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INTRODUCTION

When all the forces that act upon an object are balanced, then the object is said

to be in a state of equilibrium. The forces are considered to be balanced if the

rightward forces are balanced by the leftward forces and the upward forces are

balanced by the downward forces. This however does not necessarily mean that

all the forces are equal to each other. Note that the two objects are at

equilibrium because the forces that act upon them are balanced; however, the

individual forces are not equal to each other. If an object is at rest and is in a

state of equilibrium, then we would say that the object is at "static equilibrium."

"Static" means stationary or at rest. A common physics lab is to hang an object

by two or more strings and to measure the forces that are exerted at angles

upon the object to support its weight. The state of the object is analyzed in terms

of the forces acting upon the object. The object is a point on a string upon which

three forces were acting. If the object is at equilibrium, then the net force acting

upon the object should be 0 Newton. Thus, if all the forces are added together as

vectors, then the resultant force (the vector sum) should be 0 Newton. (Recall

that the net force is "the vector sum of all the forces" or the resultant of adding

all the individual forces head-to-tail.) Thus, an accurately drawn vector addition

diagram can be constructed to determine the resultant. In this lab work, we will

prove and compared the calculated angle (theory) with measured angle

(experiment).

OBJECTIVE.

The objectives that well get are weve investigating the conditions required to

achieve static equilibrium. We also have proved the force calculation method

using geometrical method and resolution of force method. We also compared

experimentally obtain result with theoretical calculation. Part A:

THEORETICAL WORK

TASK 1: FIND THE THEORIES.

1. Calculation of equilibrium of force using geometrical methods which are

triangle method and parallelogram law.

PARALLELOGRAM LAW

The parallelogram law is put the tails (end without the arrow) of the two vectors

at the same point, (just the vector A and the vector B on the left of the diagram)

then close the parallelogram by drawing the same two vectors again (the vector

B and vector A to the right of the diagram). The parallelogram rule is just the

Triangle method used twice at the same time.

TRIANGLE METHOD

The triangle method is one of the rules of adding vectors that conveniently by

geometric methods. Draw vector A with its magnitude represented by a

convenient scale and then draw vector B to the same scale with its tails starting

from the tips of A. The resultant vector R= A+B is the vector drawn from the tails

of A to the tips of B.

10 0

CALCULATE VALUE

m =

0.1kg

F = 0.15 (9.81) = 1.4715 N

F = 0.05 (9.81) = 0.4905 N

F = F = F + F

m =

0.15kg

1. Based on your FBD above, derive the equation to calculate angle 1 and

angle 2.

2. Report your data using table below. Start the load 3, m 3 with 50g.

Calculate for five different weights in increment order.

T1=m*g

T2=m*g

T1=(0.25)*(9.

81)

T2=(0.25)*(9.

81)

T1=2.45

T2=2.45

Fx = - T1 cos + T2 cos =0

Fy = T2 sin +T1 sin mg=0

0

mg = 4.9 sin

sin = mg/4.9

=sin-1 (mg/4.9)

LOAD 50g

mg=

0.05*9.81=0.49

= sin-1

(0.49/4.9)

LOAD 100g

mg=

0.1*9.81=0.98

= sin-1

(0.98/4.9)

LOAD 150g

mg=

0.15*9.81=1.47

= sin-1

(1.47/4.9)

LOAD 200g

mg=

0.2*9.81=1.96

= sin-1

(1.96/4.9)

LOAD 250g

mg=

0.25*9.81=2.45

= sin-1

(2.45/4.9)

Load 3, m (g)

50 g

100 g

150 g

200 g

250 g

Angle 1, ()

5.74

11.54

17.48

23.6

30

Angle 2, ()

5.74

11.54

17.48

23.6

30

TASK 4: FIND THE EQUIPMENT.

List of Equipment:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Magnetic pulley x2

Magnetic protractor x1

Weight hanger and set of weights (500g) x3

FIGURE 2: LS 13101 EQUILIBRIUM OF FORCES APPARATUS.

LEGEND

A Mounting Board

B Protractor

C Pulley with Magnetic Base

D Weigh

TASK 5: PROCEDURE

1. Two magnetic pulleys had been placed 200mm away from each other in a

horizontal line. Confirm that the pulleys are perfectly aligned on the grid.

2. After that take 400mm cord and tie both end of the cord with 50g load hooks.

3. Place the cord on the pulleys and make the two 50g weight are balance.

4. Weve put the weight to both hooks until the both weight become 250g. We

put 100g on m and 150g m and recorded it as m and m

5. After making sure its in a balanced condition, we placed the 50g weight hook

on the middle of the hook. We also make sure it is in between the two pulleys

(100mm) and weve recorded the load as m.

6. After that, weve measure the angle and at the pulleys of m and m

using the protractor respectively.

7. Increase the load m to 100g and measure the angle and respectively

using the protractor.

8. Keep repeating the step 7 until the load m reached 250g and then record the

data.

9.

Load 1, m = 100g

Load 2, m = 150g

Load 3, M (G)

50 g

100 g

150 g

200 g

250 g

Angle 1, ()

8

14

22

30

35

Angle 2, ()

10

17

23

29

32

10 0

CALCULATE VALUE

LOAD 50g

5.748 100

5.74

1

=

5.7410 100

5.74

=

2=74.2

LOAD 100g

1 =| 11.54 14 |X

100 11.5

2 = |11.54 17 |X

100 11.5

1=21.3%

2=47.3%

LOAD 150g

1 = |17.48 22 |X

100 17.4

5.74

2 =| 17.48 17 |X

100

17.4

LOAD 200g

1 = |23.6 30 |X

100

23.6

2 = |23.6 29 |X

100

23.6

1=27.1%

2=22.9%

LOAD 250g

1 =| 30 35 |X

100

30

2 = |30 32 |X

100

30

2=6.7%

Load 3, m (g)

50 g

100 g

150 g

200 g

250 g

39.4%

21.3%

25.9%

27.1%

16.7%

74.2%

47.3%

31.6%

22.9%

6.7%

DISCUSSION.

After doing the experiment, we noted that the forces acting upon an object in

equilibrium is commonly used to analyze situations involving objects at static

equilibrium. The most common application involves the analysis of the forces

acting upon a sign that is at rest. For example, consider the picture at the right

that hangs on a wall. The picture is in a state of equilibrium, and thus all the

forces acting upon the picture must be balanced. That is, all horizontal

components must add to 0 Newton and all vertical components must add to 0

Newton.

If an object is at equilibrium, then the forces are balanced. Balanced is the key

word that is used to describe equilibrium situations. Thus, the net force is zero

and the acceleration is 0 m/s/s. Objects at equilibrium must have an acceleration

of 0 m/s/s. This extends from Newton's first law of motion. But having an

acceleration of 0 m/s/s does not mean the object is at rest. An object at

equilibrium is either at rest and staying at rest, or in motion and continuing in

motion with the same speed and direction.

What we get in this lab work are the different between the theoretical and

experiment values. What we can conclude is there got slightly different value

between the theoretical and experiment values. The reason why got the different

was got some error that causing it. There are lot of things that can be the reason

in error. Firstly was the random error or called human error, its caused by

inherently unpredictable fluctuations in the reading of measurement apparatus

or experiment. The different between the theoretical and experiment values

maybe because of the human error which is take the reading wrongly or wrongly

put the apparatus. Other thank that the observational error and systematic error

may caused the different between the theoretical and experiment values.

Discussion 2

What we have experience in this lab work was we know the conditions required

to achieve static equilibrium. We also have proved the force calculation method

using geometrical method and resolution of force method. We also compared

experimentally obtain result with theoretical calculation. Other than that we

together find the solution and try to solve it by asking lecturer and technician

there. Besides that, we have compared about the theoretical and experiment

values.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, equilibrium is the state of an object in which all the forces acting

upon it are balanced. In such cases, the net force is 0 Newton. Knowing the

forces acting upon an object, trigonometric functions can be utilized to

determine the horizontal and vertical components of each force. If at equilibrium,

then all the vertical components must balance and all the horizontal components

must balance.

We also know the Calculation equilibrium of force using resolution of force

method

Force is a vector, therefore it is adds according to the parallelogram law. In the

above section we discovered that if a set of given forces acting over a body is

unable to produce any displacement of motion in the body, this means the force

are in equilibrium, and the result may be associated with only some internal

stress of the body.

If two force components acting on a point, follow either the parallelogram law or

triangle rule for vector to draw its resultant force if we have in figure 1.

F1

F2

F1

Solution

FR = F1+F2

F2

Figure 1

When it is required to resolve a force into two components in two specific

directions, we start to draw parallel lines from the head of the vector to the

desire directions until they intersect the directions.

FV

FR

FU

U

recommended to apply the law of cosines or law of sines to the triangle.

C

c

A

Cosine law:

B2 +C 22 BCcos a

Sine law:

A

B

C

=

=

sin a sinb sin c

i)

Random Errors

Take more data. Random errors can be evaluated through statistical

analysis and can be reduced by averaging over a large number of

observations.

ii)

Systematic Errors

Systematic errors are difficult to detect and cannot be analyzed

statistically, because all of the data is off in the same direction either

too high or too low. Spotting and correcting for systematic error takes

a lot of care.

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