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# Mapa Institute of Technology

## School of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering

Feedback and Control Systems Laboratory
ECE131L/B12

CONTROL SYSTEMS
Module No.: 7
On-Off, P, PI, and PID Controller Simulations using Simulink

Submitted by:
Sapalaran, Ma. Carmela P.

Submitted to:
Engr. Ernesto Vergara

Submitted on:
September 3, 2015

Interpretation of Results
Module 7 is about On-Off, P, PI, and PID Controller Simulations using
Simulink. The first part has a block diagram of feedback control system
using on-off controller, based on the graph with using the Simulink
simulation the output oscillates from 0.9 to 1 for a step response. Then the
error stabilizes at approximately 0. And for the control output the amplitude
switches from +1 to -1 and it switches as time approaches infinity. The
cause of oscillatory movement is when the control output was multiplied to
the transfer function. Since it is an on-off control it has a fixed state where is
from +1 to -1 or in other words the system acts as a switch.
For the second part it has a block diagram of feedback control system
using proportional controller, based on the resulting graph the step response
looks like an underdamped response and it stabilizes at 0.8; the error settles
at 0.2 and the control output is similar as the error since it is multiplied by a
gain of 1. In this part the proportional gain was varied based on the value on
the table, based on the result when the proportional gain increases the
percent overshoot and steady-state error also increases. Based on the result
the best value of proportional gain, Kp is 2.5 since it gives a lower noise
comparing to the other values.
For the third part it has a block diagram of feedback control system
using proportional plus integral controller, based on the resulting graph the
step response it is also a underdamped response; the error settles at 0.2

## starting from 1, and the control output is also similar to underdamped

response, and it also oscillates to 0.5 until it settles. In this part the integral
gain was varied based on the table, based on the result integral gain is
directly proportional to percent overshoot; as the integral gain, Ki changes
the settling time also changes. Based on the result the best value of the
integral gain, Ki is 0.5 because the value of percent overshoot and 2%
settling time is tolerable and faster than any given values from the table.
For the fourth part it has block diagram of feedback control system
using PID controller with the initial value of derivative gain the step response
increases from 0 to 1.42 to oscillates until it become stable; the error graph
decays from 0 to 0.41 to and it oscillates until it become stable and control
output graph starts from 2.7 then decays to -0.05 then it oscillates until it
become stable. In this part the derivative gain was varied based on the
table, based on the result the best derivative gain is 1 since it has
reasonable value of overshoot and faster response comparing to the other
values from the table. Based on this module PID has the best response since
it has the lowest percent overshoot and 2% settling time.
For the seatwork the PID controller was designed according to the
percent overshoot and settling time to obtain the values of the proportional
gain, integral gain, and derivative gain.

Conclusion:
Upon the completion of this module Ive learned that feedback control
systems employs different modes of control which are the on-off controls,
proportional control, integral control, and derivative control.
Ive learned that On-off controllers are the simplest because it has only
two states.
A Proportional controller produces a control action proportional to the
error.
In the integral mode, the control signal is proportional to the integral
of the error. This mode is also effective in eliminating the offset, it is slower
than the proportional mode in that it must act over a period of time.
The derivative mode is a faster proportional mode. It speeds up the
controller action, compensating for some of the delays in the feedback loop.