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# D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

Student-No.: ……………………………………...

Name: ……………………………………...

……………………………………...

## Antennas and Propagation

Fall 2007
September 7, 2007, 09:00 am – 12:00 noon

## Dr. Ch. Fumeaux, Prof. Dr. R. Vahldieck

This exam consists of 6 problems. The total number of pages is 19, including
the cover page. You have 3 hours to solve the problems. The maximum
possible number of points is 86.

• This is an open book exam.
• All the calculations should be shown in the solution booklet to justify the solutions.
• Please, do not use pens with red ink.
• Do not forget to write your name on each solution sheet.
• Possible further references of general interest will be written on the blackboard during
the examination.

## Problem Points Initials

Total

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D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

## Problem 1 (16 Points)

An important and direct communication channel is being established between the ETZ
building of ETH, and the community of Aesch, ZH, on the other side of Uetliberg. The
figure, not drawn to scale, shows the distances between transmitter, receiver, and obstacle,
and their respective elevations. The communication frequency is 16.6 MHz.

Uetliberg, 871 m α

Aesch, 540 m
ETZ, 479 m

4000 m 5555 m

4 Points a) Using a knife-edge diffraction model, determine h, the excess height above line of sight,
and α, the pitch angle.

## 1 Point b) Determine the excess path length Δ.

3 Points c) The peak of the mountain comes closest to which Fresnel ellipsoid?

## 2 Points e) What is the approximate knife-edge diffraction gain in dB?

4 Points f) Is it possible to achieve half-power transmission (compared to the obstacle free case) by
adjusting the transmission frequency? Explain. If not, how many meters would we
need to remove from Uetliberg to achieve half-power transmission? If so, at which
transmission wavelength(s) would this be possible?

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D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

Solution 1
β
h
61 γ
x

The center leg now has a height 871-479 = 392. Angles β and γ are calculated as:

## As α=β+γ, we find α = 8.77°.

h can be found by using congruent triangles to find the length of the section of the center leg
below the line of sight, and subtracting it from the total length of the center leg.

## b) The diffracted path length is

The excess path length is then the diffracted path length minus the ground distance, or
Δ = 9582.29 – 9555 = 27.29 m.

c) Fresnel ellipsoids represent locations where the excessive path length is constant and an
integer multiple of half wavelengths. For 16.6 MHz, we find a wavelength of 18.07 m.

## d) The Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction parameter can be obtained from the geometric

simplification:

e) The corresponding diffraction gain is -21 dB, which can be obtained by computing the
Fresnel integrals, or read directly from a knife-edge diffraction gain plot as given in the
notes. It is additionally possible to use the approximation formula given in the lecture
handouts.

f) It is not possible to achieve half-power transmission by adjusting the frequency. The half-
power point corresponds to -6 dB on the diffraction gain plot, or a diffraction parameter of 0.
As seen in the formula in part d), the only way to get ν to approach 0 is to increase the
transmission wavelength to infinity. Alternatively, we can dig the mountain until its height
matches the line of sight. This would require digging out 356.53 meters, as calculated in
part a).

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D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

## Problem 2 (16 Points)

A three element dipole array is arranged along the y-axis as shown in the figure below:

λ φ
x

The dipoles conduct current in the +z direction ( ), or the –z direction ( ), as indicated, and
the current amplitudes are equal. They are separated by a distance λ.

3 Points a) Determine the azimuthal (i.e. x-y plane) array factor as a function of φ and λ.

3 Points b) At what angle in degrees does the first major lobe peak occur?

## 3 Points c) At what angle in degrees does the first null occur?

4 Points d) Sketch a polar plot of the antenna power pattern. Make sure to include all lobes
(including minor and grating lobes). Clearly indicate the angular orientation of each
lobe.

3 Points e) Determine the gain ratio relating the largest lobe, and the smallest lobe
G(major)/G(minor).

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D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

Solution 2
a) The array factor for the field is given by

b) The first peak occurs when the array factor is maximum in magnitude, which happens
when the cosine term of the array factor is equal to -1:

c) The first null occurs when the cosine term equals one half:

d) The power pattern is proportional to the array factor (and is not influenced by the dipole
pattern which is uniform in the xy plane). Because the array factor is descriptive of the
electric field, the power is proportional to:

e) The maximum peak occurs at 30 degrees, with a normalized amplitude of 9. The minor
lobes, as seen in the sketch of d), occur at 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees, and all have an equal
normalized amplitude of 1. The gain ratio G(major)/G(minor) = 9/1 = 9.

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D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

## Problem 3 (12 Points)

The electric field of a plane wave propagating in air is given by the phasor:
JG G G
E = ⎡ (5 + 2 j )e x − 4e y ⎤ exp ( jkz ) , where k is the wavenumber and λ the wavelength. The
⎣ ⎦
plane wave is incident upon a RHCP helical antenna of directivity D0 = 10 dBi , radiation
resistance Rrad = 90 Ω and loss resistance RL = 10 Ω . The antenna is perfectly matched and
the frequency of operation is f = 3 GHz .

4 Points a) Determine the polarization state of the incident wave (linear, circular, elliptical
polarization, right- or left handed).
3 Points b) If, according to Maxwell’s equations, the magnetic field component of a plane wave is
G G
G k ×E
given by H = , ω being the angular frequency, find the time-averaged power
ωμ
density of the plane wave.

3 Points c) Determine the polarization factor PLF for the described arrangement.

## 2 Points d) Determine the power received by the antenna.

— 6 / 19 —
D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

Solution 3
a)
JG G G
E = ⎡(5 + 2 j )e x − 4e y ⎤ exp ( jkz ) =
⎣ ⎦
G G
= (5 + 2 j ) exp ( jkz ) e x − 4 exp ( jkz ) e y =
j
21.8D
π G G
= 5.38e 180D
exp ( jkz ) e x − 4 exp ( jkz ) e y =
⎛ 21.8D ⎞ G G
= 5.38exp ⎜ jkz + j π ⎟ e x + 4 exp ( jkz + jπ ) e y
⎝ 180D ⎠

## So, in the time-domain representation:

JG ⎛ 21.8D ⎞ G G
E = 5.38 cos ⎜ ωt + kz + D
π ⎟ e x + 4 cos (ωt + kz + π ) e y
⎝ 180 ⎠

Ex 0 = 5.38⎫
E y 0 = 4 ⎪⎪
D ⎬
Δφ = φ y − φx = 158.2D → RH elliptical polarization
φx = 21.8 ⎪
φ y = 180D ⎪⎭

b)

JJG 2π G ⎡ G G
H =− e z × (5 + 2 j )e x − 4e y ⎤ exp ( jkz ) =
λωμ0 ⎣ ⎦
2πλ ⎡ G G
=− (5 + 2 j )e y + 4e x ⎤ exp ( jkz ) =
λ 2π cμ0 ⎣ ⎦
ε0 ⎡ G G
= (5 + 2 j )e y + 4e x ⎤ exp ( jkz )
μ0 ⎣ ⎦

## Therefore, the power density is given through the Poynting vector:

— 7 / 19 —
D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

JG JJG
{ }
JG 1
S = Re E × H * =
2

{ }
1 ε0 G G G G
=− Re ⎡ (5 + 2 j )e x − 4e y ⎤ × ⎡ (5 − 2 j )e y + 4e x ⎤ =
2 μ0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

1 ε0 G
=− Re {(5 + 2 j )(5 − 2 j ) + 16} e z =
2 μ0
1 ε0 G
=− Re {25 + 10 j − 10 j + 4 + 16} e z =
2 μ0
ε0 G
( )
G
= −22.5 e z =-0.05972e z W 2
μ0 m

c)
G G G G G G
(5 + 2 j )e x − 4e y = ⎡ (5 + 2 j )e x − 4e y ⎤ ⎡ (5 − 2 j )e x − 4e y ⎤ =
⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦
= (5 + 2 j )(5 − 2 j ) + 16 = 25 + 10 j − 10 j + 4 + 16 = 45

1 ⎡ G G
ρlt = (5 + 2 j )e x − 4e y ⎤
45 ⎣ ⎦
1 ⎡G G
ρmr = e x − je y ⎤
2⎣ ⎦
2
PLF = ρ lT ⋅ ρ m = 1 5 + 2 j + 4 j 2 = 61
t r
90 90

d)

## D0 = 10 dBi = 10 log10 ( D0a ) ⇒

⇒ D0a = 10
c
λ= = 0.1 m
f
ecd = = 0.9
λ 2 a 0.09 2
Aem = ecd D0 = m
4π 4π
Prec = S Aem PLF

— 8 / 19 —
D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

## Problem 4 (14 Points)

A rectangular aperture mounted on an infinitely conducting ground plane has a length a and
width b. The aperture is excited with two orthogonal modes: first, a field Ex with uniform
distribution (see Figure 4.1), and second, the TE50 mode with electric field distribution:
⎧ a ′ a ⎫
G G ⎛ 5π ′ ⎞ ⎪ − 2 ≤ x ≤ 2 ⎪
ETE50 = e y E0 cos ⎜ x ⎟, ⎨ ⎬.
⎝ a ⎠ ⎪− b ≤ y′ ≤ b ⎪
⎩ 2 2⎭
2 Points a) Draw schematically the electric field lines for the TE50 mode inside the rectangular
aperture.
G
2 Points b) Draw schematically the equivalent problem (with magnetic current sources MS ) for
each mode separately.

## 4 Points c) Determine far field of the TE50 mode (E-field only).

4 Points d) Determine the total far field of the antenna, assuming both modes are excited with the
same amplitude (E-field only).

2 Points e) What is the polarization of the total wave in the broadside direction (θ = 0°)?

## Figure 4.1: Uniform E-Field distribution in x direction

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D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

Solution 4
a)

b)

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D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

c) For the TE50 mode, consider an equivalent array of 5 apertures in x direction (Each
aperture has a TE10 mode, and alternating polarity)

Etot = Eelement · AF

π
a
Eθ 1 = − j bkE0
exp(− jkr )
sin φ
sin Y cos X
5 ( )
2π r
( ) ( )
2 2
2 5 Y X − π
5 2

## π a exp(− jkr ) sin Y cos ( X )

Eφ1 = − j bkE0 cos θ cos φ 5
2π r
( X 5 ) − (π 2 )
2 2
2 5 Y

where
a
X = k sin θ cos φ
2
b
Y = k sin θ sin φ
2

## AF1 = 1 + exp( jkd cos γ + jπ ) + exp( j 2kd cos γ + j 2π ) +

⎛5 ⎞
sin ⎜ ψ ⎟
+ exp(− jkd cos γ − jπ ) + exp(− j 2kd cos γ − j 2π ) = ⎝2 ⎠
⎛1 ⎞
sin ⎜ ψ ⎟
⎝2 ⎠
2π a
where ψ = kd cos γ + π , k = , d = , cos γ = cos φ sin θ
λ 5
Note: Do not normalize the array factor, since the fields must be superposed to the second
mode.

Therefore,

Eθ 1t = Eθ 1 AF1 =
⎛5 ⎞
=−
π a
j bkE0
exp(− jkr )
sin φ
sin Y ( 5)
cos X sin ⎜ ψ ⎟
⎝2 ⎠
2π r
( X 5 ) − (π 2 ) ⎛1 ⎞
2 2
2 5 Y
sin ⎜ ψ ⎟
⎝2 ⎠
Eφ1t = Eφ1 AF1 =
⎛5 ⎞
=−
π a
j bkE0
exp(− jkr )
cos θ cos φ
sin Y ( 5)
cos X sin ⎜ ψ ⎟
⎝2 ⎠
2π r
( X 5 ) − (π 2 ) ⎛1 ⎞
2 2
2 5 Y
sin ⎜ ψ ⎟
⎝2 ⎠

— 11 / 19 —
D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

where
a
X = k sin θ cos φ
2
b
Y = k sin θ sin φ
2
a
ψ = k cos φ sin θ + π
5

d) For the mode with uniform distribution along the x axis (with constant phase along b):

exp(− jkr )
Eθ 2 = − jk Lφ
4π r
exp(− jkr )
Eφ 2 = + jk Lθ
4π r

G G G G G G
For E = ex E0 , M s = −2ez × ex E0 = −2ey E0

b/2 α /2
Lφ = −2 cos φ E0 ∫ α∫
−b / 2 − / 2
exp( jkx′ sin θ cos φ ) exp( jky′ sin θ sin φ ) dx′dy′ =

⎛ α ⎞ ⎛ b ⎞
sin ⎜ k sin θ cos φ ⎟ sin ⎜ k sin θ sin φ ⎟
= −2 cos φ E0α b ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠=
2
α b
k sin θ cos φ k sin θ sin φ
2 2
sin X sin Y
= −2 cos φ E0α b
X Y

α b
with X = k sin θ cos φ , Y = k sin θ sin φ
2 2

Then

## exp(− jkr ) sin X sin Y

Eθ 2 = + jk cos φ E0α b
2π r X Y

Similarly

## exp(− jkr ) sin X sin Y

Eφ 2 = − jk cos θ sin φ E0α b
2π r X Y

— 12 / 19 —
D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

Finally,

Eθ total = Eθ 1t + Eθ 2 =
⎛ ⎛5 ⎞ ⎞

= jk
exp(− jkr )
α bE0
sin Y ⎜ π
⎜ − sin φ
( )
cos X
5
sin ⎜ ψ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ + cos φ sin X

2π r
( ) ( ) ⎛1 ⎞
2 2
Y ⎜ 10 X − π X ⎟
⎜ 5 2 sin ⎜ ψ ⎟ ⎟
⎝ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎠

Eφtotal = Eφ 1t + Eφ 2 =
⎛ ⎛5 ⎞ ⎞

= − jk
exp(− jkr )
α bE0
sin Y ⎜π
cos φ ⎜ cos θ
( )
cos X
5
sin ⎜ ψ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ + 2 sin X

4π r
( ) ( ) ⎛1 ⎞
2 2
Y ⎜ 10 X − π X ⎟
⎜ 5 2 sin ⎜ ψ ⎟ ⎟
⎝ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎠

e)
The polarization is linear, since the two orthogonal components of the electric field Eθtotal
and Eφtotal have the same phase.

— 13 / 19 —
D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

## Problem 5 (16 Points)

A thin monopole of length 0.375λ and with a
0.375 λ
sinusoidal current distribution is placed above
an infinite perfect electric conductor (PEC) 50 Ω
(Figure 5.1). The monopole is fed at its lower
end, by a 50 Ω transmission line. Figure 5.1: Monopole over infinite PEC

For parts a) and b) of the question, use the graphs of Figure 5.2. Include the graphs with

4 Points a) Determine the radiation resistance and the input resistance of the monopole, from the
dipole data shown in Figure 5.2.

## 3 Points b) Determine the directivity of the monopole.

4 Points c) Assuming the monopole is lossless and resonant at the given length, find its maximum
effective area in terms of the wavelength

5 Points d) Design a rectangular aperture antenna mounted on an infinite ground plane, with TE10-
mode field distribution at its opening. The antenna’s longer side is twice the size of its
shorter side (i.e. a = 2b) and the maximum effective area is the same as that of the
monopole. Express the dimensions of the aperture in terms of the wavelength.

## Figure 5.2: Dipole antenna parameters vs. length

— 14 / 19 —
D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

Solution 5
a) The monopole and its equivalent dipole with the current distribution are shown in Figure
1.

0.375 λ

Iin
0.75 λ
symmetry axis

## Figure 1 Monopole over ground and its equivalent dipole

In the graph below, we find that the radiation resistance of the 0.75λ dipole is:
Rr ,d = Rr (0.75λ ) dipole = 180 Ω (1 point)

360

1.8

180

0.75

Since:

i. the monopole has the same field as the dipole in the upper half-plane, and no field in

## the lower half-plane,

ii. the field of the dipole is symmetric over the ground plane,

— 15 / 19 —
D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

the monopole will radiate only half the power radiated by dipole. Remember, the

1 2
2η ∫∫ S
Eθ r 2 sin θ ⋅ dθ ⋅ dφ ! Therefore, the radiation resistance of

1
the monopole is half that of the dipole (since: Prad = ⋅ I 0 2 ⋅ Rr ). Thus, we can write:
2

Rr , m = Rr (0.375λ ) monople = Rr ,d 2
(1 point)
Rr , m = 90 Ω

## Input resistance of the monopole is:

Rr ,m 90
Rin , m = = Ω
sin (k ⋅ lmonopol )
2

sin 2 ( ) (2 points)
4
Rin , m = 180 Ω

The input resistance of the monopole can also be found from the graph as follows: The input

## Rin,d = 360 Ω (from the graph)

The input resistance of the monopole is half that of the dipole, i.e.

Rin , d
Rin , m = = 180 Ω
2

4π U max
b) Directivity of an antenna is given as: D0 = .

1
Since Prad ,monopole = ⋅ Prad ,dipole and U max,monopole = U max,dipole , the directivity of the monopole is
2

## twice that of the dipole.

From the graph above we can obtain the directivity of the dipole as D0,dipole = 1.8.

## c)The effective area of the monopole is:

(
Aem ,m = 1 − Γ
2
) ⋅
λ2

⋅ D0,m (1 point)

— 16 / 19 —
D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

The reflection coefficient between the feeding transmission line and the monopole is:

Rin , m − Z 0
Γ=
Rin ,m + Z 0
Γ = 0.565

Note: since the monopole is resonant, the complex part of the input impedance is

compensated for.

Given all the data, the maximum effective area of the monopole is:

λ2
Aem ,m = 2.45 ⋅ = 0.195 ⋅ λ 2

d) Since effective area of a TE10 distribution aperture on ground plane is Aem ,a = 0.81⋅ a ⋅b ,

we have:

## a ≈ 0.7λ and b ≈ 0.35λ .

— 17 / 19 —
D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

## Problem 6 (12 Points)

A patch antenna is built on a substrate with the dielectric constant of ε r = 6.0 . The frequency
of operation is 5 GHz ( TMx010 mode), and the substrate height is h1 = 0.254 cm.

## 3 Points a) Determine dimensions W and L of the patch antenna.

3 Points b) The dielectric constant is now modified to ε r = 1.0 . What is the new resonant frequency
of the antenna?

3 Points c) Modify the antenna geometry for ε r = 1.0 , while keeping h1 unchanged, such that the
resonance frequency remains at 5 GHz.

3 Points d) A communication device at 5 GHz needs the patch antenna with the biggest bandwidth
of the two calculated above. Which of the two patch antennas has the largest
bandwidth? Explain why this is the case. Propose a feeding mechanism for maintaining
the bandwidth of the antenna. Explain the choice you made.

Figure 6.1

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D-ITET Antennas and Propagation September 7, 2007

Solution 6
a)
c0 2
w= = 1.6025cm
2 fr εr +1
er + 1 er − 1 h − 12
ε reff = + (1 + 12 ) = 4.9675
2 2 w
(ε + 0.3)( w / h + 0.264)
ΔL = h ⋅ 0.412 ⋅ reff = 1.0822mm
(ε reff − 0.258)( w / h + 0.8)
c0 1
L= − 2ΔL = 1.1286cm
2 fr εr
b)
w, L given
ε reff = 1
(ε reff + 0.3)( w / h + 0.264)
ΔL = h ⋅ 0.412 ⋅ = 1.6952mm
(ε reff − 0.258)( w / h + 0.8)
c0
fr = = 10.213GHz
2( L + 2ΔL) ε reff
c)
Same procedure as in a) with
h1 = 0.254cm; f = 5GHz; ε r = 1
⇒ w = 2.9979cm
ε reff = 1
ΔL = 1.7555mm
L = 2.6468cm
d)
Δf VSWR − 1 1
= ; BW ∼
f QL VSWR εr
⇒ min (QL ) ⇒ antenna in c)

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