technology regularly. The
author has drafted a figure of VODAFONE TELECOM value added chains:-

keting Research Firms, Advertising agency , Paints industry week and inte

kshops, Distributors, SAP*CRM training and after sales service is being pro

Convoy Drivers Association, E- Commerce (websites)


OutboundMarketing Service
Strategic Alliance
with Berger paints
SCIB paints , APCO paints etc.
Suppliers , Contractors

Figure 3.3 primary activities of VODAFONE TELECOM.

APL opted for backward integration

Uses i2 factory planning software
to manage
using inflow
SAP I2of
ERP as a software which is making internally

HR Technology Firms
Procurement manageme developme infrastrucut

APL believes : people who do innovation

invent has
and increases
of the in
units and
its presence
22 countries also
4700 employees in 23 countries
open and interactive culture which motivates people to work

Figure 3.4 secondary activities of VODAFONE TELECOM

VODAFONE TELECOM has constantly tried to meet their objectives which are Quality,
Time and Cost. VODAFONE TELECOM has never negotiated with good quality. It has
made products of the best design with reasonable prices range for its customers. They always
dealt in large numbers with better-quality products which made them the market leaders.
VODAFONE TELECOM have learned that by developing new products on time they could
maximise their sales and profit. They order raw material in bulk to get discount from dealers,
design products to cut cost but not affect the quality and avoid wastage during production.
These were some cost cutting techniques used by APL and also by doing this they even
achieved economies of scales.
VODAFONE TELECOM Management team has put in a lot of efforts in order to improve
coordination between the different departments. TQM also helped in creating better
coordination between staffs and management. Thus coordination in


TELECOM is used as an example by many companies for benchmarking. Like any other
firm APL also has organizational constraints. They are External Stakeholders & Rigid
Controls. External Stakeholders consist of shareholders, society and customers who impose
certain obligations on VODAFONE TELECOM. Rigid Controls on APL are that they
have to reveal all their business processes to the government. Since APL has many
international units they have to bear the laws of all the countries in which they function.



al plans
of Asian



Figure 3.5 Operational plans of VODAFONE TELECOM

3.1 Design system to manage and monitor quality standard specified by the
In todays world Quality has become the most important factor in determining the
organisations positions to remain in this competitive market. High quality products lead to
customer goodwill and satisfaction. These, in turn create repeat sales, loyal customers and
clients. Juran (1974) Juran Quality Control Handbook, Fifth Edition, 1999, has defined
quality as fitness for use and it has two elements such as quality of design and quality of
The system to manage and monitor quality standard specified by the organisation at
VODAFONE is given by the quality policy by the top management to all its operations
in the organisation and they are listed below:-

should provide products & services that meet the stated standards
on time, every time.
continously improve the processes to understand changing
customers needs and preferences and use the same as input for
reviweing and setting performance standards for thier products and
Accept Zero defect as a quality absolute, and design & operate
quality system accordingly

Organise work practices to do a job right at the first time, every time

commited to continous improvement in quality in all business

processes and track improvement through measurable indicators
Figure 3.6 Quality Policy at VODAFONE TELECOM (www.VODAFONE quality
policy section)

Quality Control Methods & Systems at VODAFONE TELECOM: The control methods and systems which are adapted by VODAFONE TELECOM are
Quality of conformance, Quality Assurance, Quality control, TQM, Quality circles, ISO
9000 and 14000 certification and supply chain management. VODAFONE TELECOM
adopts David Bain, the productivity Prescription: the managers guide to improve
productivity and profits (New York: McGraw- Hill, 1982), pp119-27. Five keys steps to
develop a quality control system and they are as follows: -

Figure 3.7 David Bains 5 key steps of quality control system.

For Quality of Conformance VODAFONE TELECOM confirms that the specification of

the manufactured products or services doesnt have any defects in the finish goods. Quality
Assurance VODAFONE TELECOM makes sure that the products are produced of high
standards because of the checks that have been made a long way. In


TELECOM Quality Assurance is setting and agreeing to those standards throughout the
organisation and making sure that they are complied with so that customer satisfaction is
achieved. The QA department first duty of checking is in Supplier quality assurance,
wherein the supplier guarantees the quality of raw material supplied and allows the customer
access while the goods are being manufactured. The benefit of using this type QA method is
to eliminate goods inward inspection and saving large amount of cost and time in flow
Product Design
will the product meet the expectations of consumers
Quality of inputs
Quality of bought- in components
Production Quality
This can be assured by total quality management (tqm)
Delivery systems
customers need goods and services delivered at times convenient
to them
Customers service including after sale service
Continued customer satisfaction will depend on the quality of
contact with consumers after purchase

Figure 3.8 Quality Assurance factors in VODAFONE TELECOM

VODAFONE TELECOM Quality Control is concerned with maintaining quality

standards. VODAFONE TELECOM uses this system to detect and eliminate goods that fall
below the standards. The quality control departments heads carries out a range of inspections
and test before the products reach the customers. The 3 stages that are involved in effective
quality control techniques at

VODAFONE TELECOM are Prevention, Inspection,

Correction and improvement. VODAFONE TELECOM doesnt mind investing in such

quite expensive- qualified engineers to inspect, because they want their products to be highly

valued by customers and would like to create a benchmark by saying, no other paint industry
is better than VODAFONE TELECOM. Below the author has drawn a quality control chart
for their one of the sample products.

Total Quality Management at VODAFONE TELECOM is termed as the concept that

considers all staff in an organisation as being accountable for quality.


TELECOM management teaches its employees or be it workers how to meet stakeholders

needs and expectations efficiently and effectively, without compromising ethical values. At
VODAFONE TELECOM the TQM approach fits in well their style motivation i.e.
Herzberg principles of Job enrichment. Each employee tries to provide the best services to
the internal customers (colleagues or superiors) and external customers (consumers,
government and society) for e.g. if the pigment process in the VODAFONE TELECOM
chemical process is not removed properly then it will not go to mixing process if it is not
reached minimum benchmark level then it will not pass through the next stage of pigmented
VODAFONE TELECOM has Quality Circles present in the firm, the sole purpose of
having quality circles is to concentrate on quality enhancement on a continuous basis and
this has proven to be beneficial for the company in terms of quality improvement and process
improvement. The manufacturing plastic coated VODAFONE TELECOM and weather
proof is an example of Quality Circle.
VODAFONE TELECOM is certified as a ISO 9000 quality company with the help of ISO
certified label on all its products help consumers to buy products and as well as it ensures the
product is of a high quality. VODAFONE TELECOM products have ISO 9000 & 14000
marks which are of international standards and thus they are reliable suppliers to their
customers. Also they are committed to ISO 9001 quality. VODAFONE TELECOM the
state of art, supply chain system to edge technology to amalgamate all its plants. The
supply chain runs through a broad spectrum of functions right from planning to procurement
to initial distribution. By having this system enrolled in the organisation it has improved
operational efficiencies and has generated agile procurement, production and delivery
3.2) Demonstrate a quality culture to ensure continuous monitoring, evaluation and
development of the process.
For VODAFONE TELECOM quality management is not just the process for them
but its a continuous assessment of their process. As mentioned earlier in the above question
that TQM is a philosophy for managing an organisation in a way that enables it to meet
stakeholders needs and expectation efficiently.

It is said that TQM is very hard to achieve if the organisational culture for example language,
artefacts, subcultures etc do not operate in whole unity then the whole system which is being
imposed is in trouble, therefore at VODAFONE TELECOM their priority on changing
culture brings quality to ensure continuous monitoring and development of the process.
The author will give an example of a manufacturing process in VODAFONE TELECOM
to describe how TQM is monitored, evaluation, and development of the process.
VODAFONE TELECOM have taken several steps in ensuring how TQM is monitored in
the manufacturing process:
the pigment are mixed with the binder and suitable additives,
and wetted with a suitable surfoctant or dispersing agent on the
top floor depending on the desired particle size, pigment
hardness and nature of the solvent used.
stablished adjustment of the paint composition follows
the process aims to obtain the desired product properties such
as shade, viscicity and weight per liter.


tinting or shade matching is performed.
after adjustment, the finished TELECOM is stored in a hopper on
the floor below for some time before being packed and sealed in
diferent pack sizes.
Figure 3.10 Manufacturing process (word file: POMASSIGNMENT ( VODAFONE TELECOM) [online]

In the dispersion stage of manufacturing process, VODAFONE TELECOM monitors on

the basis desired particles i.e. the size of the pigments. To assure its of the right quality
the Quality Assurance department will check the pigment particles at the suppliers base and
will pass a quality confirmation slip (which will ensure that the pigment are of the right size
and weight) to the manufacturing departments head to go ahead with the production. Also
the other way to monitor the dispersion stage of manufacturing process VODAFONE
TELECOM production department checks the additives of chemicals, which needs to be
added in binder for the dispersion of pigments.
In the adjustment stage of the manufacturing process, VODAFONE TELECOM monitors
this stage of manufacturing process on the basis shades, viscosity and weight per litre. The
monitoring of adjustment stage of manufacturing process is done by the centrifuging screen

machine to remove unwanted pigments. In order to get the desired product properties such as
shades, viscosity and weight per litre, VODAFONE TELECOM assures to bring the right
quality by adding of chemical solvent in order to bring the consistency in the shades and
viscosity etc.
The last stage of manufacturing process is packaging stage. VODAFONE TELECOM
monitors this process by getting the finished paint in different hoppers for some cooling to
get the right texture and thickness of the VODAFONE TELECOM and the paint is packed in
the different size containers to assure they are packed and sealed in different pack sizes they
have container detector machine to assure the right weight of container is filled according
to the specified litre.
Currently VODAFONE TELECOM are effectively using TQM process but they still needs
to work efficiently to ensure that the TQM is performed in the right manner in what the TQM
gurus have stated in their research. The factors which VODAFONE TELECOM needs
look at are as follows:


Figure 4.1 Factors which will help VODAFONE TELECOM to have better TQM

The reason the author is suggesting for the above factors to be implemented in the
organisation is because prevention will help VODAFONE TELECOM to manufacture
better quality products without any wastage of resources, as well as they will produce goods
that meets the minimum stated standards of the companys quality policy. The author will

give explain the above example of manufacturing process to explain the prevention factor: for
e.g. if the supplier delivers the wrong pigments of the undesired product then the production
of unwanted raw materials will take place which will increase the cost to the firm and no real
productivity will be seen as the manufacturing of wrong raw material is being manufactured.
For Inspection: this will help VODAFONE TELECOM to reduce the high number of
rejection entries in developing the product because a hiring of the inspect officer will reduce
the rejection and error entry in the organisation and will VODAFONE TELECOM to
achieve the quality policy of accepting zero defects as a quality absolute products. For
example in the manufacturing process of adjustment stage, inspection of adding the right
amount of chemical solvent to get the right the shade and viscosity will help VODAFONE
TELECOM to achieve the high sales and profits because of shrinking in the number
rejection levels.
For Correction: With the help container detector machine which is


TELECOM, good use of technology is ensuring the right quality of goods is delivering to
the customer. The container detector machine helps VODAFONE TELECOM to remove
the minute mistakes done by the labours which will help VODAFONE TELECOM the
right amount of litre of VODAFONE TELECOM boxes are delivered to the customer.
Development :- As VODAFONE TELECOM is currently using TQM process as to ensure
the quality culture the author would like to suggest the company firstly to check the pigments
from the suppliers base, i.e. supplier should check the pigments whether they are in the
proper conditions or not and are of the right desired the particle size. This will help
VODAFONE TELECOM to remove the errors and achieve the quality policy objective of
zero defects. Also regular updating of newer quality chemical additive solvent will help
VODAFONE TELECOM to deliver the right standard of paint to its customers because the
solvent helps to disperse the unwanted pigment and helps to get the consistency in the
VODAFONE TELECOM. Constant development in the process of technology will keep
VODAFONE TELECOM in touch with the competitors in making absolute zero defects
products and be i delivering the best paint product to its customers. Last but not the least
constant training to the inspector every quarterly will help VODAFONE TELECOM to
bring in efficiency and increase productivity in their organisation and will reduce the number
of rejection and errors. Thus the authors above factors will help VODAFONE TELECOM
to achieve the TQM properly which will ensure the quality culture is being nurtured in the
workplace quite efficiently and effectively

3.3) Recommend improvements which align with the organizations objectives and goals
and which results in improvement?
The author would like to recommend VODAFONE TELECOM to adopt Six Sigma
theory because Six Sigma is a method that use to improve the output quality of a process. It
instigate towards reaching the goals and objective, performance measuring, process
improvement. It integrates all the business processes makes the organisation work towards
the zero defects. If VODAFONE TELECOM implements this tool of quality improvement
it will align the organisations objective and goals. The author has given critical success
factors to justify his chosen of six sigma tool of quality improvement. The aim of having six
sigma is to improve the business processes in the organisation and remove defects in the
organisation so that the organisation is more productive and efficient enough to meet its
customer requirements. There are different layers of six sigma belts: - Yellow, Green belt,
Black belt, Master Black belt and the champion belt so that the increase in the belt parts lead
to more competitive a company.
Below are the critical success factors which the author thinks which are essential in
recommending for improvement in order to achieve the goals and objectives.

leadership and

A well
information and
analysis system

equipping all
with quality

A well

A well
planned system


The education
and trainng


Figure 4.2 critical success factors of Six Sigma (process quality associates inc (2006) six sigma success
factors [online] [accessed on 18th December

3.4) Report on the wider implications of the proposed changes within the organization?

The author would like to suggest VODAFONE to opt for six sigma tool of quality
improvement because it helps the organisation to reduce the manufacturing defects, improve
the business profitability, and improve the productivity and efficiency of all operations to
meet the needs and expectations. The basic function of six sigma is to meet the customer
requirement, improve customer retention and improve business products and services.
The positive impact which VODAFONE TELECOM will have in adopting Six Sigma
are as follows: Reduced
cycle time


Less Wastage

Use of


gains and

with vison,
and values

Concepts are

Figure 4.3 Benefits of using Six Sigma (Benefits of six sigma (2003) Adams six sigma [online] (11 th Jan
2003) Available at: www. [accessed on 17 th December

Every theory has positive and negative effects on the business; therefore VODAFONE
TELECOM will face the negative impacts of having adopted Six Sigma tool of quality
improvement and they are as follows:

May difficult to gather sufficient data and can be a

problem when big tactical decision are being made based
on the data collected.
High cost involvement in this process

Wrong statistical errors getting qualified and the product

not being reaching the end consumers
Lack of expericene may lead to problems like decrease in
profits and quality measurement
The six sigma theory may sometime may not match the

Figure 4.4 Negative impact of having Six Sigma in VODAFONE TELECOM.

The above factors will have wider implications to


proposed changes suggested by the author. The author would like to recommend
VODAFONE TELECOM to Implemented the Six Sigma because by having invested huge
amount of capital in getting SAP software installed therefore the author would suggest
VODAFONE TELECOM to use Six Sigma process of quality improvement by
overlooking the pros and cons of six sigma, VODAFONE TELECOM will be successful in
carrying out this process and will able to achieve the business objective with ease.

4.1) Carry out risk assessments as required by legislation, regulation and organizational
requirements ensuring appropriate action is taken?
Health and Safety legislation can be defined as, organised efforts and procedures
for identifying workplace hazards and reducing accidents and exposure to harmful situations
and substances. It

also includes training of personnel in accident prevention, accident

response, emergency preparedness and use of protective clothing and equipment. Business (2006) definition of health and safety management [online] (updated on 5 th
June 2010) Available at:
A risk assessment is an essential action in shielding employees for


TELECOM and its business, also with act in accordance with the law set by the government.
For VODAFONE TELECOM it ensures them to remain focal point which is a subject in
workplace- the ones which causes problems.
In some situations simple measures can readily manage risks, for example, promptly cleaned
floors prevents workers from falling on the floor or with safety equipments being constantly
provided with higher and good quality materials from preventing the workers not getting
burnt as well as saving the workers from heat radiation emitted out by the machines.
Also well managed safety standards lay down by the management like fire safety drill every
6 months. All this things brings worth to



TELECOM health and safety department has devised a five step plan in order to carry
out risk assessment in order to ensure that appropriate action is taken.


Figure 4.5 Health safety risk assessment at APL (field work)

The author will give an example to the above diagram so it becomes very clear how risk
assessment takes place in VODAFONE

Figure 4.6 Risk Assessment at VODAFONE TELECOM (field work)

VODAFONE TELECOM further uses the fire alarm system, relevant sign boards such
as exit, fire, no smoking, emergency exit etc. where have been placed to make it easier
for employees to know wherein which device is located. The employees are handed out the
health and safety document while joining the firm and are made acquainted to the health and
safety regulations of the firms.
The author believes that VODAFONE TELECOM has enough precautions in their kitty to
prevent from health and safety issues. Therefore the benefits which the firms gains as well
the employees and workers are listed below:-





ion claims

uses of

Boost in
Figure 4.7 benefits to VODAFONE TELECOM of having health & safety regulations

4.2) demonstrate that health and safety regulations and legislations applicable in
specific work situations are correctly and effectively applied?
The laws do expect every organisation to practice but they have to see the safety of
employees as well as society at large. The author has identified the health and safety
legislations according to the Factories act of 1948 for health and safety and welfare of the
workers pertaining to PAINT Industry.
The author will give laws which are related to the industry which the company operates in as
well as the laws which are specific to the organisation ( VODAFONE TELECOM)

Figure 4.8 Health and Safety Regulations apply to VODAFONE TELECOM.

4.3) Carry out a systematic review of orgnisational health and safety policies and
procedures in order to ensure they are effective and compliant?
In order to carry out a systematic review of organisational health and safety policies
and procedure the author has drawn a health and safety policies which is followed by

The author believes that VODAFONE TELECOM are always ready to accept the change
and forge these changes in their organisation. Evaluating the effectiveness of health and
safety regulations it is necessary for VODAFONE TELECOM to know whether they are
efficient and compliant enough to practice health and safety regulation in their organisation.
The author will now explain the effectiveness of health and safety policies at VODAFONE
TELECOM with the areas it needs to improve. The author has discussed only the main
points which he thinks improvement are to be made.

Figure 4.10 Evaluation and recommendation of Health and safety.

4.4) Carry out practical applications of health and safety policies and procedures in the
The author has given VODAFONE TELECOM author views and points of practical
application of health and safety policies which are mentioned in the above diagram no. 4.10,
for example the health and safety law of slip trip and fall, the practical application of the
health and safety policy in workplace could be done by hiring the service of housekeeping
company people who comes during the production hours where the chances of spilling of

VODAFONE TELECOM likely to take place therefore with the help of housekeeping firms
machine will able to keep the floors clean which will lead to reducing the number accident.
According to the author the other health and safety policy which needs to practically to be
used is the Work equipment and machinery. The management should have a contract with
the current vendors who are providing the Quarterly reports of the maintenance of the
equipments or they should start bargaining at the point of buying new machinery in the
organisation by having an early contract with vendor for maintenance or replacing old with
new machines.
Last but not the least the practical application of Fire and explosion act of health and safety in
VODAFONE TELECOM can be done by having monthly fire mock drill which will make
the company use the fire extinguisher, which will prevent it from getting expired and value
for money is adhered.
VODAFONE TELECOM are an organisation that has being operating for last 30 years in
India as well as international with total 22 operations worldwide. The author has discussed
how the interrelationship between different processes has lead to achieving business goals
and objectives. Thereafter the author has discussed the areas of responsibilities and
operational plan of the firm and how they can be improved. On the other hand the author has
discussed how VODAFONE TELECOM have able to monitor appropriate systems of quality
systems in order to improve organisational performance. Last but not the least the author has
discussed how VODAFONE TELECOM have managed health and safety in the workplace.

Bibliography: -

1. Viva Books Private Limited, (2009) Business essential: Management (1 st edition) BPP
learning media: London.
3. Mullins, L.J., 2007. Management and organizational behaviour.8 th Ed. Pearson
education ltd.
4. Cultural Aspect (2008) Employees roles [online] (updated 13 August 2008) Available
at: http://www.VODAFONE [Accessed 24th October 2011].
5. (source: article, the benchmark exchange; (online); updated at 2011; Available at: (Accessed on 17/10/2011)

VODAFONE TELECOM in the news (2011) VODAFONE TELECOM home pageVODAFONE TELECOM- sep 2011 results [online] (updated on 2110//2011)
Available at: http://www.VODAFONE [Accessed 04/11/2011]

7. Area of responsibility (2006) Dictionary/thesaurus [online] (updated 26 th June 2011),

Available at http://
8. Miller, A., et al (2004) Strategic management (2nd edition) New York: USA
9. Ansoffs matrix (2008) [online] (updated 12th march 2010) Available
10. David, A., Fischer, (1983) Strategies towards political pressure: A typology of firm
responses. Academy of management review, pp.71-78
11. Arthur C. Beck and Ellis D. Hillmar, Positive Management Practices: Bringing out the
best in organisation and people (San Francisco: Jossey- Bass, 1986
12. PDF file SAP software of business transformation) [online] [accessed on 13 th


13. Doran, George T. theres a SMART way to write managements goals and
objectives. Management review, Nov 1981, Volume 70 issue 11
14. (Buchanan and Baddy 1982) fundamentals of project management (1st edition) united
states: New York
15. Basu, R, 2004. Implementing quality, Cengage learning EMEA
16. Burke (2007) Introduction to Project Management, Partner Pub Group
17. PMOB Handbook (1992) project and program risk management volume 6
18. Juran (1974) Juran Quality Control Handbook, Fifth Edition, 1999
19. www.VODAFONE
20. David Bain, the productivity Prescription: the managers guide to improve
productivity and profits (New York: McGraw- Hill, 1982), pp119-27

21. word





[online] manufacturing process

22. (process quality associates inc (2006) six sigma success factors [online]




December 2011]
23. Benefits of six sigma (2003) Adams six sigma [online] (11th Jan 2003) Available at:
www. [accessed on 17th December
24. Business (2006) definition of health and safety management [online]








December 2011] [online]