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THE LIVING AND NON LIVING COMPONENTS OF THE EARTH CONTAIN

MIXTURES

Particle Theory
All matter consists of many very
continual state of motion and the
energy and the relationship to

small particles constantly moving in a


degree of movement depends on the
other particles

Elements (pure) Atoms (pure)


Only one
Smallest particle
kind of atom
elements are made up
of them
Cannot be
John Dalton Theory =
simplified
atoms are
Can be
indestructible and
metals
indivisible
(mostly), non
All atoms of an element
metals or
semi metals
are identical
Atoms of different
elements combine to
form compounds
Connt be
created/destroyed

Compounds
Mixtures (impure)
Elements
Two or more substances mixed but
combined
not chemically combined
chemically
Can be physically separated
(constant
Homogeneous
composition)
o Substances spread evenly
Metals react
throughout
with non metals
o Cant see different parts
= ionic
o E.g. sea water
Metals react
Heterogeneous
with each other
o Not spread evenly
= covalent
throughout
E.g. H2O is a
o Includes suspensions
compounds
o E.g. dirt and water and oil
Pure
and water, salad dressing
substances

SPHERES
Lithosphere
All cold hard solid rock of planets i.e. crust, semi solid under crust, hot liquid near
centre, solid iron centre
Different minerals combined in different proportions from rocks e.g. oxides,
carbonates, sulfides which are mine to manufacture metals
E.g. quartz, calcite, olivine (all minerals)
MOST COMMON ELEMENTS = oxygen (46%), silicon (28%) and aluminum (8%)
Hydrosphere
Refers to whole planets water in any form
Most abundant compound in this sphere is water = most abundant elements are
hydrogen and oxygen
Most found in oceans and polar ice caps
MOST COMMON ELEMENTS = oxygen (86%), hydrogen (11%) and chlorine (1.9%)
Atmosphere
There are different layers we live in the troposphere
Refers to all of Earths air
Major gases = nitrogen and oxygen
MOST COMMON ELEMENTS = nitrogen (79%), oxygen (21%) and argon (nearly
1%)
Biosphere
Refers to planets living organisms
Ecosystems occupy all other spheres
Composed of cells therefore large amount of oxygen and hydrogen
Cells = complex carbon compounds carbs, fats, proteins etc.
SEPARATION TECHNIQUES
Method
Filtration

Mixture used for


Solids (which are
not dissolved in

Property used to achieve separation


Particle size

Example
Sand and water

liquids)
Used for
heterogeneous
mixtures
Dissolved solids
in liquids

Evaporation

Crystallization

Used to purify
impure salts

Sieving

Solids of different
sizes

Sedimentation

Undissolved
solids from liquids

Chromatography

Distillation

Dissolved solids
in liquids esp. if
coloured

Liquids and
dissolved solids

Residue substance left in filter paper


Filtrate soluble substance dissolved in
solvent (through filter paper)
Differing boiling points of substances

Salt water

Good for when you want to collect the solid


rather than the liquid
A concentrated solution of the impure salt is
allowed to cool and crystallize resulting in a
higher purity of crystal
Particle size

Used to purify impure


salts copper sulfate

Particle size and density


Solids are left to settle and the liquid is then
carefully poured off the top (decanting)
Different adsorption to a stationary phase
Chromatography paper contains pores
draw line in pencil and place dots of dye on
the line. Then place it into a solvent, solvent
travels up the paper through capillary action
This is good for when you want the liquid
(cant use evaporation)

Separate sand from


gravel in a rock
quarry
Soil from water

Analytical testing e.g.


water contaminants
Separate food
colouring or inks
Salt water when you
want the water

Use of different boiling points

Fractional
distillation

Separating liquids
that are miscible
or gases

Separating funnal

Separating
immiscible liquids

Solution is heated, liquid evaporates and


condense back into liquid in a separate
container
Uses boiling points (better for when
substances have boiling points closer
together
Same apparatus but slightly different
process
Different densities

Cordial and water

Oil and water

Valve is closed after the more dense liquid


is let through
GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS
Determining masses of substances present in a sample
Reasons for wanting to know
o Decide whether newly discovered minerals contain a high enough % of
required compound for its extraction to be efficient
o Determine the composition of soil suitable for certain crops
o View the amount of particles in the air to determine pollution growth
o Compare the make up of competing products
SYSTEMATIC NAMING

First elements name is unchanged


Second elements name is modified (add ide)
First element is usually the one which is further to the left of the periodic table (or if in
the same group, further down)

Naming compounds that have multiples of same element


1 mono
2 di
3 tri

4 tetra
5 penta
6 hexa
EXAMPLES
CO carbon monoxide
CO2 carbon dioxide
PCl3 phosphorus trichloride
CCl4 carbon tetrachloride
H2O dihydrogen monoxide
H2O2 dihydrogen dioxide

ALTHOUGH MOST ELEMENTS ARE FOUND IN COMBINATIONS, SOME ARE


FOUND AS UNCOMBINED ELEMENTS
REACTIVITY

Most elements are chemically reactive (react to form compounds)


General rule: more reactive = less chance of finding it uncombined in nature
Examples: sodium, potassium, calcium, fluorine are all v. reactive therefore never
found as free elements
Noble gases and metals are found pure = stable = full valence shells

PROPERTIES OF METALS NON METALS AND SEMI METALS


Metals
Solids at room temp
Shiny (lustrous)
Good conductors of
heat and electricity
Malleable
Ductile

Non metals
Solid, liquid (only
bromine) and gases
at room temp
Dull appearance
Brittle
Non conductors

Semi metals
Low sheen
Moderately malleable
Semi conductors of electricity
B, Si, Ge, As, Sb in pure state
wont conduct, but will when
impurity is added

TESTS USED
Property
Lustre
Conductivity of
electricity
Hardness
Malleability
Solubility in water

Test
Clean with abrasive paper
Connect power supply, globe or ammeter and material in simple circuit
and if the globe lights/ammeter reads it conducts
Scratch with steel knife to see if harder than steel
Use hammer to see if it will flatten out, shatter or form a powder
Dip sample in boiling water for 1 minute to observe

PROPERTIES RELATIONSHIP TO USES


Physical properties determine which metal/element will be used for particular
products
Properties include melting point, density, conductivity, hardness, strength etc.

METALS
Main uses for common metals: building materials, cars, planes, machinery, electrical
wiring, appliances and household goods
EXAMPLES
o Aluminum aircraft because of low density and high strength
o Copper electrical wiring, high conductivity and ductility
o Iron cars and trains because of high tensile strength
Other factors determine the uses such as cost and chemical reactivity
Few are used in uncombined form (risk of being reactive)
NON METALS
Uses are based on their properties
EXAMPLES
o Helium lighter than air and unreactive therefore used in balloons
o Carbon (graphite) conducts electricity and is soft therefore used as an
electrode in dry cells
SEMI METALS
o Mixtures of silicon and germanium conduct electricity and are used as
semi conductors in computer chips
o

ELEMENTS ON EARTH ARE MOSTLY FOUND AS COMPOUNDS BECAUSE OF


ATOMIC INTERACTIONS
SOLIDS LIQUIDS AND GASES
Solids
Particles packed
tightly together
Strong forces
holding particles to
one another
Definite shapes
therefore cannot
be compressed
Relatively hard
Particles not
stationary, but
vibrate in their
places

Liquids
Arranged in much less
orderly fashion
Move about much more
freely (more energy)
Forces between particles
are relatively weaker
Takes shape of container
Motion of particles =
actual free movement
therefore cannot be
compressed much
Solids have greater
density (except water)

Gases
Particles are much
further apart
Very rapid motion
No significant inter
particle forces
Expand to fill
whole volume
(rapid motion)
Big spaces
between particles
= easily
compressible

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
1st shell 2 electrons
2nd shell 8 electrons
3rd shell (holds up to 18, but for first 20 elements, only holds 8)
4th shell 32 electrons
5th shell 50 electrons
E.g. Ca (20 atomic number) electron configuration 2, 8, 8, 2
E.g. Sc (21 atomic number) electron configuration 2, 8, 9, 2

Each electron in the first shell has a constant amount of energy as does each in the
2nd where those in outermost shells have higher energy amounts
Clear relation between reactivity and electron configuration
o Noble gases: no chemical reactions = completely stable and full outer shell
o Alkali metals: similar chemical properties (all lose one electron)
o Halogens: similar chemical properties (all gain one electron)

Chemical reactions:
o All elements undergo chemical reactions to form compounds to achieve
noble gas configuration

Valence electrons:
o Electrons in incompletely filled highest shell are called valence
o These are involved in chemical bonding

FORMATION OF IONS

By gaining/losing/sharing electrons, atoms achieve full shells = stable


Metal atoms = positive ions (lose electrons)
Non metals = negative ions (gain electrons)
This is because electrons have a negative charge

e.g. Na (2, 8, 1) wants to lose one electron and Cl (2, 8, 7) wants to gain one electron
and therefore they form NaCl
PERIODIC TABLE AND IONS

Atomic number number of protons = number of electrons

Mass number mass of nucleus (protons + neutrons)


Group 1 metals lose 1 electron = singly charged positive ions
Group 2 metals lose 2 electrons = doubly charged positive ions
Group 6 non metals gain 2 electrons = doubly charged negative ions
Group 7 halogens gain one electron = single charged negative ions
Transition metals all lose electrons to form positive ions
Elements 3 places away from noble gas conficguration may form ions e.g. Al+
General rule: metals generally form positive ions and non metals (when they form
ions) form negative ions

LEWIS DOT DIAGRAMS

Concerned with valence electrons

For covalent bonding molecules and molecular ions


1. Write formula of compound
2. Count all valence electrons of atoms in formula (valency of an element is also
the number of bonds it wants to make)
3. Draw skeletal diagram and place 1 atom in the middle
4. Place pair of electrons between each atoms in skeletal
5. Check to see if surrounding atoms have their required number to be stable
(filled shell)
6. Place remaining pairs around central atoms

e.g.

e.g. NH3

ENERGY IS REQUIRED TO EXTRACT ELEMENTS FROM THEIR NATURALLY


OCCURRING SOURCES
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE
Chemical change (reaction)
At least one new substance is
formed
Difficult to reverse (because atoms
have been rearranged or bonded and
therefore a lot of energy is needed to
break these bonds)
Generally a large input or output of
energy
Mass is conserved (atoms are
rearranged but no new energy is
created)
Chemical Properties
Properties that relate to the chemical
reactions that substance undergo
E.g. ease of decomposition by heat
Effect of light
Reactivity with other substances
such as oxygen, chlorine and sulfur

Physical change
No new substance is formed
Easily reversed e.g. changing state
Relatively small energy changes
involved e.g. evaporate alcohol
Mass is conserved (no new matter is
created)

Physical properties
Properties that relate to physical
change
E.g. boiling and melting points
Appearance
Density
Conductivity
Hardness

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BOILING AND ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER


These two processes show the differences between physical and chemical change
Electrolysis produces two new substances (hydrogen and oxygen) whereas boiling
doesnt produce any new substances it just changes the state of the liquid to a gas
Electrolysis is difficult to reverse as you need to mix gases together at very high
temperatures whereas boiling is easily reversed
Electrolysis requires much more energy than boiling (needs 20-30 kj per gram)
whereas boiling only needs approximately 2.3 kj per gram because you are
separating the bonds between hydrogen and oxygen whereas when boiling you are
merely weakening the weaker intermolecular forces
Energy release during reactions
Decomposing a compound requires a large input of energy need to break strong
chemical bonds holding atoms together in the molecule (strong electrostatic forces in
ionic bonds and strong covalent bonds holding atoms together in molecules or
lattices)
As a rule: the stronger the chemical bonding in a compound is, the more energy is
needed to decompose the compound into atoms
The stronger the chemical bonding in a compound is, the more energy is released
when the compound is formed from its atoms in the first place
Everyday Examples
o Decomposition: air bags in cars, sodium azide is decomposed to sodium and
nitrogen by igniting it with a detonating cap
o Rusting of iron to form iron oxide

THE PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS ARE DETERMINED BY


THEIR BONDING AND STRUCTURE

BONDING
Ionic
Always compounds
Solids at room temperature
High melting points
(usually over 400C)
High boiling points (usually
over 1000C)
Very high melting and
boiling points because
when you melt an ionic
solid you break up the
electrostatic forces
between ions and they are
very strong so much
energy is needed to break
them
Hard because of the
strong electrostatic forces
between ions
Brittle if enough force is
applied the ions of the
same charge can come
close together, they repel,
causing the crystal to
shatter
As solids, they DO NOT
conduct electricity the
ions are tightly bound into
an orderly array and so
there are no free moving
electrons allowing the
movement of a current
through the substance
When molten or in
aqueous solution they DO
conduct electricity when
they melt this arrangement
of ions is broken up,
allowing electrons and
therefore current to travel
freely through
Ionic compound formulas
are empirical as they show
the ratio of the atoms as
they appear in the
compound

Covalent Molecular
Can be either compounds or
elements e.g. H2 or O2
At room temperature can be in
any state
Gases = e.g. nitrogen
Liquids = water, methanol
Solids = CBr4
Low melting points (usually
below 200C) involves
disrupting the orderly
arrangement of molecules and
is therefore easier as these
forces are weaker
Low boiling points (usually
below 400C) covalent
molecules involve strong
bonds within the molecule but
the intermolecular forces are
weak, therefore it needs not
much energy to break the
forces between each molecule,
making it easy to boil
When solid they are soft
intermolecular forces are easy
to overcome therefore it is
easy to distort this solid
Pure covalent substances DO
NOT conduct electricity with as
solids or liquids (only when
impure) there are no
charged particles free to move
as the electrons are localized
in pairs and there are no ions
In aqueous solution they DO
NOT conduct electricity unless
they react with water to form
ions

Metallic
Solid at room
temperature
(except mercury)
Hard and have
high melting points
very strong
electrostatic bonds
between sea of
electrons and
positive ions
Conduct electricity
delocalized
electrons allow
current to flow
through
Consist of an
orderly giant 3D
structure (lattice)
which is an array
of positive ions
held together by a
sea of delocalized
electrons
Metallic bond =
force of attraction
between free
electrons and
metal positive ions
Metals are
malleable and
ductile allows
the layers to slide
over each other
meaning that their
shape can be
distorted and they
do not break

Giant Covalent
Solids in which the
covalent bonding
extends throughout
the whole crystal
Have the same
properties as
molecular covalent
bonded substances
Oppositely charged
ions held in a 3D
lattice by
electrostatic
attraction
1:1 ratio (each pos.
surrounded by one
neg.)
EXAMPLES
o Diamond
Each carbon atom
is covalently
bonded to four
other carbon atoms
billions of atoms
are bonded in this
way to form a
covalent network
solid
o

Silica
SiO2 silicon wants
to form 4 covalent
bonds and oxygen
wants to form two =
each silicon atom is
bonded to four
oxygens formula
for a covalent lattice
compound shows
ratio in which the
atoms are present =
empirical formula

Diamond

HOW IT WORKS
Ionic

Covalent

EXAMPLES
Elements as covalent molecules:
H2, F2, Cl2, O2, N2 all diatomic gases
Phosphorus and sulfur exist as covalent molecules P4 and S8
Carbon exists as diamond which is a 3D lattice and as graphite (2D lattice)
Noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) all exists as monoatomic molecules
Graphite
o Form of carbon
o Covalently bonded however it conducts electricity layered structure where
each carbon only uses three electrons for bonding and the fourth is delocalized,
allowed to move freely throughout the layer free moving electrons = can
conduct

DEFINITIONS
Solution: homogeneous mixture in which
dissolved

one substance (solute) is


in another subatnce
(solvent)

Suspensions:
mixture where particles are large enough to be seen

heterogeneous

Colloid: mixture where size of particels are betwee suspension and solution
Diatomic molecules: more than one atom e.g. O2 N2 H2 etc, = all gases
Monoatomic molecules: exist as independent atoms e.g. all noble gases, do not need to bond
to be stable
Covalent bonds: pairs of atoms that are sharing electrons form covalent bonds

METALS
1. METALS HAVE BEEN USED FOR MANY THOUSANDS OF YEARS
Uses of metals through history and today
Metal
Copper

Historical Use
Ornaments, domestic
utensils

Modern Use
Electrical wiring, pipes
and plumbing fittings,
electroplating, jewellery
and household
decorations

Iron and steel

Tools and weapons

Railways and bridges,


car bodies, ships and
trains, reinforcing in
concrete, pipes, nails,
nuts and bolts, containers
and heavy machinery

Bronze

Tools and weapons

Aluminium

Building

Statues, door and


window frames, rails,
chutes
Planes, car parts, high
voltage electrical
transmission lines, drink
cans

Properties
High conductivity
Ductility
High melting point
(hard to melt),
soft and doesnt
corrode
Higher melting
point than copper
Hard and tough
(high tensile
strength)
Iron is malleable
easily rolled into
sheets
However it
corrodes
Hard, resists
corrosion, easily
cast
Low density
Good tensile
strength
High resistance to

Zinc

Galvanising iron, protective paints, casing for dry


cells (batteries)
Car batteries, plumbing, in crystal glass as glaze for
pottery

Lead

corrosion
Low melting point
High resistance to
corrosion

Use of alloys in relation to properties


Alloy: homogeneous mixture of a metal with one or more other elements.
The proportions of the elements in the alloy determine the properties and use of the alloy
Alloy
Solder (30-60% tin with lead)

Use

Brass (50-60% copper with


zinc)

Steel

Ships propellers,
casting statues
Plumbing fittings,
musical instruments,
decorations
MILD: Car bodies,
pipes, nuts and bolts
STRUCTURAL:
beams, railways,
reinforcing
HIGH-CARBON:
knives and tools e.g.
hammers
ALLOY STEELS:
electromagnets,
safes, ball bearings
STAINLESS: food
processing things,
kitchen sinks,
surgical and dental
instruments, razor
blades

Properties
Hard, easily cast,
resists corrosion
Lustrous gold
appearance, hard but
easily machined
MILD: soft, malleable
STRUCTURAL:
hard, high tensile
strength
HIGH-CARBON:
very hard
ALLOY STEELS:
hard and shock
resistant hard at high
temps, easily
de/magnetised
STAINLESS: hard,
resist corrosion

Energy and ores


In order to extract metals from their ores, energy is required to break the existing bonds in the
minerals. In ancient times, ores were heated with carbon (charcoal).
More metals now than 200 years ago why?
Before 1800 only ten metals were in use: copper, iron, tin, lead, gold, silver, zinc,
mercury, bismuth and platinum. They either occurred in the Earth as uncombined
elements or could be extracted by heating with carbon.
Developments of technology more metals can be extracted from their ores and can
be detected in the ground and separated from their combined forms
Abundance in the Earths crust was a major factor in using metals such as rhodium
Availability of metals for commercial and industrial use depends upon:
o Abundance of metal in the Earths crust
o Ease of extracting the metal from its naturally occurring ore
Chronology of ages
BRONZE AGE (2300-700 BC)
The Bronze Age in the Middle East (known at this time as the Near East) is divided into three
main periods (the dates are very approximate):

EBA - Early Bronze Age (c.3500-2000 BC) Turkey = copper and tin
MBA - Middle Bronze Age (c.2000-1600 BC) Copper mined in Egypt
LBA - Late Bronze Age (c.1600-1200 BC) Dominating battles using iron weapons

IRON AGE (700BC AD1)

Iron used predominantly for tools and weapons. Extracted through heating it with
charcoal then softening alloys included castiron

MODERN AGE (AD1 PRESENT)

Aluminium and iron used


Extraction: Blast furnace for iron, electrolysis from aluminium oxide for aluminium
Alloys: carbon, stainless and alloy steel

FUTURE AGE

Important substances: ceramics, plastics, composite metals


Ceramics from sand (fired in kiln) used for windows, glasses, cooing utensils, food
storage etc. because of its high melting temp, low density, high strength, corrosion
resistance
Plastics used for electrical wiring, insulation, bottles, ropes, toys because of its
hard/soft, no corrosion, flexible, tough and lightweight
Composites used for sport equipment, race cars, structural and building materials
because of its superior properties compared to that of its singular components

2. METALS DIFFER IN THEIR REACTIVITY WITH OTHER CHEMICALS AND THIS


INFLUENCES THEIR USES
Reactions of metals with water, oxygen and acids
Metal and oxygen

React to form oxide

Metal and water

Some react to produce


hydroxides/oxides and hydrogen
When water in form of steam = forms
oxides
When water in liquid form =
hydroxide
Many react with acids (hydrochloric
and sulphuric) to produce a salt and
hydrogen
To test for hydrogen you do the pop
test (with a lit splint)

Metal and acid

METAL + OXYGEN METAL OXIDE


METAL + ACID SALT + HYDROGEN
METAL + WATER (steam) METAL OXIDE + HYDROGEN
METAL + WATER (liquid) METAL HYDROXIDE + HYDROGEN

Activity series
Uses the reactivity of metals with oxygen, water and dilute acids to draw up a list of metals in
order of decreasing reactivity (activity series). This tells us that any metal above another in
the activity series can displace another in a reaction.
K (potassium)
Na (sodium)
Li (lithium)

Ba (barium)
Ca (calcium)
Mg (Magnesium)
Al (Aluminium)
Zn (Zinc)
Fe (Iron)
Sn (Tin)
Pb (Lead)
Cu (Copper)
Ag (Silver)
Pt (platinum)
Au (gold)

A more reactive metal (top of activity series) when reacted with a less reactive metal
will displace that metal in the equation
Therefore the less reactive metal will be left in its pure form and the more reactive
metal will take its place in the compound

Element
Potassium
Sodium
Calcium
Magnesium
Aluminum
Carbon
Zinc
Iron
Tin
Lead
Hydrogen
Copper
Silver
Gold
Platinum

Reaction with
oxygen

Reaction with water

Reaction with acid

Violent
Tarnishes Rapidly

Moderately
Slowly in cold water

Burns brightly when


heated

Violently
Vigorously
Moderately

Reacts only in steam

Reacts slowly when


heated

No reaction when
heated

Extremely slowly in
steam

No reaction

Slowly
Very slowly

No reaction in most
acids

NOTE: do not worry about carbon or hydrogen regarding their reactions simply included to
see how reactive they are in relation to the other metals
Uses of metals based on properties
Some situations where the choice of metal is based heavily upon chemical reactivity
(particularly with oxygen, water and dilute acids) are:
Roof guttering non-reactive but expensive aluminium
Water pipes expensive but non-reactive copper
Body implants expensive but extremely inert titanium
Relationship between reactivity of metals and their position of periodic table

The reactivity of the metals decreases as you move from left to right across the table because
the atoms have more electrons that they need to lose and energy is needed to strip those
electrons away from the increasingly more positive nucleus.
The reactivity of metals increases as you go down the group because the outer electrons
(which are lost when the metals reacts) are increasingly further from the nucleus. This means
that the nucleus exerts less of an electrostatic pull on the outer electron.
Ionisation energy
What is it: measure of the energy that is required to remove an electron from an atom. The
atom is in its gaseous state. The electron that is removed comes from the outermost shell
E.g. Na (g) e- Na+ (g)
The higher the ionisation energy, the more difficult it is to remove an electron
Generally the relationship between the periodic table and ionisation energy is:
LHS RHS ionisation energy increases
TOP BOTTOM ionisation energy decreases
The lower the ionisation energy, the more reactive is the element
The first ionisation energy measures the energy required to remove the first electron
from an atom
The second ionisation energy measures the energy required to remove the 2 nd
electron from the gaseous +1 ion
Oxidation and reduction

Whenever a metal undergoes a reaction especially with water and acids, they lose
electrons to form positive ions

1st Definition
When an atom loses electrons = oxidised
When an atom gains electrons = reduction

In any equation there is no overall loss of electrons therefore oxidation and reduction
occur simultaneously and are known as redox reactions

Agents
Oxidising Agent
Accepts electrons
Causes the oxidation of another
substance
Is always itself reduced
Has its oxidation state decreased

Reducing Agent
Donates electrons
Causes reduction of another
substance
Is always itself oxidised
Has its oxidation state increased

2nd Definition
Gain of oxygen = oxidation
Loss of oxygen = reduction
Oxidation States

Idea of oxidation state (number) is a way to track oxidation and reduction changes
that occur in chemical reactions
A set of rules have been assigned to elements, ions and compounds where they have
an oxidation state at the start and end of reaction

Rules
1. All elements in their standard states have oxidation numbers of 0
2. The charges on the ion is its oxidation number
E.g. Na+ = +1 oxidation number
O2- = -2 oxidation number
3. Certain atoms have been assigned fixed oxidation numbers e.g.
H in all of its compounds will have an oxidation number of +1
O in all of its compounds will be -2
F will always be -1 in its compounds
Cl will always be -1 in its compounds provided that oxygen isnt also present
Using these rules we can determine the other elements present. The sum of the oxidation
numbers in a compound or ion, is equal to the charge or O if the charge is neutral
Third Definition
Oxidation: increase in oxidation number
Reduction: reduction in oxidation number
Example
1) Write equation
Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)
2) Rewrite equation, separating the compounds into their lone ions
HCl = H+ and ClMgCl2 = Mg2+ and 2ClTherefore new equation: Mg + 2H+ + 2Cl- Mg2+ + 2Cl- + H2
3) Take note of the spectator ions (the ones that do not change after the reaction)
In this case the 2Cl- is the spectator ion, the rest have changed after the reaction
4) Write net ionic equation (equations where spectator ions are left out)
Mg (s) +2H+ (aq) Mg2+ (aq) +H2
5) Write half equations, separating the separate reactions between elements
Mg (s) 2e- Mg2+ (aq)
2H+ + 2e- H2 (g)
Therefore it is obvious that 2 electrons have been donated from magnesium to
hydrogen
6) Decide which have been oxidised and which have been reduced
In this case the magnesium has been oxidised and the hydrogen has been reduced
Oxidation
Is
Loss

Reduction
Is
Gain

THE RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND EASE OF EXTRACTION OF METALS INFLUENCES


THEIR VALUE AND BREADTH OF USE IN THE COMMUNITY
History of periodic table
Dalton

Dobereiner (1829)

Newlands (1864)

Mendeleev (1869)

Ramsay (1894)
Molesley (1914)

Seaborg (1940)

Recognised that diferent atoms have


different weights and used triads to
arrange the elements in order by
weight
Wanted to order elements by
chemical patterns and properties.
Idea of triads elements reacting in
similar ways with therefore similar
chemical properties, ultimately
leading to groups
Pattern of octaves: every 8 elements
patters would repeat led to idea of
periods
At this time there were approximately
60 elements
Arranged table according to atomic
weights and properties
Left gaps for elements that he
believed were left to be discovered
Discovered noble gases
Determined every elements atomic
number
Synthesised transuranic elements
(those after uranium in the Periodic
Table)

Relationship between position on periodic table and properties

Electrical Conductivity

Ionisation Energy

Atomic radius

Melting/boiling point

Left Right = conductivity


decreases the further across a period
you go as the metallic properties do
Top bottom = further down on the
table has high conductivity
Left Right = across a period,
ionisation energy increases
Top bottom = ionisation energy
decreases as you go down a group
Left Right = decrease in atomic
radius because the positively
charged nucleus that you get as
move right gets stronger therefore
bringing electrons closer to the
nucleus
Top bottom = increases the further
down you go as you get more shells
= larger radius
Peak in group 4 (they tend to form
covalent network solids)
Noble gases = v. low = almost never
bond
Groups 1 and 2 = metallic bonding =
moderate and as you go down it
decreases as the metallic bonding

Valency

Electronegativity

Reactivity

decreases
Group 7 = weak intermolecular
forces = low m/bp but increases as
you go down a group (same as group
8)
Peak in group 4
Refers to the number of elements it
can combine with
Relative power of an element to
attract electrons to itself in a covalent
bond
Left right = increases (more
protons therefore more attraction and
pull power)
Top bottom = decreases
Therefore F is the most
electronegative element
Increases going down a group for
group 1
Group 7 decreases going down
No trend going across, just in
separate groups

FOR EFFICIENT RESOURCE USE, INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS MUST USE


MEASURED AMOUNTS OF EACH REACTANT
Relative atomic mass (atomic weight)
Most of an atoms mass is from the nucleus
All atomic weights are relative to the mass of Carbon-12 which is exactly 12
Carbon 12 = 6 protons and 6 neutrons
Mass is very small and therefore difficult to isolate the mass of one atom
For this reason, chemists determine the relative mass of atoms. E.g. a silver atom
has 4 times the mass of a carbon atom. Since they are relative they have no units
Examples of relative masses found on the periodic table
o Carbon = 12
o Aluminium = 27
o Chlorine = 35.5
o Gold = 197
o Lead = 207.2
o Silver = 107.9
Isotopes

Many elements dont have whole number atomic weights


This is because most elements have more than one isotope (atoms with different
numbers of neutrons)
Therefore the relative atomic weights are averages of these isotopes

E.g.
99% of carbon is carbon 12
0.9% is carbon 13
0.1% is carbon 14 (this is all determine by a mass spectrometer)
Average mass = (99x12) + (0.9x13) + (0.1x14)
100
= 12.011
Molecular mass
Molecular mass/weight: sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecular formula
E.g.
Molecular weight of C12H22011
M.W. = (12 x Ac) + (22 x AH) + (11 x Ao)
= (12 x 12.0) + (22 x 1.01) + (11 x 16.0)
= 342.2 (but no units because mass is only relative)
Formula mass
Formula mass/weight: sum of atomic weights atoms in a compound with no discreet
molecules (e.g. ionic compound). They describe the ratio of atoms present, but are calculated
in the same way as molecular weights
E.g.
Ca3(PO4)2 is:
Ca3, P2, O8
F.W. = (3 x ACa) + (2 x AP) + (8 x A0)
= (3 x 40.1) + (2 x 31) + (8 x 16)
= 310.3

The mole
1 mole of any substance is equal to 6.022 x 1023 particles including atoms, ions, electrons,
molecules etc.

1 mole = number of particles in 12g of Carbon-12 = 6.022 x 1023


For example:
1 mole of carbon = 12g
1 mole of oxygen = 16g
1 mole of O2 has mass = 32g
1 mole of H2O molecules = 18g
12g of carbon-12 contain 6.022 x 1023 atoms. This is Avogadros number and is equivalent to
one mole of carbon atoms
Avogadros Number = 6.022 x 1023 = 1 mole

n = number of moles
m = mass (g)
mr = molar mass

n = mass
mr
Empirical formula
Empirical formula: simplest whole number ratio of all the elements in a compound
For example:
C4H10 is the molecular formula BUT C2H5 is the empirical formula
Examples
1. Find the empirical formula of a compound made up of 20g of Ca, 6g of Carbon and
24g of Oxygen
Ca = 40
C = 12
O = 16
20 : 6 : 24
40
12
16

(divide by the mass of each element)

1
2

: 1
2

(simplify ratios)

: 3
2

1 : 3

(get rid of common denominator)

Therefore the empirical formula is CaCO3


2. Empirical formula from composition A compund is found to be %C = 55.5%, %H =
9.1% and %O = 36.4%
Step 1 assume there is 100g and therefore the percentages are grams
55.5g of Carbon
9.1g of Hydrogen
36.4g of Oxygen
Step 2 turn g into moles
55.5g/12 = 4.538 moles C
9.1g/1 = 9.09 moles H
36.4g/16 = 2.275 moles O
Step 3 write in ratio form
1.538 : 9.1 : 2.275

Step 4 divide by smallest (to get the ratio to 1: something)


4.538 : 9.1 : 2.275
2.275 : 2.275: 2.265
Therefore empirical formula is C2H4O
Gay-lussac
Law states that gases at equal temperatures and pressures react in whole number
ratios to one another
Notice above that the volume ratio is equal to the coefficients in the reaction and
there if no conservation of volumes precursor to idea of moels
Avogadro
Law states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure
contain the same numbers of molecules
Now we have a convenient way of determining gas volumes in a reaction since we
can replace gas volumes for moles
E.g. 2 moles of Hydrogen gas and 1 mole of oxygen gas 2 moles of water gas is
same as 2H2 + O2 2H2O
In the above equation there are 2 volumes of hydrogen, 1 volume of oxygen and 2
volumes of water
Volume calculations from these laws

All problems are under conditions of 25C and 100kPa pressure


Mole of a gas 24.79 litres

EXAMPLE
What volume of oxygen is required for the complete combustion of 11.5g of sodium?
4Na (s) + O2 (g) 2Na2O (s)
Ratio is 4:1
Number of moles of sodium = 11.5/23 = 0.5
Divide this by 4 to get number of moles of oxygen = 0.125
Therefore the volume of oxygen = n x 24.79
= 3.09875 litres
Mole calculations
1. Calculating number of moles when given atoms
E.g. 3.01 x 1024 carbon atoms find the number of moles
Divide number of atoms by Avogadros number to get number of moles
2. Finding number of moles when given grams
Number of moles = mass (g) usually given in question
Molar mass of the compound/element
E.g. How many moles are contained in 1.01g of neon gas?
N = 1.01/20.2 = 0.5
3. Calculating mass from number of moles
Mass = no. of moles x atomic weight (found on periodic table)
E.g. calculate the mass of 2.05 moles of rubidium atoms
Mass = 2.05 x 85.5 = 175g
4. Calculating mass from ratio (when given grams of wrong element)

First determine ratio between elements by looking at the coefficients of the substances in
balanced equation
Second work out number of moles in the substance that you are given the grams for
Third use the ratio to work out the moles of the other substance
Fourth use number of moles to calculate mass in g
EXAMPLE: Calculate the mass of sodium needed to react with 10g of titanium chloride
TiCl4 + 4Na Ti + 4NaCl
First It is obvious that the ratio is 1:4
Second using the 10g of titanium we can work out the number of moles of titanium chloride
Number of moles = 10/19 = 1/19
Third but its in ratio 1:4 so multiply by four to get the number of moles of the sodium
1/19 x 4 = 4/19 moles
Fourth work out mass of 4/19 moles of sodium
Mass = 4/19 x 23
= 4.8 (1dp) grams
Yield
Theoretical yield what you expect to gain from reaction
Actual yield what you actually get in reality
% yield = actual yield/theoretical yield
EXAMPLE
Part a) Calculate mass of ammonia that can be formed from 12g of Hydrogen
3H2 + N2 2NH3
Calculate mass normally by finding no. of moles and multiplying by molar mass
Found 68g to be the theoretical yield
Part b) 20g was formed in this reaction. Calculate percentage yield
20/68 x 100 = 29.4%

THE RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND EASE OF EXTRACTION OF METALS INFLUENCES


THEIR VALUE AND BREADTH OF USE IN THE COMMUNITY
Minerals and ores
Minerals
Naturally occurring compounds found in the Earth where most metals (except Au and Ag)
are found. Most common minerals that contain metals in Aus = oxides and sulphides.
Minerals are pure compounds and usually crystalline
Ores
Non-renewable mineral deposits that are economically feasible to extract metals from. Ores
are impure and may contain a number of compounds including minerals. They are nonrenewable substances because there is a finite number of them that occur naturally on Earth
and their abundance can be extinguished.
Examples: Bauxite Al2O3 and Sphalerite ZnS
Economic considerations of mining
Factors affecting metal prices:
Worldwide demand for metal
Cost of purification cost of transporting metal, relative cost of production including
amount of energy required
Abundance of metals in ores
Extraction of copper
1) Copper ore: consists of:
Chalcolite
Chalcopyrite
2) Froth flotation
Copper mixed with water and frothing agent
This sticks to copper, bring it to the top
3) Roasting
Ore is heated with oxygen to remove sulphur components (impurities)
4) Iron Removal
Produced iron silicate
5) Reduction
Copper sulphide copper metal (98%) blister copper
6) Electrolysis = pure copper
Recycling aluminium
1. Collection of used products from homes and businesses
2. Transport to recycling facility
3. Separate Al from impurities (Al in labels and cans etc.)
4. Re-smelt the Al into ingots for transport to product manufacturers
Why recycle
Less energy required to recycle a metal than is required to extract it from its ore
Metal ores are non-renewable natural resources that need to be conserved
Less waste to dispose of

WATER
WATER IS DISTRIBUTED ON EARTH AS A SOLID, LIQUID AND GAS
Solute: a substance that is dissolved by a solvent in a solution
Solvent: a substance that dissolves a solute in a solution

Solution: homogeneous mixtures that contain a solvent and solute


Examples:
Sea water solvent is water, solute is salt
Blood solvent is water, solutes are oxygen and nutrients
Significance on Earth
For living things
Transport for
nutrients in cells
Raw material for
plants in
photosynthesis
Solvent for nutrients
and oxygen in blood
Solvent for wastes
(e.g. CO2 and sweat)

Habitat for life


Place where
aquatic plants
and animals
live
Much less
fluctuation in
temperature
high heat
capacity

Natural resource
Drinking and
food prep
Washing
clothes, dishes
etc.
Irrigation
Recreation
Transportation
Hydroelectricity

Alters landforms
Moving water in
rivers = canyons
Can erode rocks
by dissolving
minerals
Glaciers change
the landscapes
from mountains
to sea

Spheres
Biosphere
Liquid (as a
solvent for
nutrients)
60-90% in most
living things (5075 in humans)

Lithosphere
Solid, liquid or
chemically bound as
waters of hydration
Variable %s in
groundwater,
aquifers and rocks

Hydrosphere
Liquid and
solid
Approx. 95% in
oceans,
lakes/rivers
and icecaps

Atmosphere
Gas and liquid
Up to 5% in air,
variable
depending upon
environment

Density
DENSITY = MASS/VOLUME

Most substances contract as they cool = increase in density = decrease in kinetic


energy of particles
Temperature of water decreases (to 5C) the H-bonds arrange themselves so that
there is more space between water molecules density drops until solid ice is
formed
Low density = ice floats on water

EXPERIMENT
Density of water
1. Add an amount of water to beaker and weigh
2. Measure temp of water
3. Repeat in 10mL increments
What happens: as volume increases, density increases
Density of ice
1. Weigh ice cube
2. Measure 100mL of water into beaker
3. Submerge ice cube and calculate difference in volume
4. Use d = m/v to find density
THE WIDE DISTRIBUTION AND IMPORTANCE OF WATER ON EARTH IS A
CONSEQUENCE OF ITS MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND HYDROGEN BONDING
Lewis Dot Diagrams
CH4 (methane)

NH3 (ammonia)

H2S (Hydrogen sulfide)

H2O (water)

CO2 (carbon dioxide)

Molecular Structure Comparison


Shape of molecule

Water
Bent

Ammonia
Pyramidal

Hydrogen Sulfide
Bent

M.p (C)
B.p. (C)

0
100

-78
-33

-86
-60

Valence Shell Repulsion Theory


CH4

NH3

H2O

CO2

Hydrogen Bonding
Type of intermolecular force that involves a hydrogen atom bonded to an O, N or F
atom in one molecule becoming attached to an O, N or F from a different molecule
This results in an unequal sharing of electrons leading to a partial positive charge on
the H atom
These bonds are stronger than dipole-dipole and dispersion forces, but about one
tenth of that of a normal covalent bond

Page 191 picture

Ammonia

Water

Polarity
Bond can be polar or non-polar
Depends on the difference in electronegativity of the atoms in that bond
Electronegativity: measure of the ease at which an atom attracts electrons (recall that
F is the most electronegative element)
Example 1
Hydrogen fluoride

Polar bond = polar molecule


The F has a slightly negative polarity because it is more electronegative and therefore
has more pull on the electrons
For something to be a polar molecule with a polar bond one end must be positive
and one end must be negatively charged
It is permanently like this

Example 2
NH3 (ammonia)

Ammonia contains 3 separate polar bonds


Therefore ammonia is a polar molecule
Example 3
CH4 (methane)

Both carbon and Hydrogen share the same electronegativity


Therefore the charges on both are the same
Therefore the bond is non-polar and methane is a non-polar molecule
Dipole-Dipole Forces
What are they?
Because polar molecules have positive and negative ends, they are able to line up so
that the positive end of one molecule attracts the negative end of another molecule
Therefore electrostatic attraction holds the molecules to one another more strongly
than in non-polar molecules
These electrostatic attractions are called dipole-dipole froces
Polar Covalent Bonding
2 atoms have difference in electronegativity the one with HIGHER value tends to
have a partially NEGATIVE charge (there is a stronger attraction to electrons in higher
electronegative atoms)
For the same reason usually the LOWER electronegativity tends to have a
POSITIVE charge
Molecular dipoles occur due to the unequal sharing of electrons between atoms in a
molecule.
Net Dipole
Not all molecules with polar covalent bonds are polar overall or have a net dipole
Some molecules contain polar bonds that cancel out the effect of any single bond
This molecule contains two
polar covalent bonds, but no
overall net dipole.
Dipole-Dipole Interactions
When there is an overall net dipole interactions between them is electrostatic
Positive end is attracted to negative end of another molecule
Dipole-dipole interactions are not as strong as hydrogen bonds

Properties Intermolecular Forces


Surface Tension
Cohesive forces = water

Viscosity
Reistance of a liquid

Melting/boiling point
The larger the

molecules are attracted


to each other in all
directions
At surface molecules
are only attracted either
side or down (obviously
cant be attracted
upwards)
This results in an overall
force in towards the liquid
Unbalanced force results
in surface tension also
explains why water forms
droplets as all of the
force is directed inwards

to flow
Two factors affect
viscosity: size and
complexity of
molecules AND
intermolecular forces
The stronger the
forces the more
resistance to flow
and therefore the
higher the viscosity
Water has a
relatively high
viscosity due to
strong hydrogen
bonding

molecule, the higher


the melting and boiling
point
The stronger the
intermolecular forces
are, the higher the
melting and boiling
points are (as melting
and boiling involve the
breaking of
intermolecular forces)
Water has a high
melting/boiling point
due to the strength of
hydrogen bonding

Expansion on Freezing
Ice nearly all molecules are hydrogen bonded to each other
Each oxygen has 4 H atoms around it two covalently bonded and two hydrogen
bonded
This arrangement = open structure
When melts individual water molecules are able to move breaking up hydrogen
bonding
Less hydrogen bonding = molecules move closer water higher density than ice
(same mass occupies smaller volumes)
WATER IS AN IMPORTANT SOLVENT
Type of substance
Soluble Ionic
Compound

Soluble molecular
compound

Particle interaction with water

E.g. NaCl made up of pos Na ions and neg Cl ions


Lattice electrostatic attraction
Water is polar pos and neg ends as well
Water is attracted to charged ions in salt lattice
Dissociation: water molecules surround ions, overcoming
forces between salt particles

Ions in lattice are dispersed in solvent


However not all ionic compounds are soluble in water
E.g. sucrose Contains many polar OH groups that attract
water molecules
This attraction breaks the crystal structure and distributes
individual sugar molecules through water
The only soluble molecular compounds are highly polar or
can form hydrogen bonds with water this allows them to
break the crystal structure
E.g. ethanol

Soluble/partially
soluble
element/compound

Covalent network
structure
Substance with large
molecules

Covalent molecular held together by dipole-dipole or


dispersion (weak compared to hydrogen bonds) therefore
this type is usually insoluble
E.g. iodine: non-polar substance, held together by weak
dispersion forces therefore insoluble in water more so in
non-polar solvents
E.g. oxygen gas: many gases like O2, N2, CO2 are non-polar
and therefore insoluble in water
E.g. Hydrogen Chloride: Molecules go through ionization
HCl reacts with water to produce H and Cl ions in solution,
meaning they are highly soluble in water
The solubility of a substance in water depends on whether it
reacts with water
E.g. Silicon dioxide: v. strong covalent bonds in rigid lattice
Strong bonds cannot be broken by attraction to water molecul
Therefore insoluble in water
E.g. cellulose: There are polar OH groups, but log chains lie
beside each other and are involved in hydrogen bonding
meaning the OH groups are not accessible to the water
molecules. Therefore cellulose is insoluble in water
E.g. polyethene: non-polar and therefore is insoluble in water
Generally: the larger the molecule, the less likely it will be
soluble in water unless there are a large number of
accessible polar groups

Solubility Relationships Summary


Water is polar molecule with slight negative on oxygen end and slight positive on
hydrogen end
LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE polar solutes dissolve up in polar solvents and non-polar
solutes dissolve up in non-polar solvents
Dissolution: process where ions in a solid are dispersed in a solvent (happens with
NaCl as they break down into ions)
Ionization: process where covalent molecule reacts with water to form ions in solution
(happens between HCl and water)
Covalent network: highly insoluble due to strong lattice structures
Large molecules: tend to be insoluble unless they have lots of accessible polar sites
Most non-polar molecules: insoluble or slightly soluble in water
Solubility Rules
Soluble Compounds
All sodium, Potassium and
Lithium
All ammonium
Chlorides, Bromides and
Iodides except those of Silver,
Mercury and Lead
All Nitrates and Acetates and
Sulfates, except Calcium,
Strontium, Barium, Lead,
Mercury and Silver

Hydrogen Bonding

Insoluble Compounds
Carbonates, Chromates and Phosphates
except Sodium, Potassium, Lithium,
Caesium and Ammonium
Sulfides except Sodium, Potassium,
Lithium, Caesium, Beryllium, Magnesium,
Calcium, Strontium, Barium and
Ammonium
Hydroxides and Oxides except Sodium,
Potassium, Lithium, Caesium, Beryllium,
Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium and
Barium

Attraction between a hydrogen on one molecule and an oxygen particle on another


molecule
Intermolecular attraction
OR interaction between an F atom and an H atom
OR interaction between N atom and an H atom
F, N, O, H: all have high electronegativity and therefore always have a slightly
neg/pos charge causes attractions
E.g. ammonia can dissolve up in water due to its polarity

DRAWING FROM EXERCISE BOOK

THE CONCENTRATION OF SALTS IN WATER WILL VARY ACCORDING TO THEIR


SOLUBILITY, AND PRECIPITATION CAN OCCUR WHEN THE IONS OF AN INSOLUBLE
SALT ARE IN SOLUTION TOGETHER
Formation of Precipitate
If ionic bonds are stronger than interaction with water, compound will be insoluble
If two solutions of different ionic compounds are mixed, an insoluble compound
(precipitate) may form
Precipitate Examples:
Barium nitrate(aq) + sodium sulphate(aq) barium sulphate(s) + sodium
nitrate(aq)
Al3+(aq) + 3NH3(aq) + 3H2O(aq) Al(OH)3(aq) +3NH4+(aq)
Equilibrium
Products react to form reactants as well as reactants forming products
Known as reversible reactions
Both take place simultaneously
Forward and reverse reactions happening at same rate = dynamic equilibrium
where we can see no observable changes in the system
This only happens in ionic compounds
Therefore, it looks like nothing is happening because ions are moving in and out of
solution at the same rate
Equilibrium in Saturated Solution
Saturated solution: maximum amount of solute is dissolved in a given amount of
solvent
In a saturated solution dissolved solute is in equilibrium with any undissolved solid
Any solid that is added to the system doesnt affect the equilibrium
Rate of crystallization and dissolution will be the same
Concentration of Solutions
Defined as amount of solute in a specified amount of solvent there are many ways
of expressing concentration depending on the purpose and circumstances

C=n
v
Mass per
unit
volume
(g/L)

Percent by
mass (w/w)

Percent by
volume

Parts per
million

AND

n = mass
mr

Used when describing solubility or making solutions involving


dissolving a solid in solvent
Example: 2g of fertilizer is dissolved in enough water to make a 50mL
solution. Calculate the concentration of the fertilizer in g/L
Solution: m = 2g and V = 0.050L
Concentration
Compares weight of solute with weight of solution and is then
converted to a percentage
E.g. concentration = 35 (mass of solute) /135 (mass of solution) x 100
= 26%
Used when liquids are dissolved in liquids
Ratio is calculated and converted to percentage
E.g. concentration = 2.5 (volume of solute) /30 (volume of solution) x
100 = 5.0% (v/v)
Parts of particular solute per million parts of mixture
E.g. is the maximum allowable concentration of DDT in beef is 1.5ppm,
would a 500g sample of beef containing 0.075g of DDT be acceptable
Solution: M of DDT = 0.075g and M of beef = 500g (make sure both are
in same units)
Concentration = 0/075/500 x 1 000 000 = 150ppm (this is 100 times the
allowable limit therefore not permitted)

Dilution Calculations

C1 x V 1 = C 2 x V 2
C1 = initial concentration
V1 = volume to be taken from the original solution and transferred into the second solution
with new concentration
C2 = new concentration
V2 = volume of solution (usually stays constant)
WATER HAS A HIGHER HEAT CAPACITY THAN MANY OTHER LIQUIDS
Specific Heat Capacity
Measure of the amount of energy (in joules J) that is needed to raise 1g of a
substance by 1C
The higher the heat capacity the more resistant a substance is to a change in
temperature
Water has a heat capacity of 4.18 JK/g

H = -mcT
(only add in the negative if you need to see whether the reaction is endo or exo thermic)
H energy released/absorbed (J)
m mass of substance (g)
C specific heat capacity (e.g. 4.18Jg-1K-1)
T change in temperature (final minus initial temperature)
Example:
What quantity of energy is required to raise the temperature of 0.5L of water from 20C to
100C?
H = mcT
H = 500g x 4.18 x 80C
= 167200J
= 167kJ
In Chemical Reactions:

Hrxn = H(products) H(reactants)


It is possible to measure the changes in heat content in chemical reactions
Change in enthalpy is known as heat of reaction
There are two possibilities:
1. Energy of reactants is positive
2. Energy or products will be positive
Energy Changes Involving Dissolution
When an ionic substance dissolves, it may be endothermic (absorbs heat/gets cold)
or it may be exothermic (releases heat/warms up). The change in heat (enthalpy)
when one mole of a solute dissolves in a solvent is called the molar heat of solution,
Hsolution

e give

Breaking the bonds that hold ions together requires energy (endothermic)
Forming bonds with water (hydration) releases energy (exothermic)
So, Hsoln = heat absorbed when breaking bonds heat released when forming
bonds (in kJ/mol.)

Endo/Exothermic
Endothermic
Enthalpy/heat content of reactant < products
Heat is absorbed
H is positive
Heat from surroundings is absorbed - temperature
of surroundings will go down
Final temp initial temp = NEGATIVE
This is because the temp of surroundings go
down
Final temp < initial temp
When solute/solvent relationships are weaker
Therefore:
T is always negative
H is always positive

Exothermic
Enthalpy of reactants > products
Heat is released
H is negative
Heat is given out to the surroundings
Final temp initial temp = POSITIVE
This is because the temp of surroundings
(water) goes up
Final temp > initial temp
When solute/solvent relationship is stronger
Therefore:
T is always positive
H is always negative

Examples from exercise book

Possible Causes of Error

Draft lost from room heat goes into air and surroundings go up rather than water
Depends on how well you read the thermometer
Insulation of cup/container
Whole experiment is dependent on weighing and measuring the temperature
therefore they are sources of error

Dissolving Solutes
Ionic Compounds
Completely dissolve and
dissociate to give ions in
solution
E.g: NaCl Na+ + Cl Therefore, NaCl is an
electrolyte and will conduct
electricity

Molecular Compounds
Those that dissolve include: glucose, sucrose
They dissolve, but dont dissociate to give
ions
C6H12O6(s) C6H12O6(aq)
Therefore no ions are released and it is a
NON-electrolyte
Thus, has no conductivity

Ionic compounds with high solubility = strong electrolyte


Ionic compounds with low solubility = weak electrolyte
Molecular compounds which dont dissolve = non-electrolyte
Thermal Properties of Water for Organisms
Need narrow temperature ranges to survive
Water in cells provides necessary temperature regulation
It can do this due to:
High heat capacity: large additions of hear = small change in temperature
High thermal conductivity relative to other liquids (quickly removes heat from
a hot place to a cold one)
Water is such a large proportion of most living organisms

Aquatic organisms high heat capacity of water means their environment maintains a
much more stable temperature than land
Waters prominence in the biosphere means that it has a moderating influence on
global temperatures
Thermal Pollution
Refers to human acitivity dramatically changing the temperature of waterwyas
Most commonly use of natural water bodies for industrial cooling e.g. power plants
Thermal pollution can have detrimental eggects on aquatic life:
Solubility of oxygen decreases as temperature increases
Sharp increase in temperature may directly kill fish and other organisms
High temperatures can prevent development of fish eggs
ENERGY
LIVING ORGANISMS MAKE COMPOUNDS WHICH ARE IMPORTANT SOURCES OF
ENERGY
Photosynthesis
6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) (light and chlorophyll) C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2

Endothermic
Autotrophs make their own food by photosynethsis
Using chlorophyll, they convert light energy to chemical energy
Release

Respiration
C6H12O6 CO2 + H2O + energy
Cellular respiration releases the stored chemical energy
The amount of energy released during respiration per mole of glucose is equal to the
amount of energy absorbed during photosynthesis
Uses for respiration
Used directly for activities
Converted to protein for growth/repair of tissues
Stored as fat for energy reserves
Most is released as heat back to the environment
Carbohydrates
Photosynthesis is the production of glucose
However, photosynthesis actually makes many other carbohydrates as well
Carbohydrates contain the chemical energy that is released by living things
The general equation of a carbohydrate:

Cx(H2O)y insert x and y for different carbs


Common carbs:
Glucose and fructose
Sucrose and maltose
Starch, cellulose and glycogen
Fossil Fuels
Normally as plants die, decomposers (insects, worms, bacteria) break down decaying
material water CO2, minerals
Decaying plants/animals (energy released)(decomposers) CO2, H2O, nutrients

Formed when dead and decaying material was buried before complete
decomposition
Formed over millions of years due to the heat/pressure beneath the Earths surface
Energy-rich compounds known as hydrocarbons
Chemical potential energy is released when burning in oxygen
Sequence of Production

Coal

Petroleum

Natural Gas

Often formed in swamps and mangroves


Plant material is anaerobically decomposed (i.e. without oxygen) by
anaerobic bacteria
As more and more layers of material are deposited, carbon content
increases
Temperature and pressure conditions reduce the amount of oxygen
(as CO2) and hydrogen (as CH4)

Some impurities are sulphur and other inorganics


Mostly formed from the remains of buried aquatic organisms (e.g.
plankton) broken down by anaerobic bacteria
They contain a mixture of hydrocarbons commonly known as crude
oil
Oil is deposited in porous sedimentary rocks and the less dense oil
moves upwards unless blocked by impermeable rock
Most of Australias oil deposits are found offshore (e.g. the Gippsland
Basin (Bass Strait) and the North-West Shelf (WA))
Mostly the remains of buried aquatic organisms
Often found in a trapped layer just above petroleum deposits
Often contains up to 90% methane
Also contains propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) which are
liquefied to produce LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)

THERE IS A WIDE VARIETY OF CARBON COMPOUNDS


Carbon
Group 4 of periodic table
4 valence electrons
Can form 4 covalent bonds
Carbon can form 4 single bonds, double bonds and triple bonds with a wide variety of
elements forming nearly 10 000 000 known compounds
Single Bonds

Double Bonds

Triple Bonds

Tetravalent Carbon
Carbon has 4 valence electrons therefore forms 4 bonds with other elements to
make a full valence shell
All valence electrons are involved in bonding
This bonding leads to tetrahedral shapes when all bonds are single

Hydrocarbons are made up of carbon bonded to H, but many elements can take its
place such as halogens (Cl, F) and N, O, S
Forms of Carbon
Allotropes: forms of an element with different properties. Carbon has 4:
Arnorphous
Graphite
Diamond
Buckminsterfullerene

Soot from incomplete burning of hydrocarbons consisting of


shapeless particles
Thin sheets of six-sided carbon rings in layers held together
by weak intermolecular forces
Crystalline covalent network substance
Bucky balls
Contains 60 carbons with 5 and 6 carbon rings arranged in
a structure similar to a soccer ball

A VARIETY OF CARBON COMPOUNDS ARE EXTRACTED FROM ORGANIC SOURCES


Fractional Distillation
Crude oil contains a mixture of hydrocarbons ranging from carbon (C1) up to more
than C24.
Fractional distillation allows for these components to be separating through a
fractionating column
Heat is applied to bottom of the column and lighter compounds with lower boiling
points rise to the top
Heavier compounds remain towards the bottom
Chains of carbon bonding get longer as you go down
The gases at the very top are used for BBQ, camping gas and cooking (they dont
condense)
In the past, the most important organic chemicals were derived from coal, but now
natural gas and crude petroleum provide an alternative source
Composition of crude petroleum varies according to its source
Rough fractions can then be distilled further to obtain narrower boiling ranges
IUPAC Nonclemature
Homologous series: a family of compounds with the same general formula
Straight-chain alkanes: carbons joined together to form a single chain with no branching.
Isomers: compounds that have the same molecular formula, but different structure.
ALKANES
General Formula:

CnH2n+2

All have similar chemical properties


Homologous series
No functional group
Different physical properties because: as chain gets longer, intermolecular forces
between chains gets stronger therefore bouling and melting points start to increase
i.e. first four members are gases as chain gets longer it becomes less volatile
and more viscose

No. of C
1

Molecular
CH4
Methane

Empirical
CH4

Structure

C2H6
Ethane

CH3

C3H8
Propane

C3H8

C4H10
Butane

C2H5

C5H12
Pentane
(from here the prefixes are
normal hex, hept, oct etc.)

C2H12

ALKENES
General Formula:

CnH2n (where C > 2)


n

Related to the alkanes


All contain one C = C double bond
There is a functional group (unlike the alkanes) as there is a double bond and this is
where they undergo reactions)
The longer the chain the higher the forces between molecules therefore higher
melting/boiling points for longer chains
Alkenes have isomers because the double bond can be in a different location above
C4. The location of the double bond is indicated by a numerical prefix counting from
the shortest end.
Prefix for 7 carbons is hept
No. of Carbon
2

Molecular
C2H4
Ethene

Empirical
CH2
(this is always the
same)

C3H3
Propene

CH2

C4H8
Butene

CH2

Structure

C5H10
Pentene

CH2

Comparison between Anes and Enes


Alkanes
Alkenes
Boiling and melting points increase
Boiling and melting points increase
with number of carbon atoms
with increased number of carbons
C1 to C4 are gases at room temp
C2 to C4 are gases at room temp
C5 to C17 are liquids
C5 to C15 are liquids
Greater than C18 are solid
All above C16 are solid
Weak dispersion forces that increase
Similar to alkanes
in strength with increasing molecular
mass
More electrons = stronger forces
Non-polar due to symmetrical shape
Similar to alkanes
and similarity of electronegativity of H
and C
Densities increase with increased
Similar to alkanes
molecular mass
All are less dense than water (float
on top)
Volatility
Volatility refers to how easily a substance evaporates or changes state
Liquid hydrocarbons such as petrol readily evaporate
In a closed container, a dynamic equilibrium will be achieved between evaporation
and condensation (i.e. same rate).
Once dynamic equilibrium is established, a constant pressure is exerted on the
container known as vapour pressure.
The weaker the intermolecular forces, the lower the boiling point and the greater the
volatility.
Safe Storage of Alkanes and Alkenes
Weak intermolecular forces and low molecular weight of alkanes = extreme flammability.
Some alkanes are carcinogenic (potential to cause cancer), so safe storage of alkanes (and
many other hydrocarbons) needs to consider the following:
Minimise the quantity of material to be stored
Store in cool place with good ventilation (flammable cabinet)
Avoid inhaling the vapours
Use in a fume hood
Keep away from sparks or naked flames
Store in approved containers (sturdy with narrow neck)
Gas cylinders should be regularly checked and stored outside, under cover in wellventilated area. They should also be strapped to a permanent structure.
Branching and Naming

COMBUSTION PROVIDES ANOTHER OPPORTUNTY TO EXAMINE THE CONDITIONS


UNDER WHICH CHEMICAL REACTIONS OCCUR
Indicators of chemical reactions
At least one new substance is formed
A change in colour (not always a chemical reaction)
A gas is given off (acid + carbonate produces CO2)

Heat is produced or absorbed (combustion)


Light is given off (chemiluminescence)
A precipitate forms (insoluble ionic compounds)

Combustion is Exothermic
Combustion of a material involves its combination with oxygen gas
Because combustion reactions release energy in the form of heat and light, they are
exothermic.
Examples of exothermic (many more)
Combustion reactions
Reactions between metals and water
Reactions between metals and acid
Reactions of acids and bases

Examples of endothermic
Decomposition reactions
Photosynthesis
Some precipitation reactions
Formation of synthesis gas

Why is combustion exothermic?


Energy is required to break bonds therefore the breaking of bonds is endothermic
Energy is released when bonds form therefore the forming of bonds is exothermic
E.g. when methane burns in oxygen to form carbon dioxde and water C-H bonds in
methane and O-O bonds in oxygen gas are broken and C-O and H-O bonds are
formed to make carbon dioxed and water
This is a combustion reaction: 2H2 + O2 2H2O (it is obvious that bonds have been
formed and therefore combustion is exothermic as it releases energy)
H = (energy needed to break reactant bonds) (energy needed to make bonds for products)
Where H = enthalpy change for a reaction
In other terms, where H is enthalpy change:

Hrxn = E (bonds broken) - E (bonds formed)


Enthalpy
Enthalpy it is the measure of the total energy possessed by a substance or group of
substances. We cant measure the enthalpy itself, but we can measure changes in it
Enthalpy change defined as the heat absorbed when the reaction occurs at a constant
pressure (basically the heat change)
H = enthalpy change
Therefore the enthalpy change: H = enthalpy of products enthalpy of reactants
For ENDOTHERMIC reactions, H is POSITIVE
For EXOTHERMIC reactions, H is NEGATIVE
Measuring Enthalpy Changes
Calculating molar enthalpy changes from data:
1. Calculate the amount of heat released or absorbed by using H = mCT
2. Calculate the number of moles that reacted from no. of moles = mass/mr
3. Calculate the heat relased/absorbed per mole from: total heat rel or abs/no. of moles
4. H is plus the heat absorbed or minus the heat released
Energy Profile Diagrams

Activation Energy

The activation energy is


the minimum amount of
energy that is required
by the reactants for the
reaction to proceed to
the products.

Ignition Energy

The minimum
temperature required by
a substance to ignite.

Relationship:
The higher the activation energy, the higher the ignition temperature
In order for a fuel to ignite, a certain amount of heat energy must be applied to the
substance
Not all of the particles must be heated to this temperature to start the reaction.
Once the combustion reaction has started, the resulting release of energy provides
sufficient temperatures for neighbouring particles to ignite.
Sources of Pollution
Incomplete combustion can produce carbon monoxide and carbon (CO and C) Sulfur
Dioxide/Trioxide
Sulfur Dioxide: Sulfur is an impurity in fossil fuels, mainly coal (up to 5%). When sulfur
burns in air sulfur dioxide is produced: S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g) (or sulfur trioxide
through further oxidation of SO2)
These two gases can combine with water in the atmosphere to produce acid rain
Oxides of Nitrogen: Nitrogen and oxygen in the air can react at high temperatures
that are present inside car engines: N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO (g) causing brown haze
known as photochemical smog and respiratory problems in many people
Controlling Pollution

Use low sulfur coal (Australian coal is relatively low in sulfur)


Remove sulfur dioxide from effluent gas at power stations (very expensive)
Keep car engines tuned properly so that incomplete combustion is minimised.
Catalytic converters mounted to motor vehicle exhaust systems remove unburned
hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen.

Complete and Incomplete Combustion


Complete
All hydrocarbons produce carbon
dioxide (a greenhouse gas) and
water. These are the only products
when there is sufficient oxygen (i.e.
complete combustion).
Complete combustion of methane:

CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g)


+ 2H2O(g) + 832kJ

Incomplete
When the oxygen available is insufficient,
incomplete combustion results in other
pollutants.
As the quantity of oxygen decreases,
combustion of hydrocarbons becomes
more and more incomplete, leading to the
production of the pollutants CO and C
Incomplete Combustion (the red are the
products due to the lack of oxygen)

C5H12(l) + 4O2(g)
2CO(g) + 3C(s) +
6H2O (g)

THE RATE OF ENERGY RELEASE IS AFFECTED BY FACTORS SUCH AS TYPES OF


REACTANTS

Combustion Rates
Slow Combustion
Slow combustion:
like in slow
combustion stoves
where large lumps
of fuel take many
hours to burn
Occurs when we
use big lumps of
fuel and limit the
supply of air
This means that
burning only
occurs on the
surface of the big
lumps and its
speed is controlled
by the limited
supply of air

Fast Combustion
Fast combustion: such as
burning methane, kerosene
or heating oil in stoves or
heating appliances
Often in power stations
Coal is ground into very
small particles that are
sprayed into plentiful air
supply meaning there is a
larger surface area and a
larger amount of oxygen,
therefore speeding up the
process as more collisions
take place
In other fast combustion
processes the gaseous
nature of the mixture and
high temps ensure that fuel
is always in contact with
oxygen

Explosive Combustion
Explosive
combustion: as
in the cylinders
of petrol and
diesel engines in
vehicles
In petrol and
diesel engines,
the conditions
(often involving
large amounts of
heated air)
promote very
rapid reaction
An explosion is
just an extremely
rapid reaction,
which completes
within a few
microseconds

Spontaneous Reactions:
Once ignited they proceed without further assistance and continue to go until all of
the fuel is used up
All combustion reactions are spontaneous
Collision Theory and Reaction Rates
For a reaction to proceed to products, the reactants must collide with one another.
There must also be enough energy present (known as activation energy) and the
particles must collide in a certain relative angle or direction (referred to as steric
effect)
The rate of a reaction is the rate that reactants disappear and products form.
As the reaction proceeds and reactants are used up, the rate decreases.
Since the reacting particles must collide to react, increasing the rate of collisions
increases the rate of reaction.
Ways to increase the number of collisions and therefore the rate of the reaction:
Increasing surface area
Increasing temperature
Increasing concentration
Use of catalysts
Concentration
Measures no. of particles of a
substance per unit volume
Increasing concentration puts more
particles per unit volume
Therefore increases the chance of a
collision and speeds up the reaction

Surface area
The greater the area of the solid in a
solute/solvent reaction, the more
collisions that can occur in a given
time, so reaction rate increases

Temperature
As temperature increases, the average kinetic energy (and therefore the speed) of
particles increases
This means that the rate of collision will increase, which will cause an increase in
reaction rate
However, this effect alone does not explain the very rapid increase in the rate
In order for a reaction to take place, it is necessary for the reactant molecules to
collide AND for the colliding molecules to possess a minimum amount of kinetic
energy so that they can reach the top of the energy barrier (activation energy)

If colliding molecules have insufficient energy, they just bounce apart and stay as
reactants
If sample is heated, the kinetic energy of molecules is increased, meaning that the
molecules have more than enough energy to scale the energy barrier quickly,
increasing the rate of reaction
Catalysts
Useful when reactions have high activation energies (and is therefore very slow)
Catalyst provides a pathway of lower activation energy
The addition of a catalyst does not ultimately change the H (enthalpy change) of the
reaction
Industrial Examples:
Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons in oil refining to convert higher boiling
point fractions into petrol cracking breaks long chains of hydrocarbons into
shorter ones and therefore speeds up the reaction
The Haber Process: The production of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen
gases is catalysed by an iron catalyst.
Catalytic Converter: Rhodium and platinum catalysts are coated on a ceramic
honeycomb block to remove unburnt hydrocarbons, nitric oxide and carbon
monoxide from motor vehicles.